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1.
ESC Heart Fail ; 7(5): 3219-3224, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32578962

RESUMO

AIMS: Acute kidney injury (AKI) during acute heart failure (AHF) is common and associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The underlying pathophysiological mechanism appears to have prognostic relevance; however, the differentiation of true, structural AKI from hemodynamic pseudo-AKI remains a clinical challenge. METHODS AND RESULTS: The Basics in Acute Shortness of Breath Evaluation Study (NCT01831115) prospectively enrolled adult patients presenting with AHF to the emergency department. Mortality of patients was prospectively assessed. Haemoconcentration, transglomerular pressure gradient (n = 231) and tubular injury patterns (n = 253) were evaluated to investigate pathophysiological mechanisms underlying AKI timing (existing at presentation vs. developing during in-hospital period). Of 1643 AHF patients, 755 patients (46%) experienced an episode of AKI; 310 patients (19%; 41% of AKI patients) presented with community-acquired AKI (CA-AKI), 445 patients (27%; 59% of AKI patients) developed in-hospital AKI. CA-AKI but not in-hospital AKI was associated with higher mortality compared with no-AKI (adjusted hazard ratio 1.32 [95%-CI 1.01-1.74]; P = 0.04). Independent of AKI timing, haemoconcentration was associated with a lower two-year mortality. Transglomerular pressure gradient at presentation was significantly lower in CA-AKI compared to in-hospital AKI and no-AKI (P < 0.01). Urinary NGAL ratio concentrations were significantly higher in CA-AKI compared to in-hospital AKI (P < 0.01) or no-AKI (P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: CA-AKI but not in-hospital AKI is associated with increased long-term mortality and marked by decreased transglomerular pressure gradient and tubular injury, probably reflecting prolonged tubular ischemia due to reno-venous congestion. Adequate decongestion, as assessed by haemoconcentration, is associated with lower long-term mortality independent of AKI timing.

2.
ESC Heart Fail ; 7(4): 1817-1829, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32452635

RESUMO

AIMS: The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic and prognostic utility of the QRS-T angle, an electrocardiogram (ECG) marker quantifying depolarization-repolarization heterogeneity, in patients with suspected acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF). METHODS AND RESULTS: We prospectively enrolled unselected patients presenting to the emergency department with symptoms suggestive of ADHF. The QRS-T angle was automatically derived from a standard 12-lead ECG recorded at presentation. The primary diagnostic endpoint was a final adjudicated diagnosis of ADHF. The primary prognostic endpoint was all-cause mortality during 2 years of follow-up. Among the 1915 patients enrolled, those with higher QRS-T angles were older, were more commonly male, and had a higher rate of co-morbidities such as arterial hypertension, coronary artery disease, or chronic kidney disease. ADHF was the final adjudicated diagnosis in 1140 (60%) patients. The QRS-T angle in patients with ADHF was significantly larger than in patients with non-cardiac causes of dyspnoea {median 110° [inter-quartile range (IQR) 46-156°] vs. median 33° [IQR 15-57°], P < 0.001}. The diagnostic accuracy of the QRS-T angle as quantified by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was 0.75 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.73-0.77, P < 0.001], which was inferior to N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (AUC 0.93, 95% CI 0.92-0.94, P < 0.001), but similar to that of high-sensitivity troponin T (AUC 0.78, 95% CI 0.76-0.80, P = 0.09). The AUC of the QRS-T angle for discrimination between ADHF and non-cardiac dyspnoea remained similarly high in subgroups of patients known to be diagnostically challenging, including patients older than 75 years [0.71 (95% CI 0.67-0.74)], renal failure [0.79 (95% CI 0.71-0.87)], and atrial fibrillation at presentation [0.68 (95% CI 0.60-0.76)]. Mortality rates according to QRS-T angle tertiles were 4%, 6%, and 10% after 30 days (P < 0.001) and 24%, 31%, and 43% after 2 years (P < 0.001). After adjustment for clinical, laboratory, and ECG parameters, the QRS-T angle remained an independent predictor for 2 year mortality with a 4% increase in mortality for every 20° increase in QRS-T angle (P = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: The QRS-T angle is a readily available and inexpensive marker that can assist in the discrimination between ADHF and non-cardiac causes of acute dyspnoea and may aid in the risk stratification of these patients.

