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1.
Health Serv Res ; 2021 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34743320

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the quality of a multiyear linkage between the Colorado all-payer claims database (APCD) and the Colorado Central Cancer Registry. DATA SOURCES: Secondary 2012-2017 data from the APCD and the Colorado Cancer Registry. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive analysis of the proportion of cases captured by the linkage in relation to the cases reported by the registry. DATA COLLECTION/EXTRACTION METHODS: We used probabilistic linkage to combine records from both data sources for all patients diagnosed with cancer. RESULTS: We successfully linked 93% of the 146,884 patients in the registry. Approximately 63% of linked patients were perfect matches on five identifiers. Of partial matches, 81.6% were matched on four identifiers with missing or partial Social Security Numbers. The linkage rate was lower for uninsured patients at diagnosis (74.7%) or patients with private plans (89.4%) but close to 100% for Medicare and Medicaid enrollees. Most of the 29% of patients who did not have claims at the time of diagnosis were covered by private plans that may not submit claims. CONCLUSIONS: APCD-registry linkages are a promising source of data to conduct population-based research from multiple payers. However, not all payers submit claims, and the quality of the data may vary by state.

2.
Med Care Res Rev ; : 10775587211042532, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34467806

RESUMO

There are well-documented differences in breast cancer treatment by insurance status. Insurance expansions provide a context to assess the relationship between insurance and patterns of breast cancer care. We examine the association of Massachusetts health reform with use of breast conserving surgery, reconstruction, and adjuvant radiation using data from the Massachusetts Cancer Registry and Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results registries for 2001-2013 and a difference-in-differences approach. We observe statistically significant increases in breast conserving surgery among nonelderly women in Massachusetts relative to trends in states and age groups not affected by health reform. We also observe relative increases in reconstruction and adjuvant radiation, though trends in these outcomes were not the same across states prior to reform, limiting our ability to draw conclusions about the relationship between reform and these outcomes. Our results suggest that health reform was associated with some improvements in breast cancer treatment.

4.
J Policy Anal Manage ; 40(1): 12-41, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34194129

RESUMO

For many low-income Medicare beneficiaries, Medicaid provides important supplemental insurance that covers out-of-pocket costs and additional benefits. We examine whether Medicaid participation by low-income adults age 65 and up increased as a result of Medicaid expansions to working-age adults under the Affordable Care Act (ACA). Previous literature documents so-called "welcome mat" effects in other populations but has not explicitly studied older persons dually eligible for Medicare and Medicaid. We extend this literature by estimating models of Medicaid participation among persons age 65 and up using American Community Survey data from 2010 to 2017 and state variation in ACA Medicaid expansions. We find that Medicaid expansions to working-age adults increased Medicaid participation among low-income older adults by 1.8 percentage points (4.4 percent). We also find evidence of an "on-ramp" effect; that is, low-income Medicare beneficiaries residing in expansion states who were young enough to gain coverage under the 2014 ACA Medicaid expansions before aging into Medicare were 4 percentage points (9.5 percent) more likely to have dual Medicaid coverage relative to similar individuals who either turned 65 before the 2014 expansions or resided in non-expansion states. This on-ramp effect is an important mechanism behind welcome mat effects among some older adults.

5.
Head Neck ; 43(10): 3062-3075, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34235804

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is documented regarding objective financial metrics and their impact on subjective financial toxicity in head and neck cancer (HNC) survivors. METHODS: In a cross-sectional analysis, 71 survivors with available claims data for HNC-specific out-of-pocket expenses (OOPE) completed a survey including patient-reported, subjective financial toxicity outcome tools: the Comprehensive Score for financial Toxicity (COST) and the Financial Distress Questionnaire (FDQ). RESULTS: Worse COST scores were significantly associated with lower earnings at survey administration (coefficient = 3.79; 95% CI 2.63-4.95; p < 0.001); loss of earnings after diagnosis (coefficient = 6.03; 95% CI 0.53-11.52; p = 0.032); and greater annual OOPE as a proportion of earnings [log10(Annual OOPE:Earnings at survey): coefficient = -5.66; 95% CI -10.28 to -1.04; p = 0.017]. Similar results were found with FDQ. CONCLUSION: Financial toxicity is associated with particular socioeconomic characteristics which, if understood, would assist the development of pre-treatment screening tools to detect at-risk individuals and intervene early in the HNC cancer survivorship trajectory.


