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1.
J Clin Immunol ; 2021 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33660144

RESUMO

Cardiomyopathies are an important cause of heart failure and sudden cardiac death. Little is known about the role of rare genetic variants in inflammatory cardiomyopathy. Chronic Chagas disease cardiomyopathy (CCC) is an inflammatory cardiomyopathy prevalent in Latin America, developing in 30% of the 6 million patients chronically infected by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, while 60% remain free of heart disease (asymptomatic (ASY)). The cytokine interferon-γ and mitochondrial dysfunction are known to play a major pathogenetic role. Chagas disease provides a unique model to probe for genetic variants involved in inflammatory cardiomyopathy. METHODS: We used whole exome sequencing to study nuclear families containing multiple cases of Chagas disease. We searched for rare pathogenic variants shared by all family members with CCC but absent in infected ASY siblings and in unrelated ASY. RESULTS: We identified heterozygous, pathogenic variants linked to CCC in all tested families on 22 distinct genes, from which 20 were mitochondrial or inflammation-related - most of the latter involved in proinflammatory cytokine production. Significantly, incubation with IFN-γ on a human cardiomyocyte line treated with an inhibitor of dihydroorotate dehydrogenase brequinar (enzyme showing a loss-of-function variant in one family) markedly reduced mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔψM), indicating mitochondrial dysfunction. CONCLUSION: Mitochondrial dysfunction and inflammation may be genetically determined in CCC, driven by rare genetic variants. We hypothesize that CCC-linked genetic variants increase mitochondrial susceptibility to IFN-γ-induced damage in the myocardium, leading to the cardiomyopathy phenotype in Chagas disease. This mechanism may also be operative in other inflammatory cardiomyopathies.

2.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 116(2): 248-256, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33656072

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The histopathological characteristics of Chagas disease (ChD) are: presence of myocarditis, destruction of heart fibers, and myocardial fibrosis. Galectin-3 (Gal-3) is a biomarker involved in the mechanism of fibrosis and inflammation that may be useful for risk stratification of individuals with ChD. OBJECTIVES: We sought to evaluate whether high Gal-3 levels are associated with severe forms of Chagas cardiomyopathy (CC) and whether they are predictive of mortality. METHODS: We studied anti-T. cruzi positive blood donors (BD): Non-CC-BD (187 BD without CC with normal electrocardiogram [ECG] and left ventricular ejection fraction [LVEF]); CC-Non-Dys-BD (46 BD with CC with abnormal ECG but normal LVEF); and 153 matched serum-negative controls. This cohort was composed of 97 patients with severe CC (CC-Dys). We used Kruskall-Wallis and Spearman's correlation to test hypothesis of associations, assuming a two-tailed p<0.05 as significant. RESULTS: The Gal-3 level was 12.3 ng/mL for Non-CC-BD, 12.0 ng/mL for CC-Non-Dys-BD, 13.8 ng/mL for controls, and 15.4 ng/mL for CC-Dys. LVEF<50 was associated with higher Gal-3 levels (p=0.0001). In our linear regression adjusted model, we found association between Gal-3 levels and echocardiogram parameters in T. cruzi-seropositive subjects. In CC-Dys patients, we found a significant association of higher Gal-3 levels (≥15.3 ng/mL) and subsequent death or heart transplantation in a 5-year follow-up (Hazard ratio - HR 3.11; 95%CI 1.21-8.04; p=0.019). CONCLUSIONS: In ChD patients, higher Gal-3 levels were significantly associated with severe forms of the disease and more long-term mortality, which means it may be a useful means to identify high-risk patients. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2021; 116(2):248-256).


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatia Chagásica , Doença de Chagas , Biomarcadores , Galectina 3 , Humanos , Volume Sistólico , Função Ventricular Esquerda
3.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0248486, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33755700

RESUMO

Husavirus (HuV) is an unclassified virus of the order Picornavirales that has already been identified worldwide in various locations. The genetic, epidemiological, and pathogenic characteristics are, however, little understood. In children with acute gastroenteritis, this study used next-generation sequencing to recognize unknown sources of viruses. In particular, 251 fecal samples obtained from individuals were sequenced in southern, northeastern, and northern Brazil. all samples were also analyzed using culture methods and parasitological tests to classify other enteric pathogens such as bacteria, parasites, and viruses. 1.9% of the samples tested positive for HuV, for a total of 5 positive children, with a mean age of 2 year, with three males and two females. Detailed molecular characterization of full genomes showed that Brazilian HuVs' nucleotide divergence is less than 11%. The genetic gap between Brazilian sequences and the closest HuV reported previously, on the other hand, is 18%. The study showed that Brazilian sequences are closely related to the HuV defined in Viet Nam in 2013, further characterization based on phylogenetics. At least two divergent clades of HuV in South America were also seen in the phylogenetic study.

