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1.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 2021 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34785247

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The relationship between institutional volume and operative mortality following SAVR remains unclear. METHODS: From 1/2013 to 6/2018, 234,556 patients underwent isolated SAVR (n=144,177) or SAVR+CABG (n=90,379) within the STS ACSD. The association between annualized SAVR volume [Group 1 (1-25 SAVR), Group 2 (26-50 SAVR), Group 3 (51-100 SAVR), and Group 4 (>100 SAVR)] and operative mortality and composite major morbidity/mortality was assessed. Random effects models were used to evaluate whether historic (2013-2015) SAVR volume or risk-adjusted outcomes explained future (2016-2018) risk-adjusted outcomes. RESULTS: The annualized median number of SAVRs per site was 35 [IQR: 22-59, isolated AVR: 20, AVR+CABG: 13]. Among isolated SAVR cases, the mean operative mortality and composite morbidity/mortality were 1.5% and 9.7%, respectively, at the highest volume sites (Group 4); with significantly higher rates among progressively lower volume groups (p-trend<0.001). After adjustment, lower volume centers experienced increased odds of operative mortality [Group 1 vs. 4 (Ref): AOR (SAVR), 2.24 (1.91-2.64); AOR (SAVR+CABG), 1.96 (1.67-2.30)] and major morbidity/mortality [AOR (SAVR), 1.53 (1.39-1.69); AOR (SAVR+CABG), 1.46 (1.32-1.61)] compared to the highest volume institutions. Substantial variation in outcomes was observed across hospitals within each volume category and prior outcomes explained a greater proportion of hospital operative outcomes than prior volume. CONCLUSIONS: Operative outcomes following SAVR±CABG is inversely associated with institutional procedure volumes; however, prior outcomes are more predictive than prior volume of future outcomes. Given excellent outcomes observed at many lower volume hospitals, procedural outcomes may be preferable to procedural volumes as a quality metric.

2.
Lancet ; 2021 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34793745

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The optimal revascularisation strategy for patients with left main coronary artery disease is uncertain. We therefore aimed to evaluate long-term outcomes for patients treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with drug-eluting stents versus coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). METHODS: In this individual patient data meta-analysis, we searched MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane database using the search terms "left main", "percutaneous coronary intervention" or "stent", and "coronary artery bypass graft*" to identify randomised controlled trials (RCTs) published in English between database inception and Aug 31, 2021, comparing PCI with drug-eluting stents with CABG in patients with left main coronary artery disease that had at least 5 years of patient follow-up for all-cause mortality. Two authors (MSS and BAB) identified studies meeting the criteria. The primary endpoint was 5-year all-cause mortality. Secondary endpoints were cardiovascular death, spontaneous myocardial infarction, procedural myocardial infarction, stroke, and repeat revascularisation. We used a one-stage approach; event rates were calculated by use of the Kaplan-Meier method and treatment group comparisons were made by use of a Cox frailty model, with trial as a random effect. In Bayesian analyses, the probabilities of absolute risk differences in the primary endpoint between PCI and CABG being more than 0·0%, and at least 1·0%, 2·5%, or 5·0%, were calculated. FINDINGS: Our literature search yielded 1599 results, of which four RCTs-SYNTAX, PRECOMBAT, NOBLE, and EXCEL-meeting our inclusion criteria were included in our meta-analysis. 4394 patients, with a median SYNTAX score of 25·0 (IQR 18·0-31·0), were randomly assigned to PCI (n=2197) or CABG (n=2197). The Kaplan-Meier estimate of 5-year all-cause death was 11·2% (95% CI 9·9-12·6) with PCI and 10·2% (9·0-11·6) with CABG (hazard ratio 1·10, 95% CI 0·91-1·32; p=0·33), resulting in a non-statistically significant absolute risk difference of 0·9% (95% CI -0·9 to 2·8). In Bayesian analyses, there was an 85·7% probability that death at 5 years was greater with PCI than with CABG; this difference was more likely than not less than 1·0% (<0·2% per year). The numerical difference in mortality was comprised more of non-cardiovascular than cardiovascular death. Spontaneous myocardial infarction (6·2%, 95% CI 5·2-7·3 vs 2·6%, 2·0-3·4; hazard ratio [HR] 2·35, 95% CI 1·71-3·23; p<0·0001) and repeat revascularisation (18·3%, 16·7-20·0 vs 10·7%, 9·4-12·1; HR 1·78, 1·51-2·10; p<0·0001) were more common with PCI than with CABG. Differences in procedural myocardial infarction between strategies depended on the definition used. Overall, there was no difference in the risk of stroke between PCI (2·7%, 2·0-3·5) and CABG (3·1%, 2·4-3·9; HR 0·84, 0·59-1·21; p=0·36), but the risk was lower with PCI in the first year after randomisation (HR 0·37, 0·19-0·69). INTERPRETATION: Among patients with left main coronary artery disease and, largely, low or intermediate coronary anatomical complexity, there was no statistically significant difference in 5-year all-cause death between PCI and CABG, although a Bayesian approach suggested a difference probably exists (more likely than not <0·2% per year) favouring CABG. There were trade-offs in terms of the risk of myocardial infarction, stroke, and revascularisation. A heart team approach to communicate expected outcome differences might be useful to assist patients in reaching a treatment decision. FUNDING: No external funding.