Assuntos
Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço , Estudos Transversais , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/terapia , Gastos em Saúde , Humanos , Sobreviventes
6.
J Am Dent Assoc ; 152(7): 551-559.e1, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34176569

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Older adults are keeping their natural teeth longer, spurring calls for dental coverage under Medicare. Although Medicare dental coverage would benefit all older adults, the poorest among them are already eligible for dental benefits through Medicaid. The authors examine the association between states' Medicaid adult dental benefits and dental care use and tooth loss among low-income older adults. METHODS: Using the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data from 2014, 2016, and 2018, the authors examined adults 65 years or older. The outcomes examined included annual dental visit and partial and complete tooth loss. Poisson regressions were used to obtain risk ratios after adjusting for covariates. RESULTS: States' Medicaid adult dental benefits were significantly associated with dental care use, with low-income older adults in states with no coverage having the lowest probability of visiting a dentist (risk ratio [RR], 0.83; 95% CI, 0.74 to 0.94), followed by emergency-only coverage (RR, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.84 to 0.98) and limited benefits (RR, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.85 to 0.98) relative to states with extensive benefits. There were no significant differences in either partial or complete tooth loss. CONCLUSIONS: States' Medicaid adult dental benefits are significantly associated with dental visits among low-income seniors. Providing comprehensive dental benefits under Medicaid can improve access to dental care among low-income older adults. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: As the older adult patient population grows, the poorest older adults may face barriers to dental care in the absence of dental coverage. Dental professionals must engage in advocating for comprehensive dental coverage, especially for vulnerable populations.


Assuntos
Medicaid , Saúde Bucal , Idoso , Assistência Odontológica , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Cobertura do Seguro , Medicare , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
7.
Urol Oncol ; 39(12): 834.e9-834.e20, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34162498

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of centralized surgical and nonsurgical care (i.e., radiation and chemotherapy) on travel distances and survival outcomes for patients with advanced bladder cancer. Bladder cancer is a disease with high mortality for which treatment access is paramount and survival is superior in patients receiving surgery at high-volume centers. METHODS: Using SEER-Medicare, we identified patients 66 years or older diagnosed with bladder cancer between 2004-2013. We categorized patients as treated with either surgical (i.e., radical cystectomy) or nonsurgical (i.e., radiation or chemotherapy) care. We fit a linear probability model to generate the predicted proportion of patients treated at the top quintile of volume over time and assessed travel distance, 1-year all-cause mortality, and 1-year bladder cancer-specific mortality over time. RESULTS: A total of 6,756 and 10,383 patients underwent surgical and nonsurgical care, respectively. The percentage of patients treated at high-volume centers increased over the study period for both surgical care (53% to 62%) and nonsurgical care (47% to 55%), (both P< 0.001). Median travel distance increased (11.8 to 20.3 miles) for surgical care and (6.5 to 8.3 miles) for nonsurgical care, (both P < 0.001). The 1-year adjusted all-cause mortality and 1-year adjusted bladder-cancer specific mortality decreased significantly for both surgical and nonsurgical care (both P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Over time, centralization of surgical and nonsurgical care for bladder cancer patients increased, which was associated with increasing patient travel distance and decreased all-cause and bladder-cancer specific mortality.

