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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31676222

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Odanacatib, a cathepsin K inhibitor, reduces bone resorption while maintaining bone formation. Previous work has shown that odanacatib increases bone mineral density in postmenopausal women with low bone mass. We aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of odanacatib to reduce fracture risk in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. METHODS: The Long-term Odanacatib Fracture Trial (LOFT) was a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, event-driven study at 388 outpatient clinics in 40 countries. Eligible participants were women aged at least 65 years who were postmenopausal for 5 years or more, with a femoral neck or total hip bone mineral density T-score between -2·5 and -4·0 if no previous radiographic vertebral fracture, or between -1·5 and -4·0 with a previous vertebral fracture. Women with a previous hip fracture, more than one vertebral fracture, or a T-score of less than -4·0 at the total hip or femoral neck were not eligible unless they were unable or unwilling to use approved osteoporosis treatment. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1) to either oral odanacatib (50 mg once per week) or matching placebo. Randomisation was done using an interactive voice recognition system after stratification for previous radiographic vertebral fracture, and treatment was masked to study participants, investigators and their staff, and sponsor personnel. If the study completed before 5 years of double-blind treatment, consenting participants could enrol in a double-blind extension study (LOFT Extension), continuing their original treatment assignment for up to 5 years from randomisation. Primary endpoints were incidence of vertebral fractures as assessed using radiographs collected at baseline, 6 and 12 months, yearly, and at final study visit in participants for whom evaluable radiograph images were available at baseline and at least one other timepoint, and hip and non-vertebral fractures adjudicated as being a result of osteoporosis as assessed by clinical history and radiograph. Safety was assessed in participants who received at least one dose of study drug. The adjudicated cardiovascular safety endpoints were a composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke, and new-onset atrial fibrillation or flutter. Individual cardiovascular endpoints and death were also assessed. LOFT and LOFT Extension are registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (number NCT00529373) and the European Clinical Trials Database (EudraCT number 2007-002693-66). FINDINGS: Between Sept 14, 2007, and Nov 17, 2009, we randomly assigned 16 071 evaluable patients to treatment: 8043 to odanacatib and 8028 to placebo. After a median follow-up of 36·5 months (IQR 34·43-40·15) 4297 women assigned to odanacatib and 3960 assigned to placebo enrolled in LOFT Extension (total median follow-up 47·6 months, IQR 35·45-60·06). In LOFT, cumulative incidence of primary outcomes for odanacatib versus placebo were: radiographic vertebral fractures 3·7% (251/6770) versus 7·8% (542/6910), hazard ratio (HR) 0·46, 95% CI 0·40-0·53; hip fractures 0·8% (65/8043) versus 1·6% (125/8028), 0·53, 0·39-0·71; non-vertebral fractures 5·1% (412/8043) versus 6·7% (541/8028), 0·77, 0·68-0·87; all p<0·0001. Combined results from LOFT plus LOFT Extension for cumulative incidence of primary outcomes for odanacatib versus placebo were: radiographic vertebral fractures 4·9% (341/6909) versus 9·6% (675/7011), HR 0·48, 95% CI 0·42-0·55; hip fractures 1·1% (86/8043) versus 2·0% (162/8028), 0·52, 0·40-0·67; non-vertebral fractures 6·4% (512/8043) versus 8·4% (675/8028), 0·74, 0·66-0·83; all p<0·0001. In LOFT, the composite cardiovascular endpoint of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke occurred in 273 (3·4%) of 8043 patients in the odanacatib group versus 245 (3·1%) of 8028 in the placebo group (HR 1·12, 95% CI 0·95-1·34; p=0·18). New-onset atrial fibrillation or flutter occurred in 112 (1·4%) of 8043 patients in the odanacatib group versus 96 (1·2%) of 8028 in the placebo group (HR 1·18, 0·90-1·55; p=0·24). Odanacatib was associated with an increased risk of stroke (1·7% [136/8043] vs 1·3% [104/8028], HR 1·32, 1·02-1·70; p=0·034), but not myocardial infarction (0·7% [60/8043] vs 0·9% [74/8028], HR 0·82, 0·58-1·15; p=0·26). The HR for all-cause mortality was 1·13 (5·0% [401/8043] vs 4·4% [356/8028], 0·98-1·30; p=0·10).When data from LOFT Extension were included, the composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke occurred in significantly more patients in the odanacatib group than in the placebo group (401 [5·0%] of 8043 vs 343 [4·3%] of 8028, HR 1·17, 1·02-1·36; p=0·029, as did stroke (2·3% [187/8043] vs 1·7% [137/8028], HR 1·37, 1·10-1·71; p=0·0051). INTERPRETATION: Odanacatib reduced the risk of fracture, but was associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events, specifically stroke, in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Based on the overall balance between benefit and risk, the study's sponsor decided that they would no longer pursue development of odanacatib for treatment of osteoporosis. FUNDING: Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp, a subsidiary of Merck & Co, Inc, Kenilworth, NJ, USA.