3.
JAMA ; 322(23): 2292-2302, 2019 12 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31846016

RESUMO

Importance: Short-term infusions of single vasodilators, usually given in a fixed dose, have not improved outcomes in patients with acute heart failure (AHF). Objective: To evaluate the effect of a strategy that emphasized early intensive and sustained vasodilation using individualized up-titrated doses of established vasodilators in patients with AHF. Design, Setting, and Participants: Randomized, open-label blinded-end-point trial enrolling 788 patients hospitalized for AHF with dyspnea, increased plasma concentrations of natriuretic peptides, systolic blood pressure of at least 100 mm Hg, and plan for treatment in a general ward in 10 tertiary and secondary hospitals in Switzerland, Bulgaria, Germany, Brazil, and Spain. Enrollment began in December 2007 and follow-up was completed in February 2019. Interventions: Patients were randomized 1:1 to a strategy of early intensive and sustained vasodilation throughout the hospitalization (n = 386) or usual care (n = 402). Early intensive and sustained vasodilation was a comprehensive pragmatic approach of maximal and sustained vasodilation combining individualized doses of sublingual and transdermal nitrates, low-dose oral hydralazine for 48 hours, and rapid up-titration of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, or sacubitril-valsartan. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary end point was a composite of all-cause mortality or rehospitalization for AHF at 180 days. Results: Among 788 patients randomized, 781 (99.1%; median age, 78 years; 36.9% women) completed the trial and were eligible for primary end point analysis. Follow-up at 180 days was completed for 779 patients (99.7%). The primary end point, a composite of all-cause mortality or rehospitalization for AHF at 180 days, occurred in 117 patients (30.6%) in the intervention group (including 55 deaths [14.4%]) and in 111 patients (27.8%) in the usual care group (including 61 deaths [15.3%]) (absolute difference for the primary end point, 2.8% [95% CI, -3.7% to 9.3%]; adjusted hazard ratio, 1.07 [95% CI, 0.83-1.39]; P = .59). The most common clinically significant adverse events with early intensive and sustained vasodilation vs usual care were hypokalemia (23% vs 25%), worsening renal function (21% vs 20%), headache (26% vs 10%), dizziness (15% vs 10%), and hypotension (8% vs 2%). Conclusions and Relevance: Among patients with AHF, a strategy of early intensive and sustained vasodilation, compared with usual care, did not significantly improve a composite outcome of all-cause mortality and AHF rehospitalization at 180 days. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00512759.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Vasodilatadores/administração & dosagem , Doença Aguda , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Causas de Morte , Comorbidade , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Readmissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Vasodilatadores/efeitos adversos
4.
Clin Chem ; 65(12): 1532-1542, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31615771

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The clinical utility of procalcitonin in the diagnosis and management of pneumonia remains controversial. METHODS: We assessed the clinical utility of procalcitonin in 2 prospective studies: first, a multicenter diagnostic study in patients presenting to the emergency department with acute dyspnea to directly compare the diagnostic accuracy of procalcitonin with that of interleukin 6 and C-reactive protein (CRP) in the diagnosis of pneumonia; second, a randomized management study of procalcitonin guidance in patients with acute heart failure and suspected pneumonia. Diagnostic accuracy for pneumonia as centrally adjudicated by 2 independent experts was quantified with the area under the ROC curve (AUC). RESULTS: Among 690 patients in the diagnostic study, 178 (25.8%) had an adjudicated final diagnosis of pneumonia. Procalcitonin, interleukin 6, and CRP were significantly higher in patients with pneumonia than in those without. When compared to procalcitonin (AUC = 0.75; 95% CI, 0.71-0.78), interleukin 6 (AUC = 0.80; 95% CI, 0.77-0.83) and CRP (AUC = 0.82; 95% CI, 0.79-0.85) had significantly higher diagnostic accuracy (P = 0.010 and P < 0.001, respectively). The management study was stopped early owing to the unexpectedly low AUC of procalcitonin in the diagnostic study. Among 45 randomized patients, the number of days on antibiotic therapy and the length of hospital stay were similar (both P = 0.39) in patients randomized to the procalcitonin-guided group (n = 25) and usual-care group (n = 20). CONCLUSIONS: In patients presenting with dyspnea, diagnostic accuracy of procalcitonin for pneumonia is only moderate and lower than that of interleukin 6 and CRP. The clinical utility of procalcitonin was lower than expected. SUMMARY: Pneumonia has diverse and often unspecific symptoms. As the role of biomarkers in the diagnosis of pneumonia remains controversial, it is often difficult to distinguish pneumonia from other illnesses causing shortness of breath. The current study prospectively enrolled unselected patients presenting with acute dyspnea and directly compared the diagnostic accuracy of procalcitonin, interleukin 6, and CRP for the diagnosis of pneumonia. In this setting, diagnostic accuracy of procalcitonin for pneumonia was lower as compared to interleukin 6 and CRP. The clinical utility of procalcitonin was lower than expected. CLINICALTRIALSGOV IDENTIFIER: NCT01831115.


