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1.
Strabismus ; : 1-7, 2022 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35822401

RESUMO

To determine the optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) parameters including foveal avascular zone (FAZ) and vessel density (VD) in the amblyopic eyes compared with the fellow sound eyes and the eyes of the non-amblyopic subjects. In this case-control study, a total of 23 eyes from unilateral amblyopic children were included as cases. The sound eye of the amblyopic children was considered as the internal control and the right eyes of the non-amblyopic children were considered as the external control. All participants underwent image recording with OCTA. In the present study, an equal number of 23 unilateral amblyopic eyes and 23 right eyes of non-amblyopic age- and sex-matched children were included as the cases and controls, respectively. The average age of participants in the case and controls were 9.86 ± 3.12 and 8.5 ± 2.35 years, respectively. Twelve patients (52.2%) in the case group and 14 subjects (60.9%) in the control group were female. Whole vascular density of the macula in superficial capillary plexuses (SCP) was significantly lower in the external controls compared with the other studied groups (P = .026). However, the VD of the deep capillary plexuses (DCP) was significantly greater in the external controls than cases and internal controls (P= .029). The average FAZ area was 0.26 ± 0.06 mm2 in amblyopic eyes that was significantly higher compared with fellow eyes (0.21 ± 0.07 mm2; P= .022), but it was not different with non-amblyopic eyes (0.22 ± 0.118 mm2). Based on our findings, there were no significant difference in the cases of foveal, parafoveal, and perifoveal in both superficial and deep vascular densities among amblyopic and non-amblyopic eyes, whereas deep whole density of the amblyopic eyes showed lower percent compared to non-amblyopic ones that indicates decrease blood supply of the amblyopic eyes in this region. Additionally, FAZ was larger in amblyopic eyes than internal controls.

2.
J Ophthalmic Vis Res ; 17(2): 233-241, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35765643

RESUMO

Purpose: To identify the psychological impact of coronavirus disease on ophthalmologists practicing in Iran between August and December 2020. Methods: In this cross-sectional online survey, a standard Patient Health Questionnaire- 9 (PHQ- 9) was completed by 228 ophthalmologists who were practicing in Iran. The PHQ- 9 questionnaire was revised by adding two additional questions specifically applicable for the assessment of the psychological impact of coronavirus disease on the Iranian ophthalmologists. An organized classification regarding the assessment of different depression severities identified as no (0-4), mild (5-9), moderate (10-14), or severe (15-21) was then considered for data analysis. Results: The mean age of our participants was 49.0 ± 15.61 years and the majority of them (67.1%) were male. Depression was discovered in 73.68% (n = 168) with different severities ranging from mild (n = 61, 26.75%), moderate (n = 63, 27.63%), and severe (n = 44, 19.3%). It was found that participants with depression were older as compared to those without depression (P = 0.038). Higher percentages of severe depression were noticed in the high-risk regions contaminated with corona virus as compared to the other low-risk regions (P = 0.003). Based on multivariable models, we determined that ophthalmologists who were somewhat concerned about their training/ profession (OR: 0.240; 95% CI: 0.086-0.672; P = 0.007) and those with no concerns about their income had lower association with depression (OR: 0.065; 95% CI: 0.005-0.91; P = 0.042). Conclusion: High prevalence of depression was observed among older aged Iranian ophthalmologists living in high-risk contaminated regions who possessed serious concerns with respect to their training/profession and income. It is recommended that the health policymakers of Iran pay more attention to the ophthalmologists who experience the aforementioned factors.