3.
EuroIntervention ; 2021 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34212863

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The EXCEL trial reported similar five-year rates of the primary composite outcome of death, myocardial infarction (MI), or stroke after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) compared with coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) for treatment of obstructive left main coronary artery disease (LMCAD). AIMS: We sought to determine whether these outcomes remained consistent regardless of geography of enrolment. METHODS: We performed a pre-specified subgroup analysis based on regional enrolment. RESULTS: Among 1,905 patients randomised to PCI (n=948) or CABG (n=957), 1,075 (56.4%) were recruited at 52 European Union (EU) centres, and 752 (39.5%) were recruited at 67 North American (NA) centres. EU versus NA patients varied according to numerous baseline demographics, anatomy, pharmacotherapy and procedural characteristics. Nonetheless, the relative rates of the primary endpoint after PCI versus CABG were consistent across EU versus NA centres at 30 days and 5 years. However, NA participants had substantially higher late rates of ischaemia-driven revascularisation (IDR) after PCI, driven predominantly by the need for greater target vessel and lesion revascularisation. This culminated in a significant difference in the relative risk of the secondary composite outcome of death, MI, stroke, or IDR at 5 years (pinteraction=0.02). CONCLUSIONS: In the EXCEL trial, the relative risks for the 30-day and five-year primary composite outcome of death, MI or stroke after PCI versus CABG were consistent irrespective of geography. However, five-year rates of IDR after PCI were significantly higher in NA centres, a finding the Heart Team and patients should consider when making treatment decisions. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01205776.

5.
J Invasive Cardiol ; 33(8): E619-E627, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34170842

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the safety and efficacy of using vascular closure devices (VCDs) in percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for left main coronary artery disease (LM-CAD). BACKGROUND: VCDs provide rapid hemostasis for patients undergoing PCI with transfemoral access (TFA); however, the safety and efficacy of VCDs continues to be debated. METHODS: We analyzed data from the EXCEL trial in patients with LM-CAD in whom PCI was performed via TFA with vs without VCD. The primary endpoint was a composite of death, myocardial infarction (MI), or stroke. Bleeding Academic Research Consortium (BARC) type 2-5 bleeding at 30 days was also assessed. Propensity-score matching analysis was used. RESULTS: Among 694 patients with LM-CAD undergoing TFA-PCI, 423 (61.0%) received VCDs (collagen plug, 320 [75.7%]; suture mediated, 55 [13.0%]; others, 48 [11.3%]). Patients with and without VCD use had similar 30-day rates of BARC type 2-5 bleeding (5.0% vs 6.7%, respectively; P=.30) and BARC type 3-5 bleeding (2.1% vs 3.7%, respectively; P=.20). There were no significant differences in the rates of death, MI, or stroke in patients with and without VCD use at 30 days (4.7% vs 4.1%, respectively; P=.74) or at 5 years (20.3% vs 24.2%, respectively; P=.16). These results were similar after adjustment. CONCLUSION: In the EXCEL trial, LM-CAD PCI via TFA using VCD was associated with similar 30-day rates of bleeding and comparable early and late major adverse cardiovascular events compared with manual compression.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Dispositivos de Oclusão Vascular , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/cirurgia , Artéria Femoral/cirurgia , Hemorragia/epidemiologia , Hemorragia/etiologia , Hemorragia/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Coron Artery Dis ; 2021 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34010180