Assuntos
Pneumonia/diagnóstico , Pró-Calcitonina/análise , Idoso , Área Sob a Curva , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Calcitonina , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina , Dispneia/diagnóstico , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Humanos , Interleucina-6/análise , Interleucina-6/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pró-Calcitonina/metabolismo , Estudos Prospectivos , Precursores de Proteínas/metabolismo , Curva ROC
5.
Int J Cardiol ; 293: 137-142, 2019 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31200964

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High-sensitivity troponin T (hs-TnT) reflects the severity of ongoing myocardial damage. In acute heart failure (AHF), its additive prognostic value over B-type natriuretic peptides is unclear. METHODS: Individual data of 1499 AHF patients with admission hs-TnT were collected from 3 cohorts. RESULTS: Patients (78 ±â€¯10 years, 51% men, N-terminal fragment of pro-B-type natriuretic peptide - NT-proBNP - 5660 [2693-12,466], hs-TnT 43 ng/L [26-69]) experiencing in-hospital death (n = 187, 13%) had significantly higher hs-TnT and NT-proBNP on admission (both p < 0.001). Patients with hs-TnT ≥43 ng/L and NT-proBNP ≥5660 ng/L had a 2.7-fold higher risk of in-hospital death (relative risk - RR 2.7, 95% confidence interval - CI 1.7-4.5). Among discharged patients, 1024 deaths (81%) occurred over 11 months (4-22). In the whole population, hs-TnT ≥43 ng/L predicted all-cause death at 6, 12 and 24 months independently from NT-proBNP ≥5660 ng/L. The best NT-proBNP cut-off for in-hospital mortality (4382 ng/L) independently predicted this endpoint, while the best hs-TnT cut-off (55 ng/L) did not. Patients with NT-proBNP ≥4382 ng/L and hs-TnT ≥55 ng/L had a 12-fold higher risk of in-hospital death (RR 11.7, 95% CI 6.9-19.7). The best hs-TnT cut-offs independently predicted all post-discharge outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: The best NT-proBNP cut-off (4382 ng/L) independently predicts outcome, while the best hs-TnT (55 ng/L) does not; patients with both biomarkers ≥best cut-offs have a 12-fold higher risk of in-hospital mortality. Admission hs-TnT ≥43 ng/L and the best hs-TnT cut-offs hold independent prognostic significance for post-discharge outcome, while hs-TnT seems less predictive than NT-proBNP when considering absolute values.

6.
Heart ; 105(18): 1423-1431, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31018955

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Assess the relative incidence and compare characteristics and outcome of unstable angina (UA) and non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI). DESIGN: Two independent prospective multicentre diagnostic studies (Advantageous Predictors of Acute Coronary Syndromes Evaluation [APACE] and High-Sensitivity Troponin in the Evaluation of Patients With Acute Coronary Syndrome [High-STEACS]) enrolling patients with acute chest discomfort presenting to the emergency department. Central adjudication of the final diagnosis was done by two independent cardiologists using all clinical information including serial measurements of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-cTn). All-cause death and future non-fatal MI were assessed at 30 days and 1 year. RESULTS: 8992 patients were enrolled at 11 centres. UA was adjudicated in 8.9%(95% CI 8.0 to 9.7) and 2.8% (95% CI 2.3 to 3.3) patients in APACE and High-STEACS, respectively, and NSTEMI in 15.1% (95% CI 14.0 to 16.2) and 13.4% (95% CI 12.4 to 14.3). Coronary artery disease was pre-existing in 73% and 76% of patients with UA. At 30 days, all-cause mortality in UA was substantially lower as compared with NSTEMI (0.5% vs 3.7%, p=0.002 in APACE, 0.7% vs 7.4%, p=0.004 in High-STEACS). Similarly, at 1 year in UA all-cause mortality was 3.3% (95% CI 1.2 to 5.3) vs 10.4% (95% CI 7.9 to 12.9) in APACE, and 5.1% (95% CI 0.7 to 9.5) vs 22.9% (95% CI 19.3 to 26.4) in High-STEACS, and similar to non-cardiac chest pain (NCCP). In contrast, future non-fatal MI in APACE was comparable in UA and NSTEMI (11.2%, 95% CI 7.8 to 14.6 and 7.9%, 95% CI 5.7 to 10.2), and higher than in NCCP (0.6%, 95% CI 0.2 to 1.0). CONCLUSIONS: The relative incidence and mortality of UA is substantially lower than that of NSTEMI, while the rate of future non-fatal MI is similar.