3.
Int J Retina Vitreous ; 8(1): 37, 2022 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35690809

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To investigate the adjunctive effect of an intravitreal ROCK inhibitor (fasudil) in combination with intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB) on refractory macular edema secondary to retinal vein occlusion (RVO). METHODS: In this prospective interventional case series, 17 eyes of 17 patients (10 men, 7 women) with refractory RVO-related macular edema underwent three consecutive intravitreal injections of bevacizumab plus fasudil. Monthly evaluation was continued up to 12 months and IVB injection was performed if needed during the follow-up. Changes in the best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was the primary outcome measure. The secondary outcome measures included central macular thickness (CMT) changes and any adverse events. RESULTS: BCVA significantly improved (mean change: -0.15 LogMAR; P = 0.017) after 3 consecutive intravitreal injections of fasudil in combination with bevacizumab. CMT significantly decreased (mean change: -206 µm; P = 0.028). The anatomical and functional improvement was maintained during the 12 month follow-up. No adverse effects were noticed. CONCLUSION: Intravitreal ROCK inhibitors may break the resistance to anti-VEGF therapy and improve the RVO induced macular edema via affecting the VEGF-independent pathways.

4.
J Curr Ophthalmol ; 34(1): 80-86, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35620379

RESUMO

Purpose: To evaluate the effect of inherited retinal dystrophies (IRDs) on vision-related quality of life (VRQoL) among IRDs' patients in Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 192 patients with different types of IRDs who were randomly selected from registered patients in the Iranian National Registry for Inherited Retinal Dystrophy (IRDReg®). All ophthalmic findings were collected based on the recorded data in IRDReg®. Moreover, the eligible participants were interviewed to fill out the National Eye Institute Visual Functioning Questionnaire-25 (NEI VFQ-25) to assess their VRQoL. Ordinal logistic regression was used to evaluate the possible association of the different clinical and nonclinical factors such as demographic information, socioeconomic status, and visual function with VRQoL. Results: The overall mean of a composite score of VRQoL was 45. All subscales obtained from the NEI VFQ-25 questionnaire except general health, mental health, and ocular pain had a significant negative correlation with logMAR best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and near visual acuity variables. There was a statistically significant relationship between VRQoL and factors like age (odds ratio [OR] = 0.91, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.87-0.94), employment status (OR = 1.37, 95% CI: 1.05-4.74), logMAR BCVA (OR = 0.31, 95% CI: 0.19-0.49) and normal color vision (OR = 1.92, 95% CI: 1.74-5.01). Conclusion: The VRQoL of patients with IRDs in this study was low. BCVA could be an indicator to show VRQoL.

5.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 17(1): 97, 2022 03 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35241111

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stickler syndrome (STL) is a rare, clinically and molecularly heterogeneous connective tissue disorder. Pathogenic variants occurring in a variety of genes cause STL, mainly inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion. Autosomal recessive STL is ultra-rare with only four families with biallelic COL9A3 variants reported to date. RESULTS: Here, we report three unrelated families clinically diagnosed with STL carrying different novel biallelic loss of function variants in COL9A3. Further, we have collected COL9A3 genotype-phenotype associations from the literature. CONCLUSION: Our report substantially expands the molecular genetics and clinical basis of autosomal recessive STL and provides an overview about allelic COL9A3 disorders.


Assuntos
Artrite , Colágeno Tipo IX , Doenças do Tecido Conjuntivo , Perda Auditiva Neurossensorial , Osteocondrodisplasias , Descolamento Retiniano , Artrite/diagnóstico , Artrite/genética , Colágeno Tipo IX/genética , Doenças do Tecido Conjuntivo/genética , Doenças do Tecido Conjuntivo/patologia , Genes Recessivos/genética , Perda Auditiva Neurossensorial/genética , Humanos , Mutação/genética , Osteocondrodisplasias/genética , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Descolamento Retiniano/diagnóstico , Descolamento Retiniano/genética , Descolamento Retiniano/patologia
6.
J Ophthalmic Vis Res ; 17(1): 51-58, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35194496