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prior studies have reported an association between elevated white blood cell count (WBCc) and worse clinical outcomes after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). We assessed the prognostic impact of WBCc in patients undergoing revascularization for left main coronary artery disease (LMCAD). METHODS: In Evaluation of XIENCE Versus Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery for Effectiveness of Left Main Revascularization (EXCEL), 1905 patients with LMCAD and low or intermediate SYNTAX scores were randomized to PCI with everolimus-eluting stents versus CABG. The 1895 patients with baseline WBCc available were grouped in tertiles of WBCc (mean 5.6 ± 0.8, 7.5 ± 0.5, and 10.1 ± 1.6 × 109/L). RESULTS: Five-year rates of the primary endpoint (death, myocardial infarction or stroke) were similar across increasing WBCc tertiles (21.2, 18.9, and 21.6%; P = 0.46). Individual components of the primary endpoint, Bleeding Academic Research Consortium (BARC) 3-5 bleeding, stent thrombosis or graft occlusion and ischemia-driven revascularization were all similar across WBCc tertiles. By multivariable analysis, WBCc as a continuous variable was not an independent predictor of adverse events (hazard radio per 1 × 109/L: 1.02; 95% CI, 0.97-1.08; P = 0.43). Results were consistent in the PCI and CABG arms individually. CONCLUSION: There was no association between baseline WBCc and 30-day or 5-year clinical outcomes after PCI or CABG. The absence of a clear incremental increase in events with increasing WBCc in the current analysis indicates that WBCc should not routinely be used as a prognostic marker or to guide revascularization decisions in patients with LMCAD.

7.
Coron Artery Dis ; 2021 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34010183

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a paucity of data regarding the effect of inhibition of the renin-angiotensin system on outcomes after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). We sought to examine long-term outcomes of patients with left main coronary disease (LMCAD) randomized to PCI with fluoropolymer-based cobalt-chromium everolimus-eluting stents or CABG according to treatment at discharge with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) in the large-scale, multicenter, randomized EXCEL trial. METHODS: EXCEL randomized 1905 patients with LMCAD of low and intermediate anatomical complexity (visually-assessed SYNTAX score ≤32) to PCI (n = 948) versus CABG (n = 957). Patients were categorized according to whether they were treated with ACEI/ARB at discharge; their outcomes from discharge to 5 years were examined using multivariable logistic regression with an offset for follow-up time. RESULTS: Among 1775 patients discharged alive with known ACEI/ARB treatment status, 896 (50.5%) were treated with one of these agents. Among those treated with ACEI/ARB, the 5-year rate of all-cause death was similar after PCI or CABG (10.7% versus 9.8% respectively, adjOR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.56-1.57) in contrast to patients not treated with ACEI/ARB (15.0% versus 7.8%, respectively, adjOR, 2.20; 95% CI, 1.32-3.67) (Pinteraction = 0.02). Significant interactions between treatment arm (PCI versus CABG) and ACEI/ARB treatment status were also found for cardiovascular death (Pinteraction = 0.03), ischemia-driven revascularization (Pinteraction = 0.03), target vessel revascularization (Pinteraction = 0.007) and target vessel failure (Pinteraction = 0.0009). CONCLUSION: In the EXCEL trial, the postdischarge rates of death and revascularization after 5 years were similar after PCI and CABG in patients with LMCAD treated with ACEI/ARB at discharge. In contrast, event rates were higher after PCI versus CABG in those not so treated.