8.
Int J Cardiol ; 286: 104-110, 2019 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30853296

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Relative hypochromia of erythrocytes defined as a reduced mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) is a surrogate of iron deficiency. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence and prognostic impact of relative hypochromia in acute heart failure (AHF). METHODS: We prospectively characterized 1574 patients presenting with an adjudicated diagnosis of AHF to the emergency department. Relative hypochromia was defined as a MCHC ≤330 g/l and determined at presentation. The presence of AHF was adjudicated by two independent cardiologists. All-cause mortality and AHF-rehospitalization were the primary prognostic end-points. RESULTS: Overall, 455 (29%) AHF patients had relative hypochromia. Patients with relative hypochromia had higher hemodynamic cardiac stress as quantified by NT-proBNP concentrations (p < 0.001), more extensive cardiomyocyte injury as quantified by high-sensitive cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) concentrations (p < 0.001), and lower estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR; p < 0.001) as compared to AHF patients without hypochromia. Cumulative incidences for all-cause mortality and AHF-rehospitalization at 720-days were 50% and 55% in patients with relative hypochromia as compared to 33% and 39% in patients without hypochromia, respectively (both p < 0.0001). The association between relative hypochromia and increased mortality (HR 1.7, 95% CI 1.4-2-0) persisted after adjusting for anemia (HR 1.5, 95% CI 1.3-1.8), and after adjusting for hemodynamic cardiac stress (HR 1.46, 95% CI 1.21-1.76) and eGFR (HR 1.5, 95% CI 1.3-1.8, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Relative hypochromia is common and a strong and independent predictor of increased mortality in AHF. Given the direct link to diagnostic (endoscopy) and therapeutic interventions to treat functional iron deficiency, relative hypochromia deserves increased attention as an inexpensive and universally available biomarker.


Assuntos
Anemia Hipocrômica/etiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Ferro/sangue , Doença Aguda , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anemia Hipocrômica/sangue , Anemia Hipocrômica/epidemiologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Feminino , Seguimentos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/complicações , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Suíça/epidemiologia
9.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 108(8): 940-949, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30767059

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Proenkephalin (PENK), a stable endogenous opioid biomarker related to renal function, has prognostic utility in acute and chronic heart failure. We investigated the prognostic utility of PENK in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), and its relationship to renal function, Body Mass Index (BMI), and imaging measures of diastolic dysfunction. METHODS: In this multicentre study, PENK was measured in 522 HFpEF patients (ejection fraction > 50%, 253 male, mean age 76.13 ± 10.73 years) and compared to 47 age and sex-matched controls. The primary endpoint was 2-years composite of all-cause mortality and/or heart failure rehospitalisation (HF). A subset (n = 163) received detailed imaging studies. RESULTS: PENK levels were raised in HFpEF (median [interquartile range] 88.9 [62.1-132.0]) compared to normal controls (56.3 [47.9-70.5]). PENK was correlated to urea, eGFR, Body Mass Index and E/e' (rs 0.635, - 0.741, - 0.275, 0.476, respectively, p < 0.0005). During 2 years follow-up 144 patients died and 220 had death/HF endpoints. Multivariable Cox regression models showed PENK independently predicted 2 year death/HF [hazard ratio (for 1 SD increment of log-transformed biomarker) HR 1.45 [95% CI 1.12-1.88, p = 0.005]], even after adjustment for troponin (HR 1.59 [1.14-2.20, p = 0.006]), and Body Mass Index (HR 1.63 [1.13-2.33, p = 0.009]). PENK showed no interaction with ejection fraction status for prediction of poor outcomes. Net reclassification analyses showed PENK significantly improved classification of death/HF outcomes for multivariable models containing natriuretic peptide, troponin and Body Mass Index (p < 0.05 for all). CONCLUSIONS: In HFpEF, PENK levels are related to BMI, and measures of diastolic dysfunction and are prognostic for all-cause mortality and heart failure rehospitalisation.