4.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 4674, 2021 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33633167

RESUMO

Classical insect-flaviviruses (cISFVs) and dual host-related insect-specific flavivirus (dISFV) are within the major group of insect-specific flavivirus. Remarkably dISFV are evolutionarily related to some of the pathogenic flavivirus, such as Zika and dengue viruses. The Evolutionary relatedness of dISFV to flavivirus allowed us to investigate the evolutionary principle of host adaptation. Additionally, dISFV can be used for the development of flavivirus vaccines and to explore underlying principles of mammalian pathogenicity. Here we describe the genetic characterization of a novel putative dISFV, termed Guapiaçu virus (GUAPV). Distinct strains of GUAPV were isolated from pools of Aedes terrens and Aedes scapularis mosquitoes. Additionally, we also detected viral GUAPV RNA in a plasma sample of an individual febrile from the Amazon region (North of Brazil). Although GUAPV did not replicate in tested mammalian cells, 3'UTR secondary structures duplication and codon usage index were similar to pathogenic flavivirus.

5.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 116(2): 248-256, fev. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153000

RESUMO

Resumo Fundamento As características histopatológicas da doença de Chagas (DCC) são: presença de miocardite, destruição das fibras cardíacas e fibrose miocárdica. A Galectina-3 (Gal-3) é um biomarcador envolvido no mecanismo de fibrose e inflamação que pode ser útil para a estratificação de indivíduos com DCC por risco. Objetivos Nosso objetivo foi avaliar se níveis elevados de Gal-3 estão associados a formas graves de cardiomiopatia chagásica (CC) e são preditivos de mortalidade. Métodos Estudamos doadores de sangue (DS) positivos para anti-T. cruzi: não-CC-DS (187 DS sem CC com eletrocardiograma [ECG] e fração de ejeção do ventrículo esquerdo [FEVE] normais); CC-Não-Dis-DS (46 DS com CC e apresentando ECG anormal, mas FEVE normal); e 153 controles negativos correspondentes. Esta amostra foi composta por 97 pacientes com CC grave (CC-Dis). Usamos as correlações de Kruskall-Wallis e Spearman para testar a hipótese de associações, assumindo um p bicaudal <0,05 como significativo. Resultados O nível de Gal-3 foi de 12,3 ng/mL para não-CC-DS, 12,0 ng/mL para CC-Não-Dis-DS, 13,8 ng/mL para controles e 15,4 ng/mL para CC-Dis. FEVE <50 foi associada a níveis mais elevados de Gal-3 (p=0,0001). Em nosso modelo de regressão linear ajustado, encontramos associação entre os níveis de Gal-3 e os parâmetros do ecocardiograma em indivíduos positivos para T. cruzi. Nos pacientes CC-Dis, encontramos uma associação significativa de níveis mais elevados de Gal-3 (≥15,3 ng/mL) e morte ou transplante cardíaco em acompanhamento de cinco anos (Hazard ratio - HR 3,11; IC95% 1,21- 8,04; p=0,019). Conclusões Em pacientes com CC, níveis mais elevados de Gal-3 estiveram significativamente associados a formas graves da doença e maior taxa de mortalidade em longo prazo, o que significa que pode ser um meio efetivo para identificar pacientes de alto risco. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2021; 116(2):248-256)