3.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 74(17): 2132-2146, 2019 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31648705

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evolocumab and other anti-PCSK9 antibodies reduced adverse cardiovascular outcomes in clinical trials of high-risk patients over <3 years median treatment duration. OBJECTIVES: The OSLER-1 trial (Open Label Study of Long Term Evaluation Against LDL-C Trial) evaluated longer-term effects of evolocumab during open-label hypercholesterolemia treatment for up to 5 years. METHODS: Patients randomized to standard of care (SOC) or evolocumab 420 mg monthly (evolocumab + SOC) for year 1. After year 1, patients could enter the all-evolocumab period and receive evolocumab + SOC for an additional 4 years. The authors analyzed the persistence of lipid effects and exposure-dependent safety focusing on yearly rates of adverse events (AEs) and anti-drug antibodies over 4.951 patient-years of observation. RESULTS: A total of 1,255 patients (safety analysis population) randomized into the year 1 SOC-controlled period and received ≥1 evolocumab dose (mean ± SD age 57 ± 12 years; 53% female). A total of 1,151 patients (efficacy analysis population) progressed to the all-evolocumab period (year 2 and beyond). Evolocumab + SOC persistently lowered mean ± SE low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) by 56% ± 0.6% (n = 1,071), 57% ± 0.8% (n = 1,001), 56% ± 0.8% (n = 943), and 56% ± 0.8% (n = 803) after approximately 2, 3, 4, and 5 years, respectively, from randomization. Mean baseline LDL-C decreased from 140 to 61 mg/dl on treatment. Yearly serious AE rates during evolocumab + SOC ranged from 6.9% to 7.9%, comparable to the 6.8% rate in SOC patients during year 1. Evolocumab discontinuation due to AEs occurred in 5.7% of patients. Two SOC and 2 evolocumab + SOC patients developed new, transient, binding anti-drug antibodies; no neutralizing antibodies were observed. CONCLUSIONS: The OSLER-1 trial demonstrated consistently excellent LDL-C-lowering efficacy, tolerance, and safety of evolocumab, with no neutralizing antibodies detected, throughout the longest-duration study of a PCSK9 inhibitor reported to date. (Open Label Study of Long Term Evaluation Against LDL-C Trial [OSLER-1]; NCT01439880).