9.
Catheter Cardiovasc Interv ; 97(5): 766-773, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32181569

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We compared the effect of bivalirudin or heparin and use or nonuse of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors (GPI) on the outcome of left main coronary artery (LMCA) percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in the randomized EXCEL trial. BACKGROUND: The optimal antithrombotic regimen to support PCI of the LMCA remains controversial because of low representation of this subset in clinical trials. METHODS: The PCI cohort (n = 928) in EXCEL was divided according to bivalirudin versus heparin antithrombin treatment and compared for the primary composite endpoint of death, myocardial infarction (MI), or stroke at 30 days and 5 years. RESULTS: Bivalirudin was used in 319 patients (34.4%). The composite endpoint at 30 days occurred in 7.2% versus 3.8% bivalirudin and heparin patients, respectively, p = .02; at 5 years, the composite endpoint occurred in 26.3% versus 19.9% bivalirudin and heparin patients, respectively, p = .02. Major bleeding was more frequent in bivalirudin patients (4.1% versus 1.3%, p = .008). There were no differences in stent thrombosis between the groups. Bivalirudin use was an independent predictor of the 30-day composite endpoint (OR 2.88, 95% CI 1.28-6.48, p = .01) but not of the 5-year composite endpoint (OR 1.30, 95% CI 0.84-2.02, p = .23). GPI use was infrequent (n = 67, 7.2%) and was not associated with adverse outcomes. CONCLUSION: Among patients undergoing LMCA PCI in the EXCEL trial, procedural use of bivalirudin was associated with greater rates of periprocedural MI and the 30-day composite endpoint without reducing bleeding complications. Five-year outcomes were similar. GPIs were used infrequently and were not associated with clinical outcomes.


Assuntos
Fibrinolíticos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Vasos Coronários , Quimioterapia Combinada , Fibrinolíticos/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Catheter Cardiovasc Interv ; 98(1): 24-32, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32592450

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We examined outcomes according to lesion preparation strategy (LPS) in patients with left main coronary artery (LMCA) percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in the EXCEL trial. BACKGROUND: The optimal LPS for LMCA PCI is unclear. METHODS: We categorized LPS hierarchically (high to low) as: (a) rotational atherectomy (RA); (b) cutting or scoring balloon (CSB); (c) balloon angioplasty (BAL); and d) direct stenting (DIR). The primary endpoint was 3-year MACE; all-cause death, stroke, or myocardial infarction. RESULTS: Among 938 patients undergoing LMCA PCI, RA was performed in 6.0%, CSB 9.5%, BAL 71.3%, and DIR 13.2%. In patients treated with DIR, BAL, CSB, and RA, respectively, there was a progressive increase in SYNTAX score, LMCA complex bifurcation, trifurcation or calcification, number of stents, and total stent length. Any procedural complication occurred in 10.4% of cases overall, with the lowest rate in the DIR (7.4%) and highest in the RA group (16.1%) (ptrend  = .22). There were no significant differences in the 3-year rates of MACE (from RA to DIR: 17.9%, 20.2%, 14.5%, 14.7%; p = .50) or ischemia-driven revascularization (from RA to DIR: 16.8%, 10.8%, 12.3%, 14.2%; p = .65). The adjusted 3-year rates of MACE did not differ according to LPS. CONCLUSIONS: The comparable 3-year outcomes suggest that appropriate lesion preparation may be able to overcome the increased risks of complex LMCA lesion morphology.