Abstract Background The histopathological characteristics of Chagas disease (ChD) are: presence of myocarditis, destruction of heart fibers, and myocardial fibrosis. Galectin-3 (Gal-3) is a biomarker involved in the mechanism of fibrosis and inflammation that may be useful for risk stratification of individuals with ChD. Objectives We sought to evaluate whether high Gal-3 levels are associated with severe forms of Chagas cardiomyopathy (CC) and whether they are predictive of mortality. Methods We studied anti-T. cruzi positive blood donors (BD): Non-CC-BD (187 BD without CC with normal electrocardiogram [ECG] and left ventricular ejection fraction [LVEF]); CC-Non-Dys-BD (46 BD with CC with abnormal ECG but normal LVEF); and 153 matched serum-negative controls. This cohort was composed of 97 patients with severe CC (CC-Dys). We used Kruskall-Wallis and Spearman's correlation to test hypothesis of associations, assuming a two-tailed p<0.05 as significant. Results The Gal-3 level was 12.3 ng/mL for Non-CC-BD, 12.0 ng/mL for CC-Non-Dys-BD, 13.8 ng/mL for controls, and 15.4 ng/mL for CC-Dys. LVEF<50 was associated with higher Gal-3 levels (p=0.0001). In our linear regression adjusted model, we found association between Gal-3 levels and echocardiogram parameters in T. cruzi-seropositive subjects. In CC-Dys patients, we found a significant association of higher Gal-3 levels (≥15.3 ng/mL) and subsequent death or heart transplantation in a 5-year follow-up (Hazard ratio - HR 3.11; 95%CI 1.21-8.04; p=0.019). Conclusions In ChD patients, higher Gal-3 levels were significantly associated with severe forms of the disease and more long-term mortality, which means it may be a useful means to identify high-risk patients. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2021; 116(2):248-256)

6.
BMJ Open ; 11(1): e042745, 2021 01 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33436471

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite most cases not requiring hospital care, there are limited community-based clinical data on COVID-19. METHODS: The Corona São Caetano programme is a primary care initiative providing care to all residents with COVID-19 in São Caetano do Sul, Brazil. It was designed to capture standardised clinical data on community COVID-19 cases. After triage of potentially severe cases, consecutive patients presenting to a multimedia screening platform between 13 April and 13 May 2020 were tested at home with SARS-CoV-2 reverse transcriptase (RT) PCR; positive patients were followed up for 14 days with phone calls every 2 days. RT-PCR-negative patients were offered additional SARS-CoV-2 serology testing to establish their infection status. We describe the clinical, virological and natural history features of this prospective population-based cohort. FINDINGS: Of 2073 suspected COVID-19 cases, 1583 (76.4%) were tested by RT-PCR, of whom 444 (28.0%, 95% CI 25.9 to 30.3) were positive; 604/1136 (53%) RT-PCR-negative patients underwent serology, of whom 52 (8.6%) tested SARS-CoV-2 seropositive. The most common symptoms of confirmed COVID-19 were cough, fatigue, myalgia and headache; whereas self-reported fever (OR 3.0, 95% CI 2.4 to 3.9), anosmia (OR 3.3, 95% CI 2.6 to 4.4) and ageusia (OR 2.9, 95% CI 2.3 to 3.8) were most strongly associated with a positive COVID-19 diagnosis by RT-PCR or serology. RT-PCR cycle thresholds were lower in men, older patients, those with fever and arthralgia and closer to symptom onset. The rates of hospitalisation and death among 444 RT-PCR-positive cases were 6.7% and 0.7%, respectively, with older age and obesity more frequent in the hospitalised group. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 presents in a similar way to other mild community-acquired respiratory diseases, but the presence of fever, anosmia and ageusia can assist the specific diagnosis. Most patients recovered without requiring hospitalisation with a low fatality rate compared with other hospital-based studies.


Assuntos
/diagnóstico , Atenção Primária à Saúde/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Brasil , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Tosse/etiologia , Tosse/fisiopatologia , Fadiga/etiologia , Fadiga/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Febre/etiologia , Febre/fisiopatologia , Cefaleia/etiologia , Cefaleia/fisiopatologia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa/métodos , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
7.
Arch Virol ; 166(3): 905-913, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33462673

RESUMO

From 2010-2016, a total of 251 stool samples were screened for norovirus using next-generation sequencing (NGS) followed by phylogenetic analysis to investigate the genotypic diversity of noroviruses in rural and low-income urban areas in northern Brazil. Norovirus infection was detected in 19.9% (50/251) of the samples. Eight different genotypes were identified: GII.4_Sydney[P31] (64%, 32/50), GII.6[P7] (14%, 7/50), GII.17[P17] (6%, 3/50), GII.1[P33] (6%, 3/50), GII.3[P16] (4%, 2/50), GII.2[P16] (2%, 1/50), GII.2[P2] (2%, 1/50), and GII.4_New Orleans[P4] (2%, 1/50). Distinct GII.6[P7] variants were recognized, indicating the presence of different co-circulating strains. Elucidating norovirus genetic diversity will improve our understanding of their potential health burden, in particular for the GII.4_Sydney[P31] variant.