5.
N Engl J Med ; 2019 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31535829

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In patients with type 2 diabetes, inhibitors of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) reduce the risk of a first hospitalization for heart failure, possibly through glucose-independent mechanisms. More data are needed regarding the effects of SGLT2 inhibitors in patients with established heart failure and a reduced ejection fraction, regardless of the presence or absence of type 2 diabetes. METHODS: In this phase 3, placebo-controlled trial, we randomly assigned 4744 patients with New York Heart Association class II, III, or IV heart failure and an ejection fraction of 40% or less to receive either dapagliflozin (at a dose of 10 mg once daily) or placebo, in addition to recommended therapy. The primary outcome was a composite of worsening heart failure (hospitalization or an urgent visit resulting in intravenous therapy for heart failure) or cardiovascular death. RESULTS: Over a median of 18.2 months, the primary outcome occurred in 386 of 2373 patients (16.3%) in the dapagliflozin group and in 502 of 2371 patients (21.2%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.74; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.65 to 0.85; P<0.001). A first worsening heart failure event occurred in 237 patients (10.0%) in the dapagliflozin group and in 326 patients (13.7%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.59 to 0.83). Death from cardiovascular causes occurred in 227 patients (9.6%) in the dapagliflozin group and in 273 patients (11.5%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.69 to 0.98); 276 patients (11.6%) and 329 patients (13.9%), respectively, died from any cause (hazard ratio, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.71 to 0.97). Findings in patients with diabetes were similar to those in patients without diabetes. The frequency of adverse events related to volume depletion, renal dysfunction, and hypoglycemia did not differ between treatment groups. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with heart failure and a reduced ejection fraction, the risk of worsening heart failure or death from cardiovascular causes was lower among those who received dapagliflozin than among those who received placebo, regardless of the presence or absence of diabetes. (Funded by AstraZeneca; DAPA-HF ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03036124.).

6.
Circulation ; 140(19): 1569-1577, 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31474116

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are at increased risk of developing heart failure. Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors reduce the risk of hospitalization for heart failure (HHF) in patients with T2DM. We aimed to develop and validate a practical clinical risk score for HHF in patients with T2DM and assess whether this score can identify high-risk patients with T2DM who have the greatest reduction in risk for HHF with a sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitor. METHODS: We developed a clinical risk score for HHF in 8212 patients with T2DM in the placebo arm of SAVOR-TIMI 53 (Saxagliptin Assessment of Vascular Outcomes Recorded in Patients With Diabetes Mellitus-Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction 53). Candidate variables were assessed using multivariable Cox regression, and independent clinical risk indicators achieving statistical significance of P<0.001 were included in the risk score. We externally validated the score in 8578 patients with T2DM in the placebo arm of DECLARE-TIMI 58 (Dapagliflozin Effect on Cardiovascular Events-Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction 58). The relative and absolute risk reductions in HHF with the sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitor dapagliflozin were assessed by baseline HHF risk. RESULTS: Five clinical variables were independent risk predictors of HHF: prior heart failure, history of atrial fibrillation, coronary artery disease, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio. A simple integer-based score (0-7 points) using these predictors identified a >20-fold gradient of HHF risk (P for trend <0.001) in both the derivation and validation cohorts, with C indices of 0.81 and 0.78, respectively. Although relative risk reductions with dapagliflozin were similar for patients across the risk scores (25%-34%), absolute risk reductions were greater in those at higher baseline risk (1-sided P for trend=0.04), with high-risk (2 points) and very-high-risk (≥3 points) patients having 1.5% and 2.7% absolute reductions in Kaplan-Meier estimates of HHF risk at 4 years, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Risk stratification using a novel clinical risk score for HHF in patients with T2DM identifies patients at higher risk for HHF who derive greater absolute benefit from sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibition. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifiers: NCT01107886 and NCT01730534.