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Stargardt disease type 1 (STGD1) is a recessively inherited retinal disorder that can cause severe visual impairment. ABCA4 mutations are the usual cause of STGD1. ABCA4 codes a transporter protein exclusively expressed in retinal photoreceptor cells. The genecontains 50 exons. Mutations are most frequent in exons 3, 6, 12, and 13, and exons 10 and 42 each contain two common variations. We aimed to screen these exons for mutations in Iranian STGD1 patients. METHODS: Eighteen STGD1 patients were recruited for genetic analysis. Diagnosis by retina specialists was based on standard criteria, including accumulation of lipofuscin. The six ABCA4 exons were PCR amplified and sequenced by the Sanger method. RESULTS: One or more ABCA4-mutated alleles were identified in 5 of the 18 patients (27.8%). Five different mutations including two splice site (c.1356+1G > A and c.5836-2A > G) and three missense mutations (p.Gly1961Glu, p.Gly1961Arg, and p.Gly550Arg) were found. The p.Gly1961Glu mutation was the only mutation observed in two patients. CONCLUSION: As ABCA4 mutations in exons 6, 12, 10, and 42 were identified in approximately 25% of the patients studied, these may be appropriate exons for screening projects. As in other populations, STDG1 causative ABCA4 mutations are heterogeneous among Iranian patients, and p.Gly1961Glu may be relatively frequent.

7.
J Ophthalmic Vis Res ; 17(1): 140-145, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35194505

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To present the optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) findings of the radial peripapillary capillary (RPC) network in an individual with severe bilateral methanol-induced toxic optic neuropathy (MTON) in comparison to a normal subject and a patient with retinitis pigmentosa. CASE REPORT: A 35-year-old man with severe bilateral MTON was referred to the neuro-ophthalmology clinic at the Labbafinejad Medical Center. The Angio Vue OCT 3D set of 4.5 × 4.5 mm was used to measure the disc and peripapillary vessel density. Two subjects were examined with the same protocol as controls to determine the effect on the RPC vessel density in multiple scenarios. One of the controls was a healthy individual with the prerequisite matches of age and sex while the second one was a known retinitis pigmentosa (RP) patient. RPC density was measured as 37.7 in the patient with MTON, 46.9 in the RP patient, and 54.7 in the healthy control. CONCLUSION: The reduction in the RPC vessel density in a patient with MTON compared to that of a healthy individual and also a patient with RP may be due to the loss of capillaries secondary to the loss of nerve fibers and ganglion cells. Moreover, MTON can be considered an optic neuropathy with direct mitochondrial damage to the endothelial cells of the capillaries.

8.
Hum Genet ; 141(3-4): 785-803, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34148116

RESUMO

Usher syndrome, the most prevalent cause of combined hereditary vision and hearing impairment, is clinically and genetically heterogeneous. Moreover, several conditions with phenotypes overlapping Usher syndrome have been described. This makes the molecular diagnosis of hereditary deaf-blindness challenging. Here, we performed exome sequencing and analysis on 7 Mexican and 52 Iranian probands with combined retinal degeneration and hearing impairment (without intellectual disability). Clinical assessment involved ophthalmological examination and hearing loss questionnaire. Usher syndrome, most frequently due to biallelic variants in MYO7A (USH1B in 16 probands), USH2A (17 probands), and ADGRV1 (USH2C in 7 probands), was diagnosed in 44 of 59 (75%) unrelated probands. Almost half of the identified variants were novel. Nine of 59 (15%) probands displayed other genetic entities with dual sensory impairment, including Alström syndrome (3 patients), cone-rod dystrophy and hearing loss 1 (2 probands), and Heimler syndrome (1 patient). Unexpected findings included one proband each with Scheie syndrome, coenzyme Q10 deficiency, and pseudoxanthoma elasticum. In four probands, including three Usher cases, dual sensory impairment was either modified/aggravated or caused by variants in distinct genes associated with retinal degeneration and/or hearing loss. The overall diagnostic yield of whole exome analysis in our deaf-blind cohort was 92%. Two (3%) probands were partially solved and only 3 (5%) remained without any molecular diagnosis. In many cases, the molecular diagnosis is important to guide genetic counseling, to support prognostic outcomes and decisions with currently available and evolving treatment modalities.