11.
Am J Cardiol ; 143: 21-28, 2021 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33359193

RESUMO

Prior studies in patients with noncomplex coronary artery disease have demonstrated the safety of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in the outpatient setting. We sought to examine the outcomes of outpatient PCI in patients with unprotected left main coronary artery disease (LMCAD). In the EXCEL trial, 1905 patients with LMCAD and site-assessed low or intermediate SYNTAX scores were randomized to PCI with everolimus-eluting stents versus coronary artery bypass grafting. The primary end point was major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE; the composite of death, stroke, or myocardial infarction). In this sub-analysis, outcomes at 30 days and 5 years were analyzed according to whether PCI was performed in the outpatient versus inpatient setting. Among 948 patients with LMCAD assigned to PCI, 935 patients underwent PCI as their first procedure, including 100 (10.7%) performed in the outpatient setting. Patients who underwent outpatient compared with inpatient PCI were less likely to have experienced recent myocardial infarction. Distal left main bifurcation disease involvement and SYNTAX scores were similar between the groups. Comparing outpatient to inpatient PCI, there were no significant differences in MACE at 30 days (4.0% vs 5.0% respectively, adjusted OR 0.52 95% CI 0.12 to 2.22; p = 0.38) or 5 years (20.6% vs 22.1% respectively, adjusted OR 0.72, 95% CI 0.40 to 1.29; p = 0.27). Similar results were observed in patients with distal left main bifurcation lesions. In conclusion, in the EXCEL trial, outpatient PCI of patients with LMCAD was not associated with an excess early or late hazard of MACE. These data suggest that outpatient PCI may be safely performed in select patients with LMCAD.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Ambulatórios/métodos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/cirurgia , Hospitalização , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/métodos , Idoso , Angina Estável/epidemiologia , Angina Instável/epidemiologia , Ponte de Artéria Coronária , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio sem Supradesnível do Segmento ST/epidemiologia , Razão de Chances , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33339597

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Although the impact of prosthesis-patient mismatch (PPM) on survival has been widely studied, there has been little debate about whether the current definition of PPM truly reflects hemodynamic obstruction. This study aimed to validate the categorization of indexed effective orifice area (EOAi) for the classification of PPM. METHODS: In total, 2171 patients who underwent aortic valve replacement with a surgical stented bioprosthesis in 5 trials (CoreValve US High-Risk, SURTAVI [Surgical Replacement and Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation Trial], Evolut Low Risk, PERIGON [PERIcardial SurGical AOrtic Valve ReplacemeNt] Pivotal Trial for the Avalus valve, and PERIGON Japan) were used for this analysis. The echocardiographic images at the 1-year follow-up visit were evaluated to explore the association between EOAi and mean aortic gradient and its interaction with other patient characteristics, including obesity. In addition, different criteria of PPM were compared with reflect elevated mean aortic gradients (≥20 mm Hg). RESULTS: A relatively smaller exponential decay in mean aortic gradient was found for increasing EOAi, as the slope on the log scale was -0.83 versus -2.5 in the publication from which the current cut-offs for PPM originate. The accuracy of the American Society of Echocardiography, Valve Academic Research Consortium-2, and European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging definitions of PPM to reflect elevated mean aortic gradients was 49%, 57%, and 57%, respectively. The relation between EOAi and mean aortic gradient was not significantly different between obese and non-obese patients (P = .20). CONCLUSIONS: The use of EOAi thresholds to classify patients with PPM is undermined by a less-pronounced exponential relationship between EOAi and mean aortic gradient than previously demonstrated. Moreover, recent adjustment for obesity in the definition of PPM is not supported by these data.

13.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 76(14): 1609-1621, 2020 10 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004126