7.
JAMA ; 2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31475726

RESUMO

Importance: The relationship between exposure to lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and lower systolic blood pressure (SBP) with the risk of cardiovascular disease has not been reliably quantified. Objective: To assess the association of lifetime exposure to the combination of both lower LDL-C and lower SBP with the lifetime risk of cardiovascular disease. Design, Setting, and Participants: Among 438 952 participants enrolled in the UK Biobank between 2006 and 2010 and followed up through 2018, genetic LDL-C and SBP scores were used as instruments to divide participants into groups with lifetime exposure to lower LDL-C, lower SBP, or both. Differences in plasma LDL-C, SBP, and cardiovascular event rates between the groups were compared to estimate associations with lifetime risk of cardiovascular disease. Exposures: Differences in plasma LDL-C and SBP compared with participants with both genetic scores below the median. Genetic risk scores higher than the median were associated with lower LDL-C and lower SBP. Main Outcomes and Measures: Odds ratio (OR) for major coronary events, defined as coronary death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or coronary revascularization. Results: The mean age of the 438 952 participants was 65.2 years (range, 40.4-80.0 years), 54.1% were women, and 24 980 experienced a first major coronary event. Compared with the reference group, participants with LDL-C genetic scores higher than the median had 14.7-mg/dL lower LDL-C levels and an OR of 0.73 for major coronary events (95% CI, 0.70-0.75; P < .001). Participants with SBP genetic scores higher than the median had 2.9-mm Hg lower SBP and an OR of 0.82 for major coronary events (95% CI, 0.79-0.85, P < .001). Participants in the group with both genetic scores higher than the median had 13.9-mg/dL lower LDL-C, 3.1-mm Hg lower SBP, and an OR of 0.61 for major coronary events (95% CI, 0.59-0.64; P < .001). In a 4 × 4 factorial analysis, exposure to increasing genetic risk scores and lower LDL-C levels and SBP was associated with dose-dependent lower risks of major coronary events. In a meta-regression analysis, combined exposure to 38.67-mg/dL lower LDL-C and 10-mm Hg lower SBP was associated with an OR of 0.22 for major coronary events (95% CI, 0.17-0.26; P < .001), and 0.32 for cardiovascular death (95% CI, 0.25-0.40; P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: Lifelong genetic exposure to lower levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and lower systolic blood pressure was associated with lower cardiovascular risk. However, these findings cannot be assumed to represent the magnitude of benefit achievable from treatment of these risk factors.

8.
Circulation ; 140(16): 1308-1317, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31530008

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Randomized trials of therapies that primarily lowered triglycerides have not consistently shown reductions in cardiovascular events. METHODS: We performed a systematic review and trial-level meta-regression analysis of 3 classes of lipid-lowering therapies that reduce triglycerides to a greater extent than they do low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C): fibrates, niacin, and marine-derived omega-3 fatty acids. Key inclusion criteria were a randomized controlled trial that reported major vascular events. We also incorporated data from a previous meta-regression of 25 statin trials. The main outcome measure was the risk ratio (RR) for major vascular events associated with absolute reductions in lipid parameters. RESULTS: A total of 197 270 participants from 24 trials of nonstatin therapy with 25 218 major vascular events and 177 088 participants from 25 trials of statin therapy with 20 962 major vascular events were included, for a total of 374 358 patients and 46 180 major cardiovascular events. Starting with non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, a surrogate for very-low-density lipoproteins and low-density lipoproteins, the RR per 1-mmol/L reduction in non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was 0.79 (95% CI, 0.76-0.82; P<0.0001; 0.78 per 40 mg/dL). In a multivariable meta-regression model that included terms for both LDL-C and triglyceride (surrogates for low-density lipoproteins and very-low-density lipoproteins, respectively), the RR was 0.80 (95% CI, 0.76-0.85; P<0.0001) per 1-mmol/L (0.79 per 40 mg/dL) reduction in LDL-C and 0.84 (95% CI, 0.75-0.94; P=0.0026) per 1-mmol/L (0.92 per 40 mg/dL) reduction in triglycerides. REDUCE-IT (Reduction of Cardiovascular Events With Icosapent Ethyl-Intervention Trial) was a significant outlier and strongly influential trial in the meta-regression. When removed, the RRs became 0.79 (95% CI, 0.76-0.83; P<0.0001) per 1-mmol/L (0.78 per 40 mg/dL) reduction in LDL-C and 0.91 (95% CI, 0.81-1.006; P=0.06) per 1-mmol/L (0.96 per 40 mg/dL) reduction in triglycerides. In regard to omega-3 dose, each 1 g/d eicosapentaenoic acid administered was associated with a 7% relative risk reduction in major vascular events (RR, 0.93 [95% CI, 0.91-0.95]; P<0.0001), whereas there was no significant association between the dose of docosahexaenoic acid and the relative risk reduction in major vascular events (RR 0.96 [95% CI, 0.89-1.03]). CONCLUSIONS: In randomized controlled trials, triglyceride lowering is associated with a lower risk of major vascular events, even after adjustment for LDL-C lowering, although the effect is less than that for LDL-C and attenuated when REDUCE-IT is excluded. Furthermore, the benefits of marine-derived omega-3 fatty acids, particularly high-dose eicosapentaenoic acid, appear to exceed their lipid-lowering effects.