Assuntos
Infecções por Caliciviridae/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Norovirus/genética , Norovirus/isolamento & purificação , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , Sequência de Bases , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Fezes/virologia , Gastroenterite/virologia , Variação Genética/genética , Genótipo , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Epidemiologia Molecular , Norovirus/classificação , Filogenia , RNA Viral/genética
8.
Anal Chem ; 93(4): 2471-2479, 2021 02 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33471512

RESUMO

COVID-19 is still placing a heavy health and financial burden worldwide. Impairment in patient screening and risk management plays a fundamental role on how governments and authorities are directing resources, planning reopening, as well as sanitary countermeasures, especially in regions where poverty is a major component in the equation. An efficient diagnostic method must be highly accurate, while having a cost-effective profile. We combined a machine learning-based algorithm with mass spectrometry to create an expeditious platform that discriminate COVID-19 in plasma samples within minutes, while also providing tools for risk assessment, to assist healthcare professionals in patient management and decision-making. A cross-sectional study enrolled 815 patients (442 COVID-19, 350 controls and 23 COVID-19 suspicious) from three Brazilian epicenters from April to July 2020. We were able to elect and identify 19 molecules related to the disease's pathophysiology and several discriminating features to patient's health-related outcomes. The method applied for COVID-19 diagnosis showed specificity >96% and sensitivity >83%, and specificity >80% and sensitivity >85% during risk assessment, both from blinded data. Our method introduced a new approach for COVID-19 screening, providing the indirect detection of infection through metabolites and contextualizing the findings with the disease's pathophysiology. The pairwise analysis of biomarkers brought robustness to the model developed using machine learning algorithms, transforming this screening approach in a tool with great potential for real-world application.


Assuntos
/diagnóstico , Aprendizado de Máquina , Metabolômica , Adulto , Idoso , Automação , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Brasil , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição de Risco , /isolamento & purificação
9.
Transfusion ; 61(4): 1181-1190, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33491194

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The efficacy of convalescent plasma (CP), an alternative for the treatment of COVID-19, depends on high titers of neutralizing antibodies (nAbs), but assays for quantifying nAbs are not widely available. Our goal was to develop a strategy to predict high titers of nAbs based on the results of anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoassays and the clinical characteristics of CP donors. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: A total of 214 CP donors were enrolled and tested for the presence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies (IgG) using two commercial immunoassays: EUROIMMUN (ELISA) and Abbott (Chemiluminescence). Quantification of nAbs was performed using the Cytopathic Effect-based Virus Neutralization test. Three criteria for identifying donors with nAbs ≥ 1:160 were tested: - C1: Curve ROC; - C2: Conditional decision tree considering only the IA results and - C3: Conditional decision tree including both the IA results and the clinical variables. RESULTS: The performance of the immunoassays was similar referring to both S/CO and predictive value for identifying nAbs titers ≥1:160. Regarding the studied criteria for identifying CP donors with high nAbs titers: (a) C1 showed 76.1% accuracy if S/CO = 4.65, (b) C2 presented 76.1% accuracy if S/CO ≥4.57 and (c) C3 had 71.6% accuracy if S/CO was ≥4.57 or if S/CO was between 2.68-4.57 and the last COVID-19-related symptoms were recent (within 19 days). CONCLUSION: SARS-CoV-2 IgG immunoassays (S/CO) can be used to predict high anti-SARS-CoV-2 nAbs titers. This study has proposed different criteria for identifying donors with ≥1:160 nAbs titers, all with high efficacy.

10.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(3): 970-972, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33496249

RESUMO

In December 2020, research surveillance detected the B.1.1.7 lineage of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 in São Paulo, Brazil. Rapid genomic sequencing and phylogenetic analysis revealed 2 distinct introductions of the lineage. One patient reported no international travel. There may be more infections with this lineage in Brazil than reported.


