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1.
Ultrastruct Pathol ; 44(1): 153-157, 2020 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32041459

RESUMO

We present an unusual case of liver involvement in monoclonal gammopathy with generalized crystal-storing histiocytosis (G-CSH).A bone marrow storage disease was diagnosed in a 79-year-old man with monoclonal gammopathy of uncertain significance (MGUS). The patient presented with pleural effusion, an osteolytic lesion of the humerus, and an increase of aspartate transaminase and cholestatic markers that raised the clinical suspect of liver disease. A second bone marrow biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of MGUS with a histiocytic component suggestive for G-CSH.Liver biopsy showed an unremarkable histology, no significant inflammatory infiltrates, and intrasinusoidal foamy histiocytes. PAS and Masson's trichrome stains, showed, in the cytoplasm of both histiocytes and hepatocytes, rod-shaped eosinophilic crystals, which were immunoreactive for kappa light chains. Transmission electron microscopy performed on reprocessed histological sections confirmed the presence of crystals in the hepatocyte cytoplasms. Immunogold labeling intensely stained crystals for kappa light chains.To the best of our knowledge, this is the second case in which an intrahepatocellular crystal storage is described during liver involvement in G-CSH. The present case also suggests that an increase in liver serum enzymes may support the clinical diagnosis of liver CSH in a patient with MGUS.

4.
Mod Pathol ; 33(2): 179-187, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31028364

RESUMO

Peripheral T-cell lymphoma not otherwise specified represents a diagnostic category comprising clinically, histologically, and molecularly heterogeneous neoplasms that are poorly understood. The genetic landscape of peripheral T-cell lymphoma not otherwise specified remains largely undefined, only a few sequencing studies having been conducted so far. In order to improve our understanding of the genetics of this neoplasm, we performed whole exome sequencing along with RNA-sequencing in a discovery set of 21 cases. According to whole exome sequencing results and mutations previously reported in other peripheral T-cell lymphomas, 137 genes were sequenced by a targeted deep approach in 71 tumor samples. In addition to epigenetic modifiers implicated in all subtypes of T-cell neoplasm (TET2, DNMT3A, KMT2D, KMT2C, SETD2), recurrent mutations of the FAT1 tumor suppressor gene were for the first time recorded in 39% of cases. Mutations of the tumor suppressor genes LATS1, STK3, ATM, TP53, and TP63 were also observed, although at a lower frequency. Patients with FAT1 mutations showed inferior overall survival compared to those with wild-type FAT1. Although peripheral T-cell lymphoma not otherwise specified remains a broad category also on molecular grounds, the present study highlights that FAT1 mutations occur in a significant proportion of cases, being provided with both pathogenetic and prognostic impact.

5.
Cancers (Basel) ; 11(12)2019 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31817495

RESUMO

Approximately 18% of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cases express a fusion transcript. However, few fusions are recurrent across AML and the identification of these rare chimeras is of interest to characterize AML patients. Here, we studied the transcriptome of 8 adult AML patients with poorly described chromosomal translocation(s), with the aim of identifying novel and rare fusion transcripts. We integrated RNA-sequencing data with multiple approaches including computational analysis, Sanger sequencing, fluorescence in situ hybridization and in vitro studies to assess the oncogenic potential of the ZEB2-BCL11B chimera. We detected 7 different fusions with partner genes involving transcription factors (OAZ-MAFK, ZEB2-BCL11B), tumor suppressors (SAV1-GYPB, PUF60-TYW1, CNOT2-WT1) and rearrangements associated with the loss of NF1 (CPD-PXT1, UTP6-CRLF3). Notably, ZEB2-BCL11B rearrangements co-occurred with FLT3 mutations and were associated with a poorly differentiated or mixed phenotype leukemia. Although the fusion alone did not transform murine c-Kit+ bone marrow cells, 45.4% of 14q32 non-rearranged AML cases were also BCL11B-positive, suggesting a more general and complex mechanism of leukemogenesis associated with BCL11B expression. Overall, by combining different approaches, we described rare fusion events contributing to the complexity of AML and we linked the expression of some chimeras to genomic alterations hitting known genes in AML.