Assuntos
Degeneração Retiniana , Síndromes de Usher , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Mutação , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Degeneração Retiniana/genética , Síndromes de Usher/diagnóstico , Síndromes de Usher/genética
9.
J Curr Ophthalmol ; 33(2): 189-196, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34409231

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the retinal vascular characteristics among patients with different types of inherited retinal dystrophies (IRDs). METHODS: This comparative cross-sectional study was conducted on 59 genetically confirmed cases of IRD including 37 patients with retinitis pigmentosa (RP) (74 eyes), 13 patients with Stargardt disease (STGD) (26 eyes), and 9 patients with cone-rod dystrophy (CRD) (18 eyes). Both eyes of 50 age- and sex-matched healthy individuals were investigated as controls. All participants underwent optical coherence tomography angiography to investigate the vascular densities (VDs) of superficial and deep capillary plexus (SCP and DCP) as well as foveal avascular zone area. RESULTS: In RP, significantly lower VD in whole image (P = 0.001 for DCP), fovea (P = 0.038 for SCP), parafovea (P < 0.001 for SCP and DCP), and perifovea (P < 0.001 for SCP and DCP) was observed compared to controls. In STGD, VD of parafovea (P = 0.012 for SCP and P = 0.001 for DCP) and fovea (P = 0.016 for DCP) was significantly lower than controls. In CRD, the VD of parafovea (P = 0.025 for DCP) was significantly lower than controls. Whole image density was significantly lower in RP compared to STGD (P < 0.001 for SCP) and CRD (P = 0.037 for SCP). VD in parafovea (P = 0.005 for SCP) and perifovea (P < 0.001 for SCP and DCP) regions was significantly lower in RP compared with STGD. Also, foveal VD in STGD was significantly lower than RP (P = 0.023 for DCP). CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrated lower VDs in three different IRDs including RP, STGD, and CRD compared to healthy controls. Changes were more dominant in RP patients.

10.
Doc Ophthalmol ; 143(3): 271-281, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34191198

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Electroretinogram (ERG) plays an essential role in the diagnosis of retinal disease. Choosing appropriate methods could extract valuable information from ERG. In this study, a new criterion based on time-frequency domain analysis was proposed to investigate the retina in retinitis pigmentosa (RP) patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The total number of 16 eyes from eight RP patients and 20 eyes from age-matched healthy subjects were assessed. The signals included photopic and scotopic ERGs. Continuous wavelet transform was applied to ERGs. Dominant frequencies were extracted, and the contours related to these dominant frequencies were selected. As a new criterion, the areas related to dominant frequency contours were considered a feature to differentiate the RP and normal groups. To better evaluate the proposed criterion results, the time-domain analysis characteristics of ERG were also considered. RESULTS: The results showed an increase in implicit time and reduced amplitude in RP patients (P < 0.05). A significant decrease of dominant frequencies and increasing their occurrence time were seen in ERG of RP patients. Also, in RP patients, the third dominant frequency was disappeared from the three main frequencies observed in photopic ERGs of normal subjects. The area criterion showed a significant decrease in RP groups (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: RP can cause changes in the time and time-frequency components of the ERG. The area index could represent a new view of the characteristics of the ERG in the time-frequency domain. This criterion can help the ophthalmologist to have a better evaluation of retinal disease.


Assuntos
Eletrorretinografia , Retinite Pigmentosa , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Retina , Retinite Pigmentosa/diagnóstico
11.
J Ophthalmol ; 2021: 6674290, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34012682