8.
J Surg Oncol ; 124(3): 324-333, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33939838

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Medicaid expansion under the Affordable Care Act has improved access to screening and treatment for certain cancers. It is unclear how this policy has affected the diagnosis and management of pancreatic cancer. METHODS: Using a quasi-experimental difference-in-differences (DID) approach, we analyzed Medicaid and uninsured patients in the National Cancer Data Base during two time periods: pre-expansion (2011-2012) and postexpansion (2015-2016). We investigated changes in cancer staging, treatment decisions, and surgical outcomes. RESULTS: In this national cohort, pancreatic cancer patients in expansion states had increased Medicaid coverage relative to those in nonexpansion states (DID = 17.49, p < 0.01). Medicaid expansion also led to an increase in early-stage diagnoses (Stage I/II, DID = 4.71, p = 0.03), higher comorbidity scores among surgical patients (Charlson/Deyo score 0: DID = -13.69, p = 0.02), a trend toward more neoadjuvant radiation (DID = 6.15, p = 0.06), and more positive margins (DID = 11.69, p = 0.02). There were no differences in rates of surgery, postoperative outcomes, or overall survival. CONCLUSION: Medicaid expansion was associated with improved insurance coverage and earlier stage diagnoses for Medicaid and uninsured pancreatic cancer patients, but similar surgical outcomes and overall survival. These findings highlight both the benefits of Medicaid expansion and the potential limitations of policy change to improve outcomes for such an aggressive malignancy.


Assuntos
Cobertura do Seguro/estatística & dados numéricos , Medicaid/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/economia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/cirurgia , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
9.
BMC Cancer ; 21(1): 487, 2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33933027

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Socioeconomic differences in receipt of adjuvant treatment contribute to persistent disparities in breast cancer (BCA) outcomes, including survival. Adjuvant endocrine therapy (AET) substantially reduces recurrence risk and is recommended by clinical guidelines for nearly all women with hormone receptor-positive non-metastatic BCA. However, AET use among uninsured or underinsured populations has been understudied. The health reform implemented by the US state of Massachusetts in 2006 expanded health insurance coverage and increased the scope of benefits for many with coverage. This study examines changes in the initiation of AET among BCA patients in Massachusetts after the health reform. METHODS: We used Massachusetts Cancer Registry data from 2004 to 2013 for a sample of estrogen receptor (ER)-positive BCA surgical patients aged 20-64 years. We estimated multivariable regression models to assess differential changes in the likelihood initiating AET after Massachusetts health reform by area-level income, comparing women from lower- and higher-income ZIP codes in Massachusetts. RESULTS: There was a 5-percentage point (p-value< 0.001) relative increase in the likelihood of initiating AET among BCA patients aged 20-64 years in low-income areas, compared to higher-income areas, after the reform. The increase was more pronounced among younger patients aged 20-49 years (7.1-percentage point increase). CONCLUSIONS: The expansion of health insurance in Massachusetts was associated with a significant relative increase in the likelihood of AET initiation among women in low-income areas compared with those in high-income areas. Our results suggest that expansions of health insurance coverage and improved access to care can increase the number of eligible patients initiating AET and may ameliorate socioeconomic disparities in BCA outcomes.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Reforma dos Serviços de Saúde , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Neoplasias da Mama/química , Feminino , Humanos , Renda , Cobertura do Seguro , Funções Verossimilhança , Massachusetts , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/prevenção & controle , Receptores de Estrogênio , Análise de Regressão , Adulto Jovem
10.
JCO Oncol Pract ; 17(7): e1030-e1037, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33848194

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Responses to the opioid epidemic in the United States, including efforts to monitor and limit prescriptions for noncancer pain, may be affecting patients with cancer. Oncologists' views on how the opioid epidemic may be influencing treatment of cancer-related pain are not well understood. METHODS: We conducted a multisite qualitative interview study with 26 oncologists from a mix of urban and rural practices in Western Pennsylvania. The interview guide asked about oncologists' views of and experiences in treating cancer-related pain in the context of the opioid epidemic. A multidisciplinary team conducted thematic analysis of interview transcripts to identify and refine themes related to challenges to safe and effective opioid prescribing for cancer-related pain and recommendations for improvement. RESULTS: Oncologists described three main challenges: (1) patients who receive opioids for cancer-related pain feel stigmatized by clinicians, pharmacists, and society; (2) patients with cancer-related pain fear becoming addicted, which affects their willingness to accept prescription opioids; and (3) guidelines for safe and effective opioid prescribing are often misinterpreted, leading to access issues. Suggested improvements included educational materials for patients and families, efforts to better inform prescribers and the public about safe and appropriate uses of opioids for cancer-related pain, and additional support from pain and/or palliative care specialists. CONCLUSION: Challenges to safe and effective opioid prescribing for cancer-related pain include opioid stigma and access barriers. Interventions that address opioid stigma and provide additional resources for clinicians navigating complex opioid prescribing guidelines may help to optimize cancer pain treatment.