10.
Circulation ; 2019 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31331193

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exploratory analyses of previous randomized trials generated a hypothesis that the clinical response to CETP inhibitor therapy differs by ADCY9 genotype, prompting the ongoing dal-GenE trial in individuals with a particular genetic profile. The randomized placebo-controlled REVEAL trial demonstrated the clinical efficacy of the CETP inhibitor anacetrapib among patients with pre-existing atherosclerotic vascular disease. In the present study, we have examined the impact of ADCY9 genotype on response to anacetrapib within the REVEAL trial. METHODS: Individuals with stable atherosclerotic vascular disease, who were treated with intensive atorvastatin therapy, received either anacetrapib 100 mg daily or matching placebo. Cox proportional hazards models, adjusted for the first 5 principal components of ancestry, were used to estimate the effects of allocation to anacetrapib on major vascular events (a composite of coronary death, myocardial infarction, coronary revascularization or presumed ischaemic stroke) and the interaction with ADCY9 rs1967309 genotype. RESULTS: Among 19,210 genotyped individuals of European ancestry, 2,504 (13.0%) had a first major vascular event during 4 years median follow-up: 1,216 (12.6%) among anacetrapib-allocated participants and 1,288 (13.4%) among placebo-allocated participants. Proportional reductions in the risk of major vascular events with anacetrapib did not differ significantly by ADCY9 genotype: HR = 0.92 (95% CI, 0.81-1.05) for GG; HR = 0.94 (95% CI, 0.84-1.06) for AG; and HR = 0.93 (95% CI, 0.76-1.13) for AA genotype carriers respectively; genotypic p for interaction = 0.96. Furthermore, there were no associations between ADCY9 genotype and the proportional reductions in the separate components of major vascular events, or meaningful differences in lipid response to anacetrapib. CONCLUSIONS: The REVEAL trial is the single largest study to date evaluating the ADCY9 pharmacogenetic interaction. It provides no support for the hypothesis that ADCY9 genotype is materially relevant to the clinical effects of the CETP inhibitor anacetrapib. The ongoing dal-GenE study will provide direct evidence as to whether there is any specific pharmacogenetic interaction with dalcetrapib. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov Unique Identifier: NCT01252953; URL: http://www.isrctn.com Unique Identifier: ISRCTN48678192; URL: https://www.clinicaltrialsregister.eu Unique Identifier: 2010-023467-18.

12.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31309699

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aims of this study were to: (i) report the baseline characteristics of patients enrolled in the Dapagliflozin And Prevention of Adverse-outcomes in Heart Failure (DAPA-HF) trial, (ii) compare DAPA-HF patients to participants in contemporary heart failure (HF) registries and in other recent HF trials, and (iii) compare individuals with diabetes, pre-diabetes and a normal glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) in DAPA-HF. METHODS AND RESULTS: Adults with HF in New York Heart Association functional class ≥ II, a left ventricular ejection fraction ≤ 40%, an elevated N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide concentration and receiving standard treatment were eligible for DAPA-HF, which is comparing dapagliflozin 10 mg once daily to matching placebo. In patients without a history of diabetes, previously undiagnosed diabetes was defined as a confirmed HbA1c ≥ 6.5%. Among patients without known or undiagnosed diabetes, pre-diabetes was defined as a HbA1c ≥ 5.7% The remainder of patients, with a HbA1c < 5.7%, were defined as normoglycaemic. Of the 4774 patients (mean age 66 years; 23% women) randomized, 42% had known diabetes and 3% undiagnosed diabetes. Of the remainder, 67% had pre-diabetes and 33% normal HbA1c. Overall, DAPA-HF patients were generally similar to those in recent registries and in relevant trials and had high levels of background therapy: 94% angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker/angiotensin receptor-neprilysin inhibitor, 96% beta-blocker, and 71% mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist; 26% had a defibrillator. Patients with diabetes had worse HF status, more co-morbidity, and greater renal impairment but received similar HF therapy. Patients with diabetes received non-insulin hypoglycaemic therapy alone in 49%, insulin alone in 11%, both in 14%, and none in 26%. CONCLUSIONS: Patients randomized in DAPA-HF were similar to those in other contemporary HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) registries and trials. These patients were receiving recommended HFrEF therapy and those with diabetes were also treated with conventional glucose-lowering therapy. Consequently, DAPA-HF will test the incremental efficacy and safety of dapagliflozin in HFrEF patients with and without diabetes. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03036124.