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To describe ocular manifestations, imaging characteristics, and genetic test results of autosomal recessive bestrophinopathy (ARB). The study design is an observational case series. METHODS: Forty-eight eyes of 24 patients diagnosed with ARB underwent complete ophthalmic examinations including refraction, anterior and posterior segment examination, enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT), fluorescein angiography (FA), electroretinography (ERG), and electrooculography (EOG). Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) and BEST1 gene sequencing were performed in selected patients. RESULTS: The age at onset was 4-35 years (mean: 18.6 years). The male-to-female ratio was 0.45. All patients were hyperopic, except one with less than one diopter myopia. EOG was abnormal in 18 cases with near-normal ERGs. Six patients did not undergo EOG due to their young age. Eighteen patients (75%) had a thick choroid on EDI-OCT, of which three had advanced angle-closure glaucoma, 15 patients were hyperopic, and eight of them had more than four diopters hyperopia in both eyes. Macular retinoschisis was observed in 46 eyes of 23 patients (95%) with cysts mostly located in the inner nuclear layer (INL) to the outer nuclear layer (ONL). Of the 18 patients who underwent FA, mild peripheral leakage was seen in eight eyes of four patients (22%). Subfoveal choroidal neovascularization (CNV) was seen in three eyes of two patients (6%) that responded well to intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB). Seven mutations of the bestrophin-1 (BEST1) gene were found in this study; however, only two of them (p.Gly34 = and p.Leu319Pro) had been previously reported as the cause of ARB based on ClinVar and other literature studies. CONCLUSIONS: ARB can be presented with a wide spectrum of ocular abnormalities that may not be easily diagnosed. Pachychoroid can occur alongside retinal schisis and may be the underlying cause of angle-closure glaucoma in ARB. Our study also expands the pathogenic mutation spectrum of the BEST1 gene associated with ARB.

12.
J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus ; 58(3): 154-160, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34039154

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To compare the visual outcome of occlusion therapy with virtual reality game playing as a new therapy for children with amblyopia. METHODS: This randomized clinical trial was performed on 50 children between 4 and 10 years old who had unilateral amblyopia. They were randomly divided into virtual reality and patching groups (n = 25 in each). The virtual reality group was trained binocularly using the virtual reality games through a head set for 1 hour per day 5 days a week for 4 weeks. Patients in the patching group occluded their non-amblyopic eyes 2, 4, and 6 hours for mild (best corrected visual acuity [BCVA] 0.2 to 0.3 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution [logMAR]), moderate (0.3 to 0.6 logMAR), and severe (worse than 0.6 logMAR) amblyopia, respectively. RESULTS: The mean BCVA based on logMAR units improved significantly in both groups (P < .0001), but the difference between the two groups was not significant (P = .59). BCVA based on the responded letters improved in both groups (virtual reality: P = .0001, patching: P = .001), and change in BCVA in the virtual reality group was higher than in the patching group (P = .002). CONCLUSIONS: Virtual reality game playing was equal or superior to patching in an analysis of linear and letter BCVA, respectively. Therefore, applying this new amblyopia therapy is recommended. [J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 2021;58(3):154-160.].


Assuntos
Ambliopia , Realidade Virtual , Ambliopia/terapia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Seguimentos , Humanos , Privação Sensorial , Resultado do Tratamento , Visão Binocular , Acuidade Visual
13.
Int Ophthalmol ; 41(1): 11-19, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33070271

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To compare the surgical outcomes of the plication technique with the resection method to treat exotropic patients. METHODS: In this prospective randomized clinical trial, a total of 52 exotropic patients (27 females and 25 males) who were candidates for medial rectus resection were randomly classified into the plication (n = 24) and resection (n = 28) groups. Comprehensive ophthalmic examination included cyclorefraction, assessment of the best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), evaluation of the extraocular muscle, ocular deviation measurement and stereopsis measured using a Titmus test. Ocular anterior and posterior segments were examined using slit-lamp and indirect ophthalmoscopy. Patients were randomly divided to medial rectus plication and medial rectus resection groups. The plication technique was the same as for resection, but in the last step the muscle was folded. Examinations were repeated at the 1- and 3-day as well as 1-, 2-, 3- and 6-month follow-ups. If the postoperative ocular deviation was in the range of 5 PD esotropia to 10 PD exotropia, it was considered a successful surgical outcome. RESULTS: Results show that there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups regarding near and far deviations (PN = 0.298, PF = 0.103), surgical dose response (P = 0.904) and postoperative success rate (plication, 87% and resection, 89.3%, P > 0.99). Reoperation was needed in 13% and 10.7% of the plication and resection groups, respectively (P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Medial rectus plication is an effective and appropriate alternative option for medial rectus resection in exotropic patients.