Assuntos
Encefalinas/sangue , Insuficiência Cardíaca/sangue , Ventrículos do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Precursores de Proteínas/sangue , Volume Sistólico/fisiologia , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Causas de Morte/tendências , Ecocardiografia Doppler , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/fisiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Ventrículos do Coração/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Imagem Cinética por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Prognóstico , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Suíça/epidemiologia
10.
Ann Intern Med ; 170(4): 248-256, 2019 02 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30690646

RESUMO

Background: The MEESSI-AHF (Multiple Estimation of risk based on the Emergency department Spanish Score In patients with AHF) score was developed to predict 30-day mortality in patients presenting with acute heart failure (AHF) to emergency departments (EDs) in Spain. Whether it performs well in other countries is unknown. Objective: To externally validate the MEESSI-AHF score in another country. Design: Prospective cohort study. (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01831115). Setting: Multicenter recruitment of dyspneic patients presenting to the ED. Participants: The external validation cohort included 1572 patients with AHF. Measurements: Calculation of the MEESSI-AHF score using an established model containing 12 independent risk factors. Results: Among 1572 patients with adjudicated AHF, 1247 had complete data that allowed calculation of the MEESSI-AHF score. Of these, 102 (8.2%) died within 30 days. The score predicted 30-day mortality with excellent discrimination (c-statistic, 0.80). Assessment of cumulative mortality showed a steep gradient in 30-day mortality over 6 predefined risk groups (0 patients in the lowest-risk group vs. 35 [28.5%] in the highest-risk group). Risk was overestimated in the high-risk groups, resulting in a Hosmer-Lemeshow P value of 0.022. However, after adjustment of the intercept, the model showed good concordance between predicted risks and observed outcomes (P = 0.23). Findings were confirmed in sensitivity analyses that used multiple imputation for missing values in the overall cohort of 1572 patients. Limitations: External validation was done using a reduced model. Findings are specific to patients with AHF who present to the ED and are clinically stable enough to provide informed consent. Performance in patients with terminal kidney failure who are receiving long-term dialysis cannot be commented on. Conclusion: External validation of the MEESSI-AHF risk score showed excellent discrimination. Recalibration may be needed when the score is introduced to new populations. Primary Funding Source: The European Union, the Swiss National Science Foundation, the Swiss Heart Foundation, the Cardiovascular Research Foundation Basel, the University of Basel, and University Hospital Basel.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Medição de Risco/métodos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Espanha/epidemiologia , Suíça/epidemiologia
11.
Int J Cardiol ; 277: 8-15, 2019 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30274750

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The value of the 12-lead ECG in the diagnosis of non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) is limited due to insufficient sensitivity and specificity of standard ECG criteria. The QRS-T angle reflects depolarization-repolarization heterogeneity and might assist in detecting patients with a NSTEMI (diagnosis) as well as predicting patients with an increased mortality risk (prognosis). METHODS: We prospectively enrolled 2705 consecutive patients with symptoms suggestive of NSTEMI. The QRS-T angle was automatically derived from the standard 10 s 12-lead ECG recorded at presentation to the ED. Patients were followed up for all-cause mortality for 2 years. RESULTS: NSTEMI was the final diagnosis in 15% (n = 412) of patients. QRS-T angles were significantly greater in patients with NSTEMI compared to those without (p < 0.001). The use of the QRS-T angle in addition to standard ECG criteria indicative of ischemia improved the diagnostic accuracy for NSTEMI as quantified by the area under the ROC curve from 0.68 to 0.72 (p < 0.001). An algorithm for the combined use of standard ECG criteria and the QRS-T angle improved the sensitivity of the ECG for NSTEMI from 45% to 78% and the specificity from 86% to 91% (p < 0.001 for both comparisons). The 2-year survival rates were 98%, 97% and 87% according to QRS-T angle tertiles (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: In patients with suspected NSTEMI, the QRS-T angle derived from the standard 12-lead ECG provides incremental diagnostic accuracy on top of standard ECG criteria indicative of ischemia, and independently predicts all-cause mortality during 2 years of follow-up.