13.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 73(23): 2961-2970, 2019 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31196453

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data on PCSK9 inhibition in chronic kidney disease (CKD) is limited. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to compare outcomes with evolocumab and placebo according to kidney function. METHODS: The FOURIER (Further Cardiovascular Outcomes Research with PCSK9 Inhibition in Subjects with Elevated Risk) trial randomized individuals with clinically evident atherosclerosis and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) ≥70 mg/dl or non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ≥100 mg/dl to evolocumab or placebo. The primary endpoint (cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, stroke, hospitalization for unstable angina, or coronary revascularization), key secondary endpoint (cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke), and safety were analyzed according to chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage estimated from CKD-epidemiology estimated glomerular filtration rate. RESULTS: There were 8,077 patients with preserved kidney function, 15,034 with stage 2 CKD, and 4,443 with ≥stage 3 CKD. LDL-C reduction with evolocumab compared with placebo at 48 weeks was similar across CKD groups at 59%, 59%, and 58%, respectively. Relative risk reduction for the primary endpoint was similar for preserved function (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.82; 95% CI: 0.71 to 0.94), stage 2 (HR: 0.85; 95% CI: 0.77 to 0.94), and stage ≥3 CKD (HR: 0.89; 95% CI: 0.76 to 1.05); pint = 0.77. Relative risk reduction for the secondary endpoint was similar across CKD stages (pint = 0.75)-preserved function (HR: 0.75; 95% CI: 0.62 to 0.90), stage 2 (HR: 0.82; 95% CI: 0.72 to 0.93), stage ≥3 (HR: 0.79; 95% CI: 0.65 to 0.95). Absolute RRs at 30 months for the secondary endpoint were -2.5% (95% CI: -0.4% to -4.7%) for stage ≥3 CKD compared with -1.7% (95% CI: 0.5% to -2.8%) with preserved kidney function. Adverse events, including estimated glomerular filtration rate decline, were infrequent and similar regardless of CKD stage. CONCLUSIONS: LDL-C lowering and relative clinical efficacy and safety of evolocumab versus placebo were consistent across CKD groups. Absolute reduction in the composite of cardiovascular death, MI, or stroke with evolocumab was numerically greater with more advanced CKD. (Further Cardiovascular Outcomes Research With PCSK9 Inhibition in Subjects With Elevated Risk [FOURIER]; NCT01764633).

14.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv ; 12(16): 1521-1537, 2019 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31202949

RESUMO

Dual-antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) with aspirin and a P2Y12 receptor inhibitor is the standard treatment for patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. The availability of different P2Y12 receptor inhibitors (clopidogrel, prasugrel, ticagrelor) with varying levels of potency has enabled physicians to contemplate individualized treatment regimens, which may include escalation or de-escalation of P2Y12-inhibiting therapy. Indeed, individualized and alternative DAPT strategies may be chosen according to the clinical setting (stable coronary artery disease vs. acute coronary syndrome), the stage of the disease (early- vs. long-term treatment), and patient risk for ischemic and bleeding complications. A tailored DAPT approach may be potentially guided by platelet function testing (PFT) or genetic testing. Although the routine use of PFT or genetic testing in percutaneous coronary intervention-treated patients is not recommended, recent data have led to an update in guideline recommendations that allow considering selective use of PFT for DAPT de-escalation. However, guidelines do not expand on when to implement the selective use of such assays into decision making for personalized treatment approaches. Therefore, an international expert consensus group of key leaders from North America, Asia, and Europe with expertise in the field of antiplatelet treatment was convened. This document updates 2 prior consensus papers on this topic and summarizes the contemporary updated expert consensus recommendations for the selective use of PFT or genotyping in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention.