Assuntos
Exotropia , Exotropia/cirurgia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Músculos Oculomotores/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Oftalmológicos , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Visão Binocular
14.
J Curr Ophthalmol ; 33(4): 475-480, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35128197

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine the clinical characteristics and surgical outcomes of medial rectus (MR) advancement with or without lateral rectus (LR) recession in patients with consecutive exotropia. METHODS: This interventional case series was performed on patients with consecutive exotropia of more than 15 prism diopters (PD) at least 6 months after the esotropia surgery. All patients were operated using either unilateral or bilateral MR muscle advancement with or without simultaneous LR recession. Ocular deviation at far and near distances, adduction limitation, and exoshift were investigated at the follow-ups of 1 week, as well as 1, 3, and 6 months after the surgery. Operation was considered successful when the postoperative far deviation was <10 PD. RESULTS: Thirty patients were evaluated. The mean amount of MR advancement was 5.69 ± 1.33 mm with the mean dose response of 4.7 ± 3.3 and 4.55 ± 4.01 PD at 3 and 6-month follow-ups, respectively. Success rate was reduced from 93% at week 1 to 73% at month 6 due to postoperative exodrift, especially during the first 3 months. Preoperative exotropia was the only contributing factor in our study. CONCLUSIONS: MR advancement was an effective surgical method for consecutive exotropia correction, especially in cases with MR underaction. Bilateral MR advancement and/or LR recession are suggested in cases with higher preoperative exodeviation. The presence of postoperative exodrift indicates longer follow-ups for patients.

15.
Strabismus ; 28(4): 194-200, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33085560

RESUMO

This study was aimed to compare the surgical outcomes of lateral rectus plication and resection techniques on patients with residual esotropia. In this randomized clinical trial, a total of 57 patients with residual esotropia (31 females) who were candidates for lateral rectus resection were randomized into plication (n = 27) and resection (n = 30) groups. The inclusion criteria were residual Esotropia after uni- or bilateral medial rectus recession. Subjects with a history of prematurity, lack of central fixation, extraocular muscle palsy, systemic, ocular disorders, history of lateral rectus operation, or follow up less than 3 months were excluded. Ophthalmic examinations were conducted preoperatively and at 1, 3-, and 6-month follow-ups. Surgical success rate was considered postoperative eso- or exotropia ≤10 pd. Based on the study results, there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups regarding the pre- (plication: 27.9 ± 9.8 pd and resection: 26.4 ± 7.6 pd; P = .52) and postoperative mean angle of deviation at far distance in month 3 (plication: 5.1 ± 7.1 pd and resection: 5.4 ± 3.2 pd; P = .82). Postoperative success rate also showed similarity between these two groups at all postoperative follow-ups of months 1, 3, and 6.There was no statistically significant difference between dose responses of these groups in uni- or bilateral operations. In conclusion, lateral rectus plication and resection showed statistically similar results. Each surgical method could be selected according to surgeon's skill and comfort. We recommend plication method for patients with postoperative probability of anterior segment ischemia.


Assuntos
Esotropia/cirurgia , Músculos Oculomotores/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Oftalmológicos/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Período Pós-Operatório , Reoperação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Visão Binocular/fisiologia
16.
J Ophthalmic Vis Res ; 15(3): 351-361, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32864066