Assuntos
Filogenia , Viagem , Adulto , Brasil , /virologia , Feminino , Genoma Viral , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
11.
J Virol Methods ; 290: 114064, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33453299

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the performance of a nucleoprotein-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of IgG antibodies to SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: The ELISA was based on serum IgG reactivity to a 46-kDa protein derived from the recombinant SARS-CoV2 nucleoprotein. Assay sensitivity was assessed using serum samples from 134 COVID-19 confirmed cases obtained > 15 days after symptom onset. Specificity was determined by testing sera from 94 healthy controls. Cross-reactivity was evaluated with sera from 96 individuals with previous dengue or zika virus-confirmed infections, with 44 sera from individuals with confirmed infections to other respiratory viruses or with bacterial and fungal infections that cause pneumonia and with 40 sera negative for SARS-CoV-2 nucleoprotein by commercial ELISA kits. RESULTS: The majority of subjects were male and ≥ 60 years old. Assay sensitivity was 90.3 % (95 % confidence interval 84.1 %-94.2 %) and specificity was 97.9 % (92.6 %-99.4 %). There was no cross-reactivity with sera from individuals diagnosed with dengue, zika virus, influenza virus, rhinovirus, adenovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, seasonal coronavirus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Staphylococcus (S. aureus and coagulase-negative), Streptococcus pneumoniae, Klebsiella pneumoniae and the fungus Aspergillus fumigatus. The level of concordance of our test with results from commercial ELISA kits was 100 %. CONCLUSION: The nucleoprotein-based ELISA was specific for detection of IgG anti-nucleoprotein antibodies to SARS-CoV-2. It utilizes a frequently employed low expense assay protocol and is easier to perform than other currently available commercial SARS-CoV2 antibody detection tests.


Assuntos
/diagnóstico , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , /isolamento & purificação , Adulto , Idoso , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fosfoproteínas/imunologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33295481

RESUMO

Abietane diterpenoids are naturally occurring plant metabolites with a broad spectrum of biological effects including antibacterial, antileishmanial, antitumor, antioxidant, as well as antiinflammatory activities. Recently, we found that some analogues of natural ferruginol ( 2 ) actively inhibited dengue virus 2 (DENV-2) replication. Due to the similarity with DENV, we envisaged that abietane diterpenoids would also be active against Zika virus (ZIKV). Six selected semi-synthetic abietane derivatives of (+)-dehydroabietylamine ( 3 ) were tested. Cytotoxicity was determined by MTT assay in Vero cells. In vitro anti-ZIKV (clinical isolate, IMT17) activity was evaluated by plaque assay. Interestingly, these molecules showed potential as anti-ZIKV agents, with EC50 values ranging from 0.67 to 18.57 µM, and cytotoxicity (CC50 values) from 2.56 to 35.09 µM. The 18-Oxoferruginol (8) (EC50 = 2.60 µM, SI = 13.51) and 12-nitro-N-benzoyldehydroabietylamine (9) (EC50= 0.67 µM, SI = 3.82) were the most active compounds, followed by 12-hydroxy-N-tosyldehydroabietylamine ( 7 ) (EC50 = 3.58 µM, SI = 3.20) and 12-hydroxy-N,N-phthaloyldehydroabietylamine ( 5 ) (EC50 = 7.76 µM, SI = 1.23). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on anti-Zika virus properties of abietanes.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33331517

RESUMO

Surveillance of Rotavirus A (RVA) throughout the national territory is important to establish a more complete epidemiological-molecular scenario of this virus circulation in Brazil. The aim of the present study was to investigate the genetic diversity of RVA strains circulating in Tocantins State (Northern Brazil) during six years of post-vaccination follow-up (2010-2016). A total of 248 stool samples were screened by next generation sequencing and 107 (43.1%) nearly full length RVA genome sequences were obtained; one sample was co-infected with two RVA strains (G2/G8P[4]). Six G and P genotypes combinations were detected: G12P[8] strains (78.6%), as well as the G3P[8] (9.3%) and G1P[8] (0.9%) were associated with a Wa-like genogroup backbone. All G2P[4] (5.6%) and G8P[4] (2.8%) strains, including the mixed G2/G8P[4] infection (0.9%) showed the DS-1-like genetic background. The two G12P[4] strains (1.9%) were associated with distinct genetic backbones: Wa-like and DS-1-like. The phylogenetic analysis revealed the circulation of lineages G1-I, G2-IV, G3-III, G8-I and G12-III, and P[4]-V and P[8]-III of the VP7 and VP4 genes, respectively. Conserved clustering pattern and low genetic diversity were observed regarding VP1-VP3 and VP6, as well as NSP1-5 segments. We identified the same RVA circulation pattern reported in other Brazilian regions in the period of 2010-2016, suggesting that rural and low-income areas may not have a different RVA genotypic distribution compared to other parts of the country. The unique presentation of whole-genome data of RVA strains detected in the Tocantins State provides a baseline for monitoring variations in the genetic composition of RVA in this area.