15.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 7(8): 606-617, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31196815

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors have shown beneficial effects on renal outcomes mainly in patients with established atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Here we report analyses of renal outcomes with the SGLT2 inhibitor dapagliflozin in the DECLARE-TIMI 58 cardiovascular outcomes trial, which included patients with type 2 diabetes both with and without established atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and mostly with preserved renal function. METHODS: In DECLARE-TIMI 58, patients with type 2 diabetes, HbA1c 6·5-12·0% (47·5-113·1 mmol/mol), with either established atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease or multiple risk factors, and creatinine clearance of at least 60 mL/min were randomly assigned (1:1) to 10 mg dapagliflozin or placebo once daily. A prespecified secondary cardiorenal composite outcome was defined as a sustained decline of at least 40% in estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] to less than 60 mL/min per 1·73m2, end-stage renal disease (defined as dialysis for at least 90 days, kidney transplantation, or confirmed sustained eGFR <15mL/min per 1·73 m2), or death from renal or cardiovascular causes; a prespecified renal-specific composite outcome was the same but excluding death from cardiovascular causes. In this renal analysis, we report findings for the components of these composite outcomes, subgroup analysis of these composite outcomes, and changes in eGFR at different timepoints. DECLARE-TIMI 58 is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01730534. FINDINGS: The trial took place between April 25, 2013, and Sept 18, 2018; median follow-up was 4·2 years (IQR 3·9-4·4). Of the 17 160 participants who were randomly assigned, 8162 (47·6%) had an eGFR of at least 90 mL/min per 1·73 m2, 7732 (45·1%) had an eGFR of 60 to less than 90 mL/min per 1·73 m2, and 1265 (7·4%) had an eGFR of less than 60 mL/min per 1·73 m2 at baseline (one participant had missing data for eGFR); 6974 (40·6%) had established atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and 10 186 (59·4%) had multiple risk factors. As previously reported, the cardiorenal secondary composite outcome was significantly reduced with dapagliflozin versus placebo (hazard ratio [HR] 0·76, 95% CI 0·67-0.87; p<0·0001); excluding death from cardiovascular causes, the HR for the renal-specific outcome was 0·53 (0·43-0·66; p<0·0001). We identified a 46% reduction in sustained decline in eGFR by at least 40% to less than 60 mL/min per 1·73 m2 (120 [1·4% vs 221 [2·6%]; HR 0·54 [95% CI 0·43-0·67]; p<0·0001). The risk of end-stage renal disease or renal death was lower in the dapagliflozin group than in the placebo group (11 [0·1%] vs 27 [0·3%]; HR 0·41 [95% CI 0·20-0·82]; p=0·012). Both the cardiorenal and renal-specific composite outcomes were improved with dapagliflozin versus placebo across various prespecified subgroups, including those defined by baseline eGFR (cardiorenal outcome pinteraction=0·97; renal-specific outcome pinteraction=0·87) and the presence or absence of established atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (cardiorenal outcome pinteraction=0·67; renal-specific outcome pinteraction=0·72). 6 months after randomisation, the mean decrease in eGFR was larger in the dapagliflozin group than in the placebo group. The mean change equalised by 2 years, and at 3 and 4 years the mean decrease in eGFR was less with dapagliflozin than with placebo. INTERPRETATION: Dapagliflozin seemed to prevent and reduce progression of kidney disease compared with placebo in this large and diverse population of patients with type 2 diabetes with and without established atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, most of whom had preserved renal function. FUNDING: AstraZeneca.