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To compare the choroidal thickness among eyes with retinitis pigmentosa (RP), Stargardt disease, Usher syndrome, cone-rod dystrophy, and healthy eyes of sex- and age-matched individuals. METHODS: In this comparative study, 503 eyes with RP (n = 264), cone-rod dystrophy (n = 109), Stargardt disease (n = 76), and Usher syndrome (n = 54) were included. To validate the data, 109 healthy eyes of 56 sex- and age-matched individuals were studied as controls. Choroidal imaging was performed using enhanced depth imaging-optical coherence tomography. Choroidal thickness was measured manually using MATLAB software at 13 points in nasal and temporal directions from the foveal center with the interval of 500 µm and the choroidal area encompassing the measured points was calculated automatically. RESULTS: The mean age was 36.33 ± 13.07 years (range, 5 to 72 years). The mean choroidal thickness at 13 points of the control eyes was statistically significantly higher than that in eyes with RP (P < 0.001) and Usher syndrome (P < 0.05), but not significantly different from that in eyes with Stargardt disease and cone-rod dystrophy. Among different inherited retinal dystrophies (IRDs), the choroidal thickness was the lowest in eyes with RP (P < 0.001). Choroidal thickness in the subfoveal area correlated negatively with best-corrected visual acuity (r = - 0.264, P < 0.001) and the duration of ocular symptoms (r = - 0.341, P < 0.001) in all studied IRDs. No significant correlation was observed between the subfoveal choroidal thickness and central macular thickness (r = - 0.24, P = 0.576). CONCLUSION: Choroidal thinning in four different types of IRDs does not follow a similar pattern and depends on the type of IRD and the duration of ocular symptoms. A larger cohort is required to verify these findings.

17.
Arch Iran Med ; 23(7): 445-454, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32657595

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To describe the protocol for developing a national inherited retinal disease (IRD) registry in Iran and present its initial report. METHODS: This community-based participatory research was approved by the Ministry of Health and Medical Education of Iran in 2016. To provide the minimum data set (MDS), several focus group meetings were held. The final MDS was handed over to an engineering team to develop a web-based software. In the pilot phase, the software was set up in two referral centers in Iran. Final IRD diagnosis was made based on clinical manifestations and genetic findings. Ultimately, patient registration was done based on all clinical and non-clinical manifestations. RESULTS: Initially, a total of 151 data elements were approved with Delphi technique. The registry software went live at www. IRDReg.org based on DHIS2 open source license agreement since February 2016. So far, a total of 1001 patients have been registered with a mean age of 32.41±15.60 years (range, 3 months to 74 years). The majority of the registered patients had retinitis pigmentosa (42%, 95% CI: 38.9% to 45%). Genetic testing was done for approximately 20% of the registered individuals. CONCLUSION: Our study shows successful web-based software design and data collection as a proof of concept for the first IRD registry in Iran. Multicenter integration of the IRD registry in medical centers throughout the country is well underway as planned. These data will assist researchers to rapidly access information about the distribution and genetic patterns of this disease.


Assuntos
Acesso à Informação , Testes Genéticos , Doenças Retinianas/diagnóstico , Doenças Retinianas/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Pesquisa Participativa Baseada na Comunidade , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Estudo de Prova de Conceito , Sistema de Registros , Doenças Retinianas/epidemiologia , Navegador , Adulto Jovem
18.
Semin Ophthalmol ; 35(3): 187-193, 2020 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32586181

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The PhNR is driven by retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Therefore, the function of RGCs could be objectively evaluated by analyzing the PhNR. The aim of this article is to determine the effect of central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) on PhNR and RGCs performances. METHODS: Seventeen patients with CRVO were included. Full-field photopic ERGs, including PhNR, were recorded and compared with the fellow normal eyes. ERG signals were analyzed based on the standard time-domain analyses of the PhNR as well as a continuous wavelet transform (CWT) to extract time-frequency components that correspond to the PhNR using MATLAB. We obtained the main frequencies and their occurrence time from CWT. RESULTS: All a-wave, b-wave, and PhNR amplitudes of CRVO eyes showed a significant reduction compared to those of the fellow eyes (P < .01, P < .001, and P < .001, respectively). The peak times of a-wave, b-wave, and PhNR were increased significantly in the CRVO eyes (P = .04, P = .04, and P = .003, respectively). The dominant f3 frequency, which corresponds to the PhNR in CRVO patients, showed a more significant decrease (P < .001) compared to other dominant frequencies (f0, f1, and f2). The occurrence time of f3 (t3) was significantly higher in the CRVO eyes (P < .001). Time-domain of the PhNR was also affected in CRVO patients (P < .001). CONCLUSION: CWT allows quantifications of ERG responses, especially for PhNR. The PhNR was severely affected in CRVO eyes implicating loss of RGCs. CWT might demonstrate the severity of CRVO more precisely and identify diagnostically significant changes of ERG waveforms that are not resolved when the analysis is only limited to the time-domain measurements.