6.
BMC Nephrol ; 20(1): 418, 2019 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31752722

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: IgG4-related disease, described around the years 2000 as a form of autoimmune pancreatitis, is now increasingly accepted as a systemic syndrome. The diagnosis is based on both comprehensive and organ-specific criteria. For the kidney, Mayo clinic classification and the guidelines of the Japanese Nephrology Society are used. Ultimately, together with parameters that characterize every organ or apparatus involved, the key element is the confirmation of growing levels of IgG4 in blood or in tissues. CASE PRESENTATION: We describe a male patient with chronic renal failure associated to hypertension without proteinuria. IgG4-related disease was diagnosed through renal biopsy. After an initial positive response to steroids, he presented tinnitus, and histological assessment showed cerebral and subsequently cardiac damage, both IgG4-related. This case appears unique for the type of histologically documented cardiac and neurological parenchymal involvement, and at the same time, exemplifies the subtle and pernicious course of the disease. Frequently, blurred and non-specific signs prevail. Here, kidney damage was associated with minimal urinary findings, slowly progressive renal dysfunction and other factors that can be equivocated in the differential diagnosis. Neurological involvement was represented by tinnitus alone, while cardiac alterations were completely asymptomatic. CONCLUSIONS: This report is representative of the neurological and cardiac changes described in the literature for IgG4-related disease, which may be correlated or not with the renal form and highlights the need, in some cases, of targeted therapeutic approaches. In addition to glucocorticoids, as in this case, rituximab may be necessary.

7.
Virchows Arch ; 475(6): 771-779, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31686194

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to review the histopathological, phenotypic, and molecular characteristics of pediatric-type follicular lymphoma (PTFL) and to assess the diagnostic value of novel immunohistochemical markers in distinguishing PTFL from follicular hyperplasia (FH). A total of 13 nodal PTFLs were investigated using immunohistochemistry, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and PCR and were compared with a further 20 reactive lymph nodes showing FH. Morphologically, PTFL cases exhibited a follicular growth pattern with irregular lymphoid follicles in which the germinal centers were composed of numerous blastoid cells showing a starry-sky appearance. Immunohistochemistry highlighted preserved CD10 (13/13) and BCL6 (13/13) staining, CD20 (13/13) positivity, a K light chain predominance (7/13), and partial BCL2 expression in 6/13 cases (using antibodies 124, E17, and SP66). The germinal center (GC)-associated markers stathmin and LLT-1 were positive in most of the cases (12/13 and 12/13, respectively). Interestingly, FOXP-1 was uniformly positive in PTFL (12/13 cases) in contrast to reactive GCs in FH, where only a few isolated positive cells were observed. FISH revealed no evidence of BCL2, BCL6, or MYC rearrangements in the examined cases. By PCR, clonal immunoglobulin gene rearrangements were detected in 100% of the tested PTFL cases. Our study confirmed the unique morphological and immunophenotypic features of PTFL and suggests that FOXP-1 can represent a novel useful diagnostic marker in the differential diagnosis between PTFL and FH.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/metabolismo , Linfoma de Células B/patologia , Linfoma Folicular/metabolismo , Linfoma Folicular/patologia , Proteínas Repressoras/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica/métodos , Imunofenotipagem/métodos , Linfoma de Células B/diagnóstico , Linfoma de Células B/metabolismo , Linfoma Folicular/diagnóstico , Masculino , Estatmina/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
8.
Case Rep Hematol ; 2019: 8959145, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31662919