Assuntos
Eletrocardiografia/métodos , Internacionalidade , Infarto do Miocárdio sem Supradesnível do Segmento ST/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio sem Supradesnível do Segmento ST/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Eletrocardiografia/instrumentação , Eletrocardiografia/mortalidade , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade/tendências , Infarto do Miocárdio sem Supradesnível do Segmento ST/mortalidade , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos
13.
Int J Cardiol ; 269: 114-121, 2018 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30224031

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Various scores have been derived for the assessment of syncope patients in the emergency department (ED) but stay inconsistently validated. We aim to compare their performance to the one of a common, easy-to-use CHADS2 score. METHODS: We prospectively enrolled patients ≥ 40 years old presenting with syncope to the ED in a multicenter study. Early clinical judgment (ECJ) of the treating ED-physician regarding the probability of cardiac syncope was quantified. Two independent physicians adjudicated the final diagnosis after 1-year follow-up. Major cardiovascular events (MACE) and death were recorded during 2 years of follow-up. Nine scores were compared by their area under the receiver-operator characteristics curve (AUC) for death, MACE or the diagnosis of cardiac syncope. RESULTS: 1490 patients were available for score validation. The CHADS2-score presented a higher or equally high accuracy for death in the long- and short-term follow-up than other syncope-specific risk scores. This score also performed well for the prediction of MACE in the long- and short-term evaluation and stratified patients with accuracy comparative to OESIL, one of the best performing syncope-specific risk score. All scores performed poorly for diagnosing cardiac syncope when compared to the ECJ. CONCLUSIONS: The CHADS2-score performed comparably to more complicated syncope-specific risk scores in the prediction of death and MACE in ED syncope patients. While better tools incorporating biochemical and electrocardiographic markers are needed, this study suggests that the CHADS2-score is currently a good option to stratify risk in syncope patients in the ED. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT01548352.


Assuntos
Eletrocardiografia/normas , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/normas , Síncope/diagnóstico , Síncope/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Eletrocardiografia/métodos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
14.
Eur Heart J ; 39(42): 3780-3794, 2018 11 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30169752

RESUMO

Aims: We aimed to evaluate the impact of age on the performance of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) 0/1h-algorithms and to derive and externally validate alternative cut-offs specific to older patients. Methods and results: We prospectively enrolled patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) with symptoms suggestive of acute myocardial infarction in three large diagnostic studies. Final diagnoses were adjudicated by two independent cardiologists. High-sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-cTn) T and I concentrations were measured at presentation and after 1 h. Patients were stratified according to age [<55 years (young), ≥55 to <70 years (middle-age), ≥70 years (old)]. Rule-out safety of the ESC hs-cTnT 0/1h-algorithm was very high in all age-strata: sensitivity 100% [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 94.9-100] in young, 99.3% (95% CI 96.0-99.9) in middle-age, and 99.3% (95% CI 97.5-99.8) in old patients. Accuracy of rule-in decreased with age: specificity 97.0% (95% CI 95.8-97.9) in young, 96.1% (95% CI 94.5-97.2) in middle-age, and 92.7% (95% CI 90.7-94.3) in older patients. Triage efficacy decreased with increasing age (young 93%, middle-age 80%, old 55%, P < 0.001). Similar results were found for the ESC hs-cTnT 0/1h-algorithm. Alternative, slightly higher cut-off concentrations optimized for older patients maintained very high safety of rule-out, increased specificity of rule-in (P < 0.01), reduced overall efficacy for hs-cTnT (P < 0.01), while maintaining efficacy for hs-cTnI. Findings were confirmed in two validation cohorts (n = 2767). Conclusion: While safety of the ESC 0/1h-algorithms remained very high, increasing age significantly reduced overall efficacy and the accuracy of rule-in. Alternative slightly higher cut-off concentrations may be considered for older patients, particularly if using hs-cTnI. Clinical Trial Registration: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00470587, number NCT00470587 and NCT02355457 (BACC).