Assuntos
Genoma Viral/genética , Infecções por Rotavirus/diagnóstico , Rotavirus/genética , Brasil/epidemiologia , Seguimentos , Genômica , Genótipo , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Filogenia , Rotavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33371972

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Leg ulcers (LUs) are relatively common in patients with sickle cell anemia (SCA). The role of inflammation and nitric oxide (NO) pathways in the pathophysiology of the LU is not understood. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to verify the association between inflammatory molecules and nitric oxide metabolites (NOx) and the occurrence of the LU in patients with SCA. METHOD: It was a cross-sectional study on adult participants with SCA followed at Fundação Hemominas, a public blood center in Brazil. Eligible participants were recruited and included in one of two groups: Group 1, comprised of cases with SCA (Hb SS) and at least one LU at the time of inclusion in the study and Group 2, comprised of controls with SCA without a history of LU, matched by sex and age to cases. Participants were interviewed to obtain sociodemographic data and blood samples were collected. Clinical and laboratory data were abstracted from medical records. Nitric oxide metabolites (NOx) and inflammatory molecules were quantified using an immunoassay and Multiplex xMAP® technology, respectively. Eighty-seven individuals were included, ranging in age from 17 to 61 years (mean 40 ±â€¯10.7 years); 30 had LU and 57 were controls without LU. RESULTS: Participants with LU had significantly higher levels of interleukin 8 (IL-8), IL-10, IL-15, NOx and platelet and white blood cell (WBC) counts, when compared to those without LU. Participants with LU had a significantly higher risk of having a history of osteomyelitis and a higher use of antiseptic soap in bathing, when compared to those without LU. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, our results showed that NOx, inflammatory molecules and hematological features were associated with LU in Brazilian adults with SCA.

15.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(11): e0008782, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33166280

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Care to patients with Chagas disease (CD) is still a challenge for health systems in endemic and non-endemic countries. In the Brazilian public health system, the expansion of Primary Health Care (PHC) services to remote and disadvantaged areas has facilitated the access of patients with CD to medical care, however this is in a context where care gaps remain, with insufficient public funding and inadequate distribution of services. Considering the need for studies on care to patients with CD in different settings, this study explored the challenges of family doctors to provide care to patients with CD in an endemic region in Brazil with high coverage of public PHC services. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This is a qualitative study. A focus group with 15 family doctors was conducted in a municipality participating in a multicenter cohort that monitors almost two thousand patients with CD in an endemic region in Brazil. The data were analyzed using a thematic content analysis technique. The family doctors pointed out the following challenges for care to patients with CD: unsatisfactory medical training (academic education not suitable for the clinical management of the disease, and lack of training on CD in PHC); uncertainties regarding antiparasitic treatment in the chronic phase of the disease; difficulty in patients' access to specialized care when necessary, especially to the cardiologist; and trivialization of the disease by patients as a barrier to seeking care. CONCLUSION: The access of CD patients to adequate medical care, even in regions with high coverage of public PHC services, still represents an important challenge for health systems. The results of this study may contribute to the development of strategies to improve the clinical management of CD in PHC.