RESUMO

Human immune deficiency virus- (HIV-) infected individuals present a higher risk of developing malignancies. Herein, we are presenting an unusual case of an untreated HIV+ patient, who developed two distinct lymphoproliferative disorders in a period of 4 years: a primary cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (PCTCL) and a diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) not otherwise specified (NOS), the latter developed while commencing combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). The two lymphomas also showed peculiar features: PCTCL are rarely described in HIV+ setting and particularly at such a low clinical stage, and the DLBCL showed uncommon cytology, non-GCB phenotype, EBER negativity, and absence of c-MYC translocation, all atypical features in this clinical context. This report not only confirms the increased risk of lymphoma for HIV+ patients and HIV infection being one of the major risk factors for lymphoid disorders but draws the attention on the possible occurrence of unusual features, suggesting that HIV serology should always be investigated in the clinical suspicion of lymphoma.

11.
Oncoimmunology ; 8(9): e1617588, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31428517

RESUMO

Few studies were conducted investigating the immunological profiles in gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST). Adaptive and innate immune cells are present in the tumor microenvironment, indicating GIST as inflamed tumors. In addition, murine models suggested a potential interaction between immune components and imatinib. In this retrospective study, the GIST immunological profile was investigated through in silico analysis and immunohistochemistry (IHC), exploring the basis for immunotherapy approaches. Gene expression profiles (GEP) from 31 KIT/PDGFRA-mutant GIST were analyzed to evaluate the tumor microenvironment and immunotherapy predictive signatures such as the expanded IFN-γ-induced immune signature (EIIS) and the T-cell-inflamed signature (TIS). GEP and IHC supported the presence of immune infiltrate in GIST, with dominance of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and M2 macrophages showing a remarkable similarity with melanoma microenvironment. The EIIS genes were expressed in most of GIST samples and positively correlated with PD-L1 abundance (p < .0001). Co-expression was also found between PD-L1 and CD8A (p < .0001) or CD8B (p = .0003). Moreover, the median TIS score for GIST was between the 65th and 70th percentile of the Cancer Genome Atlas dataset, in the same range of tumors responding to anti-PD-1/PD-L1. Analysis of the Gene Expression Omnibus database GIST samples pre- and post-treatment confirmed that imatinib downregulates PD-L1 and IRF1 expression through the inhibition of KIT and PDGFRA, thus contributing to counteract the suppressed adaptive immune response against GIST. The presence of a rich immune infiltrate in GIST along with the presence of TIS and EIIS suggests that GIST may benefit from immunotherapy along with tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

12.
Hematol Oncol ; 37(4): 424-433, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31359447

RESUMO

Currently available prognostic scoring systems in primary myelofibrosis (PMF) do not integrate clinical, histological, and molecular data, or they also required information on "other" mutations that are available in the clinical practice only in a very limited number of laboratories. In the present multicenter study, including 401 PMF patients, an integrated International Prognostic Scoring System (I-IPSS) was developed by combining IPSS, grade of bone marrow fibrosis (GBMF), and driver mutations molecular status (MS) to define PMF prognosis at diagnosis. Four prognostic categories were identified: I-IPSS-low risk (113 patients), I-IPSS-intermediate-1 risk (56 patients), I-IPSS-intermediate-2 risk (154 patients), and I-IPSS-high risk (78 patients). Median overall survival was 26.7 years in I-IPSS-intermediate-1, 10.8 in I-IPSS-intermediate-2, and 6.4 in I-IPSS-high-risk patients (log-rank test <0.0001); instead, it was not reached in the I-IPSS-low-risk cohort because of the extremely low number of registered deaths. The addition of GBMF and MS to IPSS improved the efficacy for predicting the risk of death. Indeed, the sensitivity of I-IPSS was significantly higher (P < .05) than that of IPSS, considering both total deaths and 5- and 10-year mortality. This comprehensive approach allows clinicians to evaluate mutual interactions between IPSS, GBMF, and MS and identify high-risk patients with poor prognosis who may benefit from aggressive treatments. More importantly, this integrated score can be easily applicable worldwide as it only required information that represent the good clinical practice in the management of PMF patients.