Assuntos
Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Algoritmos , Diagnóstico Precoce , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Estudos Prospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Troponina/sangue
15.
Cardiol J ; 25(5): 601-610, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29611166

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While prolongation of QRS duration and QTc interval during acute myocardial infarction (AMI) has been reported in animals, limited data is available for these readily available electrocardiography (ECG) markers in humans. METHODS: Diagnostic and prognostic value of QRS duration and QTc interval in patients with suspected AMI in a prospective diagnostic multicentre study were prospectively assessed. Digital 12-lead ECGs were recorded at presentation. QRS duration and QTc interval were automatically calculated in a blinded fashion. Final diagnosis was adjudicated by two independent cardiologists. The prognostic endpoint was all-cause mortality during 24 months of follow-up. RESULTS: Among 4042 patients, AMI was the final diagnosis in 19% of patients. Median QRS duration and median QTc interval were significantly greater in patients with AMI compared to those with other final diagnoses (98 ms [IQR 88-108] vs. 94 ms [IQR 86-102] and 436 ms [IQR 414-462] vs. 425 ms [IQR 407-445], p < 0.001 for both comparisons). The diagnostic value of both ECG signatures however was only modest (AUC 0.56 and 0.60). Cumulative mortality rates after 2 years were 15.9% vs. 5.6% in patients with a QRS > 120 ms compared to a QRS duration ≤ 120 ms (p < 0.001), and 11.4% vs. 4.3% in patients with a QTc > 440 ms compared to a QRS duration ≤ 440 ms (p < 0.001). After adjustment for age and important ECG and clinical parameters, the QTc interval but not QRS duration remained an independent predictor of mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Prolongation of QRS duration > 120 ms and QTc interval > 440 ms predict mortality in patients with suspected AMI, but do not add diagnostic value.


Assuntos
Eletrocardiografia , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Causas de Morte/tendências , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Infarto do Miocárdio/fisiopatologia , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
16.
Circulation ; 138(10): 989-999, 2018 09 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29691270

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Combining 2 signals of cardiomyocyte injury, cardiac troponin I (cTnI) and T (cTnT), might overcome some individual pathophysiological and analytical limitations and thereby increase diagnostic accuracy for acute myocardial infarction with a single blood draw. We aimed to evaluate the diagnostic performance of combinations of high-sensitivity (hs) cTnI and hs-cTnT for the early diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction. METHODS: The diagnostic performance of combining hs-cTnI (Architect, Abbott) and hs-cTnT (Elecsys, Roche) concentrations (sum, product, ratio, and a combination algorithm) obtained at the time of presentation was evaluated in a large multicenter diagnostic study of patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction. The optimal rule-out and rule-in thresholds were externally validated in a second large multicenter diagnostic study. The proportion of patients eligible for early rule-out was compared with the European Society of Cardiology 0/1 and 0/3 hour algorithms. RESULTS: Combining hs-cTnI and hs-cTnT concentrations did not consistently increase overall diagnostic accuracy as compared with the individual isoforms. However, the combination improved the proportion of patients meeting criteria for very early rule-out. With the European Society of Cardiology 2015 guideline recommended algorithms and cut-offs, the proportion meeting rule-out criteria after the baseline blood sampling was limited (6% to 24%) and assay dependent. Application of optimized cut-off values using the sum (9 ng/L) and product (18 ng2/L2) of hs-cTnI and hs-cTnT concentrations led to an increase in the proportion ruled-out after a single blood draw to 34% to 41% in the original (sum: negative predictive value [NPV] 100% [95% confidence interval (CI), 99.5% to 100%]; product: NPV 100% [95% CI, 99.5% to 100%]) and in the validation cohort (sum: NPV 99.6% [95% CI, 99.0-99.9%]; product: NPV 99.4% [95% CI, 98.8-99.8%]). The use of a combination algorithm (hs-cTnI <4 ng/L and hs-cTnT <9 ng/L) showed comparable results for rule-out (40% to 43% ruled out; NPV original cohort 99.9% [95% CI, 99.2-100%]; NPV validation cohort 99.5% [95% CI, 98.9-99.8%]) and rule-in (positive predictive value [PPV] original cohort 74.4% [95% Cl, 69.6-78.8%]; PPV validation cohort 84.0% [95% Cl, 79.7-87.6%]). CONCLUSIONS: New strategies combining hs-cTnI and hs-cTnT concentrations may significantly increase the number of patients eligible for very early and safe rule-out, but do not seem helpful for the rule-in of acute myocardial infarction. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL (APACE): https://www.clinicaltrial.gov . Unique identifier: NCT00470587. URL (ADAPT): www.anzctr.org.au . Unique identifier: ACTRN12611001069943.