Assuntos
Dor do Câncer , Neoplasias , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Dor do Câncer/tratamento farmacológico , Prescrições de Medicamentos , Humanos , Neoplasias/complicações , Manejo da Dor , Padrões de Prática Médica , Estados Unidos
11.
Ann Emerg Med ; 78(1): 57-67, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33840510

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVE: More than 17 million people have gained health insurance coverage through the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act's Medicaid expansion. Few studies have examined heterogeneity within the Medicaid expansion population. We do so based on time-varying patterns of emergency department (ED) and ambulatory care use, and characterize diagnoses associated with ED and ambulatory care visits to evaluate whether certain diagnoses predominate in individual trajectories. METHOD: We used group-based multitrajectory modeling to jointly estimate trajectories of ambulatory care and ED utilization in the first 12 months of enrollment among Pennsylvania Medicaid expansion enrollees from 2015 to 2017. RESULTS: Among 601,877 expansion enrollees, we identified 6 distinct groups based on joint trajectories of ED and ambulatory care use. Mean ED use varied across groups from 3.4 to 48.7 visits per 100 enrollees in the first month and between 2.8 and 44.0 visits per 100 enrollees in month 12. Mean ambulatory visit rates varied from 0.0 to 179 visits per 100 enrollees in the first month and from 0.0 to 274 visits in month 12. Rates of ED visits did not change over time, but rates of ambulatory care visits increased by at least 50% among 4 groups during the study period. Groups varied on chronic condition diagnoses, including mental health and substance use disorders, as well as diagnoses associated with ambulatory care visits. CONCLUSION: We found substantial variation in rates of ED and ambulatory care use across empirically defined subgroups of Medicaid expansion enrollees. We also identified heterogeneity among the diagnoses associated with these visits. This data-driven approach may be used to target resources to encourage efficient use of ED services and support engagement with ambulatory care clinicians.


Assuntos
Assistência Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Medicaid/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Cobertura do Seguro , Masculino , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act , Pennsylvania , Estados Unidos
12.
Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol ; 145: 110713, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33882339

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Measure the prevalence of and factors associated with financial toxicity (FT) and caregiver burden in families of tracheostomy-dependent children. FT is defined as the objective and subjective patient-level impact of the costs of medical care and has been associated with lower quality of life, decreased compliance with treatment, and increased mortality. METHODS: A medical record review was performed on all children with a tracheostomy tube placed from 2009 to 2018 at a tertiary children's hospital to identify and include children younger than 18 years old, not deceased, and not decannulated at the time of review. Eligible children's caregivers were contacted to fill out a 36-item questionnaire and three validated instruments: The Comprehensive Score for Financial Toxicity (COST) and the Financial Distress Questionnaire (FDQ), both addressed to the parent/primary caregiver, and the Burden Scale for Family Caregivers - short version (BSFC-s). RESULTS: Of the 140 eligible tracheostomy patients identified, 45 caregivers (32.1%) returned the survey. The average COST score was 18 ± 1.7 with 73.3% of caregivers reporting high toxicity based on FDQ, and 75.6% having severe-to-very severe caregiver burden. Significant increase in FT was seen in households where an adult had to leave a paid position (p = 0.047) or work less (p = 0.002) because of their child's condition; or needed to omit some of the child's medical services or medications due to cost-prohibitive reasons (p<0.001). Financial toxicity was associated with caregiver burden (by BSFC-s) [r = -596; beta coefficient = -0.95, t(43) = -4.87, p<0.001] and financial distress (by FDQ; p<0.001). CONCLUSION: Caregivers of children with medically complex, tracheostomy-dependent conditions suffer from FT and caregiver burden. As a result, harmful financial coping mechanisms such as missing necessary care components or forgoing prescribed treatments, may be adopted for cost-prohibitive reasons.