Assuntos
Mielofibrose Primária/diagnóstico , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores , Medula Óssea/patologia , Calreticulina/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Janus Quinase 2/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Mielofibrose Primária/genética , Mielofibrose Primária/mortalidade , Mielofibrose Primária/patologia , Prognóstico , Receptores de Trombopoetina/genética , Reticulina/ultraestrutura , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
17.
Mod Pathol ; 32(1): 37-47, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30140037

RESUMO

Follicular T cell lymphoma is derived from follicular T-helper cells. In many cases, neoplastic T cells form rosettes around Hodgkin-Reed-Sternberg-like cells, which can lead to the misdiagnosis of classical Hodgkin lymphoma. The aim of the present study was to obtain a better understanding of this rosetting phenomenon and to recognize features that are helpful in the differential diagnosis of classical Hodgkin lymphoma. Sixteen mostly elderly follicular T cell lymphoma patients (mean 66 years) were analyzed. Fifteen of the 16 follicular T cell lymphoma cases presented with Hodgkin-Reed-Sternberg-like cells, which were CD20-positive in 27% of the cases and Epstein-Barr virus-infected in nearly all cases. Frequently, the immunophenotype of rosetting neoplastic T cells differed from the bulk neoplastic cells with less numerous T-follicular helper cell markers expressed, suggesting a modulation of T-follicular helper cell marker expression in the neoplastic T cells. In 75% of the cases, variable CD30 expression was encountered in the neoplastic T cells, likely reflecting an activation state in these cells. Hodgkin-Reed-Sternberg-like cells were positive for CCL17, and follicular T cell lymphoma tumor cells expressed its receptor CCR4 at variable intensity, thus potentially explaining the phenomenon of the tumor cells' rosetting around Hodgkin-Reed-Sternberg-like cells. In summary, this study confirms the presence of Hodgkin-Reed-Sternberg-like cells in a high number of cases of follicular T cell lymphoma, suggesting that Hodgkin-Reed-Sternberg-like cells may contribute to the development of this lymphoma. Hodgkin-Reed-Sternberg-like cells in follicular T cell lymphoma cannot reliably be differentiated from the Hodgkin-Reed-Sternberg cells of classical Hodgkin lymphoma based on their immunophenotype. In contrast, demonstration of a T-follicular helper cell phenotype with CD10 and frequent CD30 expression in the neoplastic T cell population can help to establish the diagnosis of follicular T cell lymphoma, and may even indicate CD30 as a therapeutic target for these patients.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Doença de Hodgkin/diagnóstico , Antígeno Ki-1/biossíntese , Linfoma Folicular/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Humanos , Antígeno Ki-1/análise , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Linfócitos T/patologia
18.
Ann Hematol ; 98(2): 241-253, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30343328

RESUMO

Myelofibrosis (MF) is a Philadelphia chromosome-negative myeloproliferative neoplasm associated with bone marrow fibrosis, splenomegaly, a high symptom burden, and poor prognosis. Treatment is based on a risk-adapted approach, with treatment guidelines generally recommending allogeneic stem cell transplant or drug-based therapy for patients with higher-risk or more advanced disease and recommending observation or the "watch-and-wait" strategy for those with lower-risk or early-stage MF. With the advent of targeted therapies, such as the Janus kinase inhibitors, many patients have experienced substantial clinical benefits, including reduction in splenomegaly and symptoms and, in some instances, improvement or stabilization of bone marrow fibrosis and reduction of JAK2 V617F allele burden. These observations raise the possibility of patients in earlier phases of the disease also benefiting from treatment with targeted therapies. In this review, we discuss the current treatment options for patients with early-stage MF and the available evidence supporting the treatment of patients with less-advanced disease. Overall, therapies used to treat patients with early-stage MF will have to be assessed in randomized studies, with the potential benefits balanced against adverse events associated with treatment.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Hematológicas/terapia , Mielofibrose Primária/terapia , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Neoplasias Hematológicas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Hematológicas/enzimologia , Neoplasias Hematológicas/genética , Humanos , Janus Quinase 2/antagonistas & inibidores , Janus Quinase 2/genética , Janus Quinase 2/metabolismo , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Cromossomo Filadélfia , Mielofibrose Primária/diagnóstico , Mielofibrose Primária/enzimologia , Mielofibrose Primária/genética , Prognóstico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Esplenectomia
19.
Haematologica ; 104(4): 729-737, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30381297