Assuntos
Eletrorretinografia , Células Ganglionares da Retina , Oclusão da Veia Retiniana/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
19.
Ophthalmic Epidemiol ; 27(6): 417-428, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32449414

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of a mobile-based screening programme on eye care utilization in Iran. METHOD: In this cluster randomized community trial, a representative sample of residents aged≥50 years from urban and rural areas in four districts in Tehran province were enrolled. The clusters were randomly assigned to one of the three parallel arms; the mHealth arm with digital data collection, vision screening test and retina evaluation using an integrated mobile application, the conventional arm with manual data collection and screening tests using Snellen chart and Fundus photography at the local primary healthcare facility, and the control arm with manual data collection without screening tests. The main outcome measure was eye care utilization which was defined as at least one visit to an optometrist or ophthalmologist. RESULTS: Of 3312 eligible individuals, 2520 (76.1%) participated. In the first 3 months after the screening programme, eye care utilization was higher among those who were referred by the mHealth method (35.6% 95%CI: 31.1-40.4%) compared to those referred by the conventional method (32.7%, 95%CI: 27.5-38.2%) and to those observed in the control arm (4.5%, 95%CI: 3.2-6.0). Eye care utilization improved (OR = 1.5, 95%CI: 1.2-1.9) among the referred people after the screening programme compared to the utilization before this programme; however, this improvement was significantly higher in the mHealth method (OR: 1.7, 95%CI: 1.2-2.4) compared to the conventional method (OR: 1.2, 95%CI: 0.8-1.8). CONCLUSION AND RELEVANCE: The mobile-based screening programme can significantly improve eye care utilization at the community level.


Assuntos
Telemedicina , Seleção Visual , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Programas de Rastreamento , Acuidade Visual
20.
Korean J Ophthalmol ; 34(2): 143-149, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32233148

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We aimed to determine the long-term motor and sensory outcomes of patients with infantile exotropia. METHODS: In this longitudinal retrospective (historical cohort) study, the records of 76 patients with infantile exotropia were Studied. Subjects with constant exotropia manifesting before the age of 1 year who were at least 5 years old at recruitment time between 2008 and 2017 were included. RESULTS: The medical records of 26 patients were excluded due to not participating in follow-up examinations or having incomplete records. In total, 54 infantile exotropic patients (51.9% male) with a mean age of 11.1 ± 6.8 years and follow-up of 4.99 ± 3.58 years were studied. Postoperative sensory outcomes (central stereopsis [<60 sec/arc], peripheral fusion [60-3,000 sec/arc], and non-stereopsis [>3,000 sec/arc]) were observed in 38.9%, 38.9%, and 21.2% of patients, respectively. In terms of postoperative motor outcomes, 69%, 24%, and 7% were achieved as orthophoria, residual exotropia, and consecutive esotropia, respectively. Patients with a higher surgical age (p = 0.022) and better visual acuity (p = 0.004) had significantly better sensory outcomes, while higher preoperative deviation resulted in more suppression (p = 0.039, rs = 0.218). CONCLUSIONS: With rates of 69% for motor success and 78.8% for sensory success, surgical outcomes of infantile exotropic patients seems to be favorable. Further studies are recommended to verify our findings.


Assuntos
Exotropia/cirurgia , Movimentos Oculares/fisiologia , Previsões , Músculos Oculomotores/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Oftalmológicos/métodos , Visão Binocular/fisiologia , Acuidade Visual , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Exotropia/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Músculos Oculomotores/fisiopatologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
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