Assuntos
Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Troponina I/sangue , Troponina T/sangue , Austrália , Biomarcadores/sangue , Diagnóstico Precoce , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Infarto do Miocárdio/sangue , Nova Zelândia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Tempo , Regulação para Cima
17.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 107(9): 824-835, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29667014

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Myocardial scar is associated with adverse cardiac outcomes. The Selvester QRS-score was developed to estimate myocardial scar from the 12-lead ECG, but its manual calculation is difficult. An automatically computed QRS-score would allow identification of patients with myocardial scar and an increased risk of mortality. OBJECTIVES: To assess the diagnostic and prognostic value of the automatically computed QRS-score. METHODS: The diagnostic value of the QRS-score computed automatically from a standard digital 12-lead was prospectively assessed in 2742 patients with suspected myocardial ischemia referred for myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI). The prognostic value of the QRS-score was then prospectively tested in 1151 consecutive patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) with suspected acute heart failure (AHF). RESULTS: Overall, the QRS-score was significantly higher in patients with more extensive myocardial scar: the median QRS-score was 3 (IQR 2-5), 4 (IQR 2-6), and 7 (IQR 4-10) for patients with 0, 5-20 and > 20% myocardial scar as quantified by MPI (p < 0.001 for all pairwise comparisons). A QRS-score ≥ 9 (n = 284, 10%) predicted a large scar defined as > 20% of the LV with a specificity of 91% (95% CI 90-92%). Regarding clinical outcomes in patients presenting to the ED with symptoms suggestive of AHF, mortality after 1 year was 28% in patients with a QRS-score ≥ 3 as opposed to 20% in patients with a QRS-score < 3 (p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The QRS-score can be computed automatically from the 12-lead ECG for simple, non-invasive and inexpensive detection and quantification of myocardial scar and for the prediction of mortality. TRIAL-REGISTRATION: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov . Identifier, NCT01838148 and NCT01831115.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Cicatriz/patologia , Eletrocardiografia/métodos , Processamento Eletrônico de Dados/métodos , Isquemia Miocárdica/mortalidade , Miocárdio/patologia , Idoso , Cicatriz/etiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Isquemia Miocárdica/complicações , Isquemia Miocárdica/diagnóstico , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Suíça/epidemiologia
18.
Ann Noninvasive Electrocardiol ; 23(4): e12538, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29476571

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The cardiac electrical biomarker (CEB) is a novel electrocardiographic (ECG) marker quantifying the dipolar activity of the heart with higher levels indicating myocardial injury. METHODS: We prospectively enrolled 1097 patients presenting with suspected non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) to the emergency department (ED). Digital 12-lead ECGs were recorded at presentation and the CEB values were calculated in a blinded fashion. The final diagnosis was adjudicated by two independent cardiologists. The prognostic endpoint was all-cause mortality during 2 years of follow-up. RESULTS: NSTEMI was the final diagnosis in 14% of patients. CEB levels were higher in patients with NSTEMI compared to other causes of chest pain (median 44 (IQR 21-98) vs. 30 (IQR 16-61), p < .001). A weak but significant correlation between levels of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) at admission to the ED and the CEB was found (r = .23, p < .001). The use of the CEB in addition to conventional ECG criteria improved the diagnostic accuracy for the diagnosis of NSTEMI as quantified by the area under the receiver operating characteristics curve from 0.66 to 0.71 (p < .001) and the sensitivity improved from 43% to 79% (p < .001). CONCLUSION: In conclusion, the CEB, an ECG marker of myocardial injury, significantly improves the accuracy and sensitivity of the ECG for the diagnosis of NSTEMI.


Assuntos
Eletrocardiografia/métodos , Infarto do Miocárdio sem Supradesnível do Segmento ST/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio sem Supradesnível do Segmento ST/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
20.
Clin Chem ; 64(3): 515-525, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29343534

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is concern that high-sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-cTn) may have low diagnostic accuracy in patients with low acute coronary syndrome (ACS) probability. METHODS: We prospectively stratified patients presenting