RESUMO

Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm (BPDCN) is a rare and aggressive hematologic malignancy for which there is still no effective therapy. In order to identify genetic alterations useful for a new treatment design, we used whole-exome sequencing to analyze 14 BPDCN patients and the patient-derived CAL-1 cell line. The functional enrichment analysis of mutational data reported the epigenetic regulatory program to be the most significantly undermined (P<0.0001). In particular, twenty-five epigenetic modifiers were found mutated (e.g. ASXL1, TET2, SUZ12, ARID1A, PHF2, CHD8); ASXL1 was the most frequently affected (28.6% of cases). To evaluate the impact of the identified epigenetic mutations at the gene-expression and Histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation/acetylation levels, we performed additional RNA and pathology tissue-chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing experiments. The patients displayed enrichment in gene signatures regulated by methylation and modifiable by decitabine administration, shared common H3K27-acetylated regions, and had a set of cell-cycle genes aberrantly up-regulated and marked by promoter acetylation. Collectively, the integration of sequencing data showed the potential of a therapy based on epigenetic agents. Through the adoption of a preclinical BPDCN mouse model, established by CAL-1 cell line xenografting, we demonstrated the efficacy of the combination of the epigenetic drugs 5'-azacytidine and decitabine in controlling disease progression in vivo.

20.
Hum Pathol ; 85: 251-259, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30458196

RESUMO

Cortactin is a cytoskeletal-remodeling adaptor protein, playing an oncogenic role in solid tumors. Little is known on cortactin expression in non-Hodgkin B-cell lymphomas (B-NHLs). The present study aimed to characterize cortactin expression in B-NHLs and to assess its role in the differential diagnosis of such entities. Cortactin protein expression was first assessed by immunohistochemistry in a series of 131 B-NHLs, including B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL; n = 17), mantle cell lymphoma (MCL; n = 16), follicular lymphoma (FL; n = 25), marginal zone lymphoma (MZL; n = 30), hairy cell leukemia (HCL; n = 10), splenic diffuse red pulp small B-cell lymphomas (SDRPBL; n = 3), and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL; n = 30) cases. Cortactin was expressed in 14 of 17 CLLs, 10 of 10 HCLs, and 22 of 30 DLBCLs. MCLs, SDRPBLs, most FLs, and MZLs were cortactin negative. The immunohistochemical results were in keeping with in silico gene expression data. In CLL, cortactin positivity did correlate with LEF1 and CD200 expression, and the combined positivity for ≥2 markers strongly predicted CLL diagnosis. Such preliminary data suggested a role for cortactin in the differential diagnosis between CLL and MCL. This hypothesis was confirmed in a large validation set of 112 CLLs (n = 55) and MCLs (n = 57), which also disclosed rare cortactin-expressing MCLs. The immunohistochemical and gene expression results were sustained by flow cytometry and Western blot analysis on CLL and MCL cell lines. In conclusion, cortactin is mainly expressed in subsets of CLL and DLBCL and in HCL. Cortactin may represent a novel marker for the differential diagnosis between CLL and MCL.


Assuntos
Cortactina/metabolismo , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/diagnóstico , Linfoma de Célula do Manto/diagnóstico , Linfoma não Hodgkin/diagnóstico , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/metabolismo , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/patologia , Linfoma de Célula do Manto/metabolismo , Linfoma de Célula do Manto/patologia , Linfoma não Hodgkin/metabolismo , Linfoma não Hodgkin/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
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