Assuntos
Cuidadores , Qualidade de Vida , Adolescente , Adulto , Fardo do Cuidador , Criança , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Humanos , Traqueostomia/efeitos adversos
13.
J Surg Res ; 264: 279-286, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33839343

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Safety-net hospitals serve a vital role in society by providing care for vulnerable populations. Existing data regarding oncologic outcomes of patients with colon cancer treated at safety-net hospitals are limited and variable. The objective of this study was to delineate disparities in treatment and outcomes for patients with colon cancer treated at safety-net hospitals. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study identified 802,304 adult patients with colon adenocarcinoma from the National Cancer Database between 2004-2016. Patients were stratified according to safety-net burden of the treating hospital as previously described. Patient, tumor, facility, and treatment characteristics were compared between groups as were operative and short-term outcomes. Cox proportional hazards regression was utilized to compare overall survival between patients treated at high, medium, and low burden hospitals. RESULTS: Patients treated at safety-net hospitals were demographically distinct and presented with more advanced disease. They were also less likely to receive surgery, adjuvant chemotherapy, negative resection margins, adequate lymphadenectomy, or a minimally invasive operative approach. On multivariate analysis adjusting for patient and tumor characteristics, survival was inferior for patients at safety-net hospitals, even for those with stage 0 (in situ) disease. CONCLUSION: This analysis revealed inferior survival for patients with colon cancer treated at safety-net hospitals, including those without invasive cancer. These findings suggest that unmeasured population differences may confound analyses and affect survival more than provider or treatment disparities.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/mortalidade , Neoplasias do Colo/mortalidade , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Provedores de Redes de Segurança/estatística & dados numéricos , Populações Vulneráveis/estatística & dados numéricos , Adenocarcinoma/diagnóstico , Adenocarcinoma/economia , Adenocarcinoma/terapia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Quimioterapia Adjuvante/economia , Quimioterapia Adjuvante/estatística & dados numéricos , Colectomia/economia , Colectomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Colo/patologia , Colo/cirurgia , Neoplasias do Colo/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Colo/economia , Neoplasias do Colo/terapia , Bases de Dados Factuais/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/economia , Humanos , Masculino , Margens de Excisão , Pessoas sem Cobertura de Seguro de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco/estatística & dados numéricos , Provedores de Redes de Segurança/economia , Análise de Sobrevida , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
14.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 40(4): 552-561, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33819086

RESUMO

Cost sharing in traditional Medicare can consume a substantial portion of the income of beneficiaries who do not have supplemental insurance from Medicaid, an employer, or a Medigap plan. Near-poor Medicare beneficiaries (with incomes more than 100 percent but less than 200 percent of the federal poverty level) are ineligible for Medicaid but frequently lack alternative supplemental coverage, resulting in a supplemental coverage "cliff" of 25.8 percentage points just above the eligibility threshold for Medicaid (100 percent of poverty). We estimated that beneficiaries affected by this supplemental coverage cliff incurred an additional $2,288 in out-of-pocket spending over the course of two years, used 55 percent fewer outpatient evaluation and management services per year, and filled fewer prescriptions. Lower prescription drug use was partly driven by low take-up of Part D subsidies, which Medicare beneficiaries automatically receive if they have Medicaid. Expanding eligibility for Medicaid supplemental coverage and increasing take-up of Part D subsidies would lessen cost-related barriers to health care among near-poor Medicare beneficiaries.


Assuntos
Medicaid , Medicare , Idoso , Custo Compartilhado de Seguro , Gastos em Saúde , Humanos , Cobertura do Seguro , Seguro de Saúde (Situações Limítrofes) , Estados Unidos
15.
J Womens Health (Larchmt) ; 30(3): 324-331, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32986501

RESUMO

Background: This study sought to determine if increased access to health insurance following the Affordable Care Act (ACA) resulted in an increased proportion of early-stage breast cancer diagnosis among women in Pennsylvania, particularly minorities, rural residents, and those of lower socioeconomic status. Materials and Methods: Data on 35,735 breast cancer cases among women 50-64 and 68-74 years of age in Pennsylvania between 2010 and 2016 were extracted from the Pennsylvania Cancer Registry and analyzed in 2019. Women 50-64 years of age were subdivided by race/ethnicity, area of residence, and socioeconomic status as measured by area deprivation index (ADI). We compared the proportions of early-stage breast cancer diagnosis pre-ACA (2010-2013) and post-ACA (2014-2016) for all women 50-64 years of age to all women 68-74 years of age. This comparison was also made between paired sociodemographic subgroups for women 50-64 years of age. Multivariable logistic regression models were constructed to assess how race, area of residence, ADI, and primary care physician (PCP) density interacted to impact breast cancer diagnosis post-ACA. Results: The proportion of early-stage breast cancer diagnosis increased by 1.71% post-ACA among women 50-64 years of age (p < 0.01), whereas women 68-74 years of age saw no change. Multivariable logistic regression analysis demonstrated that minority women had lower odds of early-stage breast cancer diagnosis pre-ACA, but not post-ACA, when controlling for ADI. Meanwhile, increased area-level socioeconomic advantage was associated with higher odds of being diagnosed with early-stage breast cancer pre- and post-ACA irrespective of controlling for race, area of residence, or PCP density. Conclusions: Enhanced access to health insurance under the ACA was associated with an increased proportion of early-stage breast cancer diagnosis in Pennsylvanian women 50-64 years of age and may have reduced racial, but not socioeconomic, disparities in breast cancer diagnosis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Feminino , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Humanos , Cobertura do Seguro , Pessoas sem Cobertura de Seguro de Saúde , Pennsylvania/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
17.
Urology ; 148: 224-229, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32961225

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the geographic and pharmacy-type variation in costs for generic benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) medications in order to improve drug price transparency and reduce health disparities. Medical therapy for BPH can be expensive, having significant implications for uninsured and underinsured patients. METHODS: We generated a 20% random sample of all pharmacies in Pennsylvania and queried each for the uninsured cash price of a 30-day prescription of tamsulosin 0.4mg daily, finasteride 5mg daily, oxybutynin immediate release 5mg TID and oxybutynin XL 10mg daily. Our primary objectives were to identify price variation based on pharmacy type (i.e., big chain and independent) and between geographic regions (predetermined by the Pennsylvania Health Care Cost Containment Council Database). We fit multivariable quantile regression models to test for an association between drug price and region after controlling for pharmacy type. RESULTS: Among 575 retail pharmacies contacted, 473 responded (82% response rate). The median cash price was significantly higher for big chain pharmacies than for independent pharmacies for tamsulosin ($66 vs. $15), finasteride ($68 vs. $15), oxybutynin immediate release ($49 vs. $35), and oxybutynin XL ($79 vs. $31) (all p < 0.05). When controlling for region, the median and 75th percentile price of all drugs was significantly higher for big chain pharmacies. When controlling for pharmacy type, regional variation was noted in all four drugs at the 75th percentile price and was greater for independent pharmacies. CONCLUSION: Compared to independent pharmacies, big chain pharmacies charged significantly more for generic BPH medications to uninsured patients. However, independent pharmacies demonstrated more regional variation in their pricing.

18.
Clin Infect Dis ; 72(9): 1615-1622, 2021 05 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32211757

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-experienced clinicians are critical for positive outcomes along the HIV care continuum. However, access to HIV-experienced clinicians may be limited, particularly in nonmetropolitan areas, where HIV is increasing. We examined HIV clinician workforce capacity, focusing on HIV experience and urban-rural differences, in the Southern United States. METHODS: We used Medicaid claims and clinician characteristics (Medicaid Analytic eXtract [MAX] and MAX Provider Characteristics, 2009-2011), county-level rurality (National Center for Health Statistics, 2013), and diagnosed HIV cases (AIDSVu, 2014) to assess HIV clinician capacity in 14 states. We assumed that clinicians accepting Medicaid approximated the region's HIV workforce, since three-quarters of clinicians accept Medicaid insurance. HIV-experienced clinicians were defined as those providing care to ≥ 10 Medicaid enrollees over 3 years. We assessed HIV workforce capacity with county-level clinician-to-population ratios, using Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney tests to compare urban-rural differences. RESULTS: We identified 5012 clinicians providing routine HIV management, of whom 28% were HIV-experienced. HIV-experienced clinicians were more likely to specialize in infectious diseases (48% vs 6%, P < .001) and practice in urban areas (96% vs 83%, P < .001) compared to non-HIV-experienced clinicians. The median clinician-to-population ratio for all HIV clinicians was 13.3 (interquartile range, 38.0), with no significant urban-rural differences. When considering HIV experience, 81% of counties had no HIV-experienced clinicians, and rural counties generally had fewer HIV-experienced clinicians per 1000 diagnosed HIV cases (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Significant urban-rural disparities exist in HIV-experienced workforce capacity for communities in the Southern United States. Policies to improve equity in access to HIV-experienced clinical care for both urban and rural communities are urgently needed.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , População Rural , HIV , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Medicaid , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , População Urbana , Recursos Humanos
19.
Urology ; 151: 169-175, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32673679

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of female sex with the selected treatment for patients with nonmetastatic muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Sex is a known independent predictor of death from bladder cancer. A potential explanation for this survival disparity is difference in treatment pattern and stage presentation among males and females. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using the surveillance, epidemiology, and end results-medicare data set, we identified 6809 patients initially diagnosed with nonmetastatic muscle-invasive bladder cancer between 2004 and 2014. We fit multivariable logistic regression and Cox models to assess the relationship of sex with treatment modality and survival adjusting for differences in patient characteristics. RESULTS: Of the 6809 patients with nonmetastatic muscle invasive bladder cancer, 2528 (37%) received a radical cystectomy while 4281 (63%) received an alternative bladder sparing intervention. Women were significantly more likely to receive a cystectomy (odds ratios [OR] 1.39; 95% confidence intervals [CI] 1.20-1.61), present at an older age with less comorbidities compared to men (P <.001). Women were also found to have worse bladder cancer-specific survival (CSS) than men (hazard ratio [HR] 1.18; 95% CI 1.05-1.32), no difference in overall survival (OS) (female HR 0.93; 0.86-1.01) and lower mortality from other causes (HR 0.78; 95% CI 0.70-0.86). There were no differences in OS and CSS by sex in patients with stage pT4a. CONCLUSION: Female sex predicted more aggressive treatment with radical cystectomy yet worse cancer-specific survival than males. This sex disparity in CSS reduced the known OS advantage observed in women.

20.
Med Care Res Rev ; 78(2): 113-124, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31286831

RESUMO

Previous studies show that survey-based reports of Medicaid participation are measured with error, but no prior study has examined measurement error in an important segment of the Medicaid population-low-income adults enrolled in Medicare. Using the Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey, we examine whether respondent self-reports of Medicaid enrollment match administrative records and present several key findings. First, among low-income Medicare beneficiaries, the false negative rate is 11.5% when the self-report is interpreted as full Medicaid and 3.7% when the self-report is interpreted as full or partial Medicaid. Second, the likelihood of a false negative report is systematically associated with respondent traits. Third, systematic measurement error results in biased coefficient estimates in models of Medicaid participation defined from self-reports, and the bias is more significant when the researcher interprets self-reports as full Medicaid coverage only. Researchers should use caution when interpreting survey reports as pertaining to full Medicaid coverage only.

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