16.
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Pharmacother ; 5(4): 200-206, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31218354

RESUMO

AIMS: In PEGASUS-TIMI 54, ticagrelor significantly reduced the risk of the composite of major adverse cardiovascular (CV) events by 15-16% in stable patients with a prior myocardial infarction (MI) 1-3 years earlier. We report the efficacy and safety in the subpopulation recommended for treatment in the European (EU) label, i.e. treatment with 60 mg b.i.d. initiated up to 2 years from the MI, or within 1 year after stopping previous adenosine diphosphate receptor inhibitor treatment. METHODS AND RESULTS: Of the 21 162 patients enrolled in PEGASUS-TIMI 54, 10 779 patients were included in the primary analysis for this study, randomized to ticagrelor 60 mg (n = 5388) or matching placebo (n = 5391). The cumulative proportions of patients with events at 36 months were calculated by the Kaplan-Meier (KM) method. The composite of CV death, MI, or stroke occurred less frequently in the ticagrelor group (7.9% KM rate vs. 9.6%), hazard ratio (HR) 0.80 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.70-0.91; P = 0.001]. Ticagrelor also reduced the risk of all-cause mortality, HR 0.80 (0.67-0.96; P = 0.018). Thrombolysis in myocardial infarction major bleeding was more frequent in the ticagrelor group 2.5% vs. 1.1%; HR 2.36 (1.65-3.39; P < 0.001). The corresponding HR for fatal or intracranial bleeding was 1.17 (0.68-2.01; P = 0.58). CONCLUSION: In PEGASUS-TIMI 54, treatment with ticagrelor 60 mg as recommended in the EU label, was associated with a relative risk reduction of 20% in CV death, MI, or stroke. Thrombolysis in myocardial infarction major bleeding was increased, but fatal or intracranial bleeding was similar to placebo. There appears to be a favourable benefit-risk ratio for long-term ticagrelor 60 mg in this population. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT01225562.

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JAMA Cardiol ; 4(7): 613-619, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31116355

RESUMO

Importance: The PCSK9 inhibitor evolocumab reduced low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and first cardiovascular events in the Further Cardiovascular Outcomes Research With PCSK9 Inhibition in Subjects With Elevated Risk (FOURIER) trial, but patients remain at high risk of recurrent cardiovascular events. Objective: To evaluate the effect of evolocumab on total cardiovascular events, given the importance of total number of cardiovascular events to patients, clinicians, and health economists. Design, Setting, and Participants: Secondary analysis of a randomized, double-blind clinical trial. The FOURIER trial compared evolocumab or matching placebo and followed up patients for a median of 2.2 years. The study included 27 564 patients with stable atherosclerotic disease receiving statin therapy. Data were analyzed between May 2017 and February 2019. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary end point (PEP) was time to first cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, stroke, hospitalization for unstable angina, or coronary revascularization; the key secondary end point was time to first cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke. In a prespecified analysis, total cardiovascular events were evaluated between treatment arms. Results: The mean age of patients was 63 years, 69% of patients were taking high-intensity statin therapy, and the median LDL-C at baseline was 92 mg/dL (to convert to millimoles per liter, multiply by 0.0259). There were 2907 first PEP events and 4906 total PEP events during the trial. Evolocumab reduced total PEP events by 18% (incidence rate ratio [RR], 0.82; 95% CI, 0.75-0.90; P < .001) including both first events (hazard ratio, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.79-0.92; P < .001) and subsequent events (RR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.65-0.85). There were 2192 total primary events in the evolocumab group and 2714 total events in the placebo group. For every 1000 patients treated for 3 years, evolocumab prevented 22 first PEP events and 52 total PEP events. Reductions in total events were driven by fewer total myocardial infarctions (RR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.65-0.84; P < .001), strokes (RR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.64-0.93; P = .007), and coronary revascularizations (RR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.71-0.87; P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: The addition of the PCSK9 inhibitor evolocumab to statin therapy improved clinical outcomes, with significant reductions in total PEP events, driven by decreases in myocardial infarction, stroke, and coronary revascularization. More than double the number of events were prevented with evolocumab vs placebo as compared with the analysis of only first events. These data provide further support for the benefit of continuing aggressive lipid-lowering therapy to prevent recurrent cardiovascular events. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01764633.

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