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Varying definitions of procedural myocardial infarction (PMI) are in widespread use. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to determine the rates and clinical relevance of PMI using different definitions in patients with left main coronary artery disease randomized to percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) versus coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery in the EXCEL (Evaluation of XIENCE versus Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery for Effectiveness of Left Main Revascularization) trial. METHODS: The pre-specified protocol definition of PMI (PMIProt) required a large elevation of creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB), with identical threshold for both procedures. The Third Universal Definition of MI (types 4a and 5) (PMIUD) required lesser biomarker elevations but with supporting evidence of myocardial ischemia, different after PCI and CABG. For the PMIUD, troponins were used preferentially (available in 49.5% of patients), CK-MB otherwise. The multivariable relationship between each PMI type and 5-year mortality was determined. RESULTS: PMIProt occurred in 34 of 935 (3.6%) patients after PCI and 56 of 923 (6.1%) patients after CABG (difference -2.4%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -4.4% to -0.5%; p = 0.015). The corresponding rates of PMIUD were 37 (4.0%) and 20 (2.2%), respectively (difference 1.8%; 95% CI: 0.2% to 3.4%; p = 0.025). Both PMIProt and PMIUD were associated with 5-year cardiovascular mortality (adjusted hazard ratio [HR]: 2.18 [95% CI: 1.13 to 4.23] and 2.87 [95% CI: 1.44 to 5.73], respectively). PMIProt was associated with a consistent hazard of cardiovascular mortality after both PCI and CABG (pinteraction = 0.86). Conversely, PMIUD was strongly associated with cardiovascular mortality after CABG (adjusted HR: 11.94; 95% CI: 4.84 to 29.47) but not after PCI (adjusted HR: 1.14; 95% CI: 0.35 to 3.67) (pinteraction = 0.004). Results were similar for all-cause mortality and with varying PMIUD biomarker definitions. Only large biomarker elevations (CK-MB ≥10× upper reference limit and troponin ≥70× upper reference limit) were associated with mortality. CONCLUSIONS: The rates of PMI after PCI and CABG vary greatly with different definitions. In the EXCEL trial, the pre-specified PMIProt was associated with similar hazard after PCI and CABG, whereas PMIUD was strongly associated with mortality after CABG but not after PCI. (EXCEL Clinical Trial [EXCEL]; NCT01205776).


Assuntos
Ponte de Artéria Coronária/tendências , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico por imagem , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/tendências , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico por imagem , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/efeitos adversos , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/mortalidade , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/mortalidade , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/cirurgia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Mortalidade/tendências , Infarto do Miocárdio/etiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Revascularização Miocárdica/efeitos adversos , Revascularização Miocárdica/tendências , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/mortalidade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 95(9): 1865-1876, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32861331

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To characterize the contemporary efficacy and utilization patterns of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in specific cancer types. METHODS: We leveraged the data from the National Inpatient Sample and plotted trends of utilization and outcomes of isolated CABG (with no other additional surgeries during the same hospitalization) procedures from January 1, 2003, through September 1, 2015. Propensity score matching was used to assess for potential differences in outcomes by type of cancer status among contemporary (2012-2015) patients. RESULTS: Overall, the utilization of CABG decreased over time (250,677 in 2003 vs 134,534 in 2015, P<.001). However, the proportion of those with comorbid cancer increased (7.0% vs 12.6%, P<.001). Over time, in-hospital mortality associated with CABG use in cancer remained unchanged (.9% vs 1.0%, P=.72); yet, cancer patients saw an increase in associated major bleeding (4.5% vs 15.3%, P<.001) and rate of stroke (.9% vs 1.5%, P<.001) over time. In-hospital cost-of-care associated with CABG-use in cancer also increased over time ($29,963 vs $33,636, P<.001). When stratified by cancer types, in-hospital mortality was not higher in breast, lung, prostate, colon cancer, or lymphoma versus non-cancer CABG patients (all P>.05). However, there was a significantly higher prevalence of major bleeding but not stroke in patients with breast and prostate cancer only compared with non-cancer CABG patients (P<.01). Discharge dispositions were not found to be different between cancer sub-groups and non-cancer patients (P>.05), except for breast cancer patients who had lower home care, but higher skilled care disposition (P<.001). CONCLUSION: Among those undergoing CABG, the prevalence of comorbid cancer has steadily increased. Outside of major bleeding, these patients appear to share similar outcomes to those without cancer indicating that CABG utilization should be not be declined in cancer patients when otherwise indicated. Further research into the factors underlying the decision to pursue CABG in specific cancer sub-groups is needed.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/estatística & dados numéricos , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/cirurgia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/efeitos adversos , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/economia , Feminino , Custos Hospitalares , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Hemorragia Pós-Operatória/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
16.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 110(6): e551-e553, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32540438

RESUMO

Hemodynamic performance of the Avalus valve through 3 years after implant is comparable to that of contemporary surgical bioprostheses. Many variables affect hemodynamic outcomes, including surgical technique. This article describes our experience with the Avalus bioprosthesis and strategies to achieve optimal hemodynamic performance.


Assuntos
Valvopatia Aórtica/cirurgia , Bioprótese , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/métodos , Próteses Valvulares Cardíacas , Valva Aórtica , Humanos , Desenho de Prótese , Ajuste de Prótese
17.
Am J Cardiol ; 127: 16-24, 2020 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32360038

RESUMO

Cigarette smoking is a well-known risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD). However, the impact of smoking on outcomes after coronary revascularization, especially in patients with left main CAD (LMCAD) is less well understood. The EXCEL trial randomized 1,905 patients with LMCAD and visually assessed low or intermediate anatomical complexity (SYNTAX score ≤32) to PCI with everolimus-eluting stents or CABG. Patients were categorized according to smoking status (current, former, or never), and their outcomes at 5 years were compared by logistic regression with follow-up time included as a log-transformed offset variable. The primary endpoint was a composite of death, myocardial infarction, or stroke. Among 1893 patients with known smoking status at baseline, 416 (22%) were current smokers and 774 (41%) were former smokers. The crude rates of the primary endpoint were 19.5% for never smokers, 20.5% for former smokers (p = 0.61 vs never smokers), and 23.1% for smokers (p = 0.15 vs never smokers). Compared with never smokers, the adjusted risk of the primary endpoint was higher for current smokers (adjOR 1.82, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.126 to 2.63; p = 0.001), but not for former smokers (adjOR 1.00, 95% CI 0.75 to 1.33, p = 0.10). The relative efficacy of PCI versus CABG for the 5-year primary endpoint was similar irrespective of smoking status (Pinteraction = 0.22). In conclusion, current smokers in the EXCEL trial had a higher adjusted 5-year risk of the primary composite endpoint of death, myocardial infarction, or stroke than never smokers, whereas former smokers were not at increased risk. Active smoking was a risk factor after LMCAD revascularization irrespective of revascularization method.


Assuntos
Ponte de Artéria Coronária/métodos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/cirurgia , Vasos Coronários/cirurgia , Stents Farmacológicos , Everolimo/farmacologia , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/métodos , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/etiologia , Vasos Coronários/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Imunossupressores/farmacologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging ; 21(10): 1116-1122, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32243493

RESUMO

AIMS: Indexed effective orifice area (EOAi) charts are used to determine the likelihood of prosthesis-patient mismatch (PPM) after aortic valve replacement (AVR). The aim of this study is to validate whether these EOAi charts, based on echocardiographic normal reference values, can accurately predict PPM. METHODS AND RESULTS: In the PERIcardial SurGical AOrtic Valve ReplacemeNt (PERIGON) Pivotal Trial, 986 patients with aortic valve stenosis/regurgitation underwent AVR with an Avalus valve. Patients were randomly split (50:50) into training and test sets. The mean measured EOAs for each valve size from the training set were used to create an Avalus EOAi chart. This chart was subsequently used to predict PPM in the test set and measures of diagnostic accuracy (sensitivity, specificity, and negative and positive predictive value) were assessed. PPM was defined by an EOAi ≤0.85 cm2/m2, and severe PPM was defined as EOAi ≤0.65 cm2/m2. The reference values obtained from the training set ranged from 1.27 cm2 for size 19 mm up to 1.81 cm2 for size 27 mm. The test set had an incidence of 66% of PPM and 24% of severe PPM. The EOAi chart inaccurately predicted PPM in 30% of patients and severe PPM in 22% of patients. For the prediction of PPM, the sensitivity was 87% and the specificity 37%. For the prediction of severe PPM, the sensitivity was 13% and the specificity 98%. CONCLUSION: The use of echocardiographic normal reference values for EOAi charts to predict PPM is unreliable due to the large proportion of misclassifications.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca , Próteses Valvulares Cardíacas , Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Desenho de Prótese , Ajuste de Prótese , Resultado do Tratamento
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