17.
J Gen Virol ; 2020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33044150

RESUMO

Human enteric adenovirus species F (HAdV-F) is one of the most common pathogens responsible for acute gastroenteritis worldwide. Brazil is a country with continental dimensions where continuous multiregional surveillance is vital to establish a more complete picture of the epidemiology of HAdV-F. The aim of the current study was to investigate the molecular epidemiology of HAdV-F using full-genome data in rural and low-income urban areas in northern Brazil. This will allow a genetic comparison between Brazilian and global HAdV-F strains. The frequency of HAdV-F infections in patients with gastroenteritis and molecular typing of positive samples within this period was also analysed. A total of 251 stool samples collected between 2010 and 2016 from patients with acute gastroenteritis were screened for HAdV-F using next-generation sequencing techniques. HAdV-F infection was detected in 57.8 % (145/251) of samples. A total of 137 positive samples belonged to HAdV-F41 and 7 to HAdV-F40. HAdV-F40/41 dual infection was found in one sample. Detection rates did not vary significantly according to the year. Single HAdV-F infections were detected in 21.9 % (55/251) of samples and mixed infections in 37.4 % (94/251), with RVA/HAdV-F being the most frequent association (21.5 %; 54/251). Genetic analysis indicated that the HAdV-F strains circulating in Brazil were closely related to worldwide strains, and the existence of some temporal order was not observed. This is the first large-scale HAdV-F study in Brazil in which whole-genome data and DNA sequence analyses were used to characterize HAdV-F strains. Expanding the viral genome database could improve overall genotyping success and assist the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI)/GenBank in standardizing the HAdV genome records by providing a large set of annotated HAdV-F genomes.

18.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 8(4)2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019498

RESUMO

Targeting dendritic cells (DCs) by means of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) capable of binding their surface receptors (DEC205 and DCIR2) has previously been shown to enhance the immunogenicity of genetically fused antigens. This approach has been repeatedly demonstrated to enhance the induced immune responses to passenger antigens and thus represents a promising therapeutic and/or prophylactic strategy against different infectious diseases. Additionally, under experimental conditions, chimeric αDEC205 or αDCIR2 mAbs are usually administered via an intraperitoneal (i.p.) route, which is not reproducible in clinical settings. In this study, we characterized the delivery of chimeric αDEC205 or αDCIR2 mAbs via an intradermal (i.d.) route, compared the elicited humoral immune responses, and evaluated the safety of this potential immunization strategy under preclinical conditions. As a model antigen, we used type 2 dengue virus (DENV2) nonstructural protein 1 (NS1). The results show that the administration of chimeric DC-targeting mAbs via the i.d. route induced humoral immune responses to the passenger antigen equivalent or superior to those elicited by i.p. immunization with no toxic effects to the animals. Collectively, these results clearly indicate that i.d. administration of DC-targeting chimeric mAbs presents promising approaches for the development of subunit vaccines, particularly against DENV and other flaviviruses.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32974213

RESUMO

Chagas disease is caused by the flagellate protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. Cardiomyopathy and damage to gastrointestinal tissue are the main disease manifestations. There are data suggesting that the immune response to T. cruzi depends on the intestinal microbiota. We hypothesized that Chagas disease is associated with an altered gut microbiome and that these changes are related to the disease phenotype. The stool microbiome from 104 individuals, 73 with Chagas disease (30 with the cardiac, 11 with the digestive, and 32 with the indeterminate form), and 31 healthy controls was characterized using 16S rRNA amplification and sequencing. The QIIME (Quantitative Insights Into Microbial Ecology) platform was used to analyze the data. Alpha and beta diversity indexes did not indicate differences between the groups. However, the relative abundance of Verrucomicrobia, represented primarily by the genus Akkermansia, was significantly lower in the Chagas disease groups, especially the cardiac group, compared to the controls. Furthermore, differences in the relative abundances of Alistipes, Bilophila, and Dialister were observed between the groups. We conclude that T. cruzi infection results in changes in the gut microbiome that may play a role in the myocardial and intestinal inflammation seen in Chagas disease.

20.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 15751, 2020 09 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32978448

RESUMO

Yellow Fever (YF) is a severe disease caused by Yellow Fever Virus (YFV), endemic in some parts of Africa and America. In Brazil, YFV is maintained by a sylvatic transmission cycle involving non-human primates (NHP) and forest canopy-dwelling mosquitoes, mainly Haemagogus-spp and Sabethes-spp. Beginning in 2016, Brazil faced one of the largest Yellow Fever (YF) outbreaks in recent decades, mainly in the southeastern region. In São Paulo city, YFV was detected in October 2017 in Aloutta monkeys in an Atlantic Forest area. From 542 NHP, a total of 162 NHP were YFV positive by RT-qPCR and/or immunohistochemistry, being 22 Callithrix-spp. most from urban areas. Entomological collections executed did not detect the presence of strictly sylvatic mosquitoes. Three mosquito pools were positive for YFV, 2 Haemagogus leucocelaenus, and 1 Aedes scapularis. In summary, YFV in the São Paulo urban area was detected mainly in resident marmosets, and synanthropic mosquitoes were likely involved in viral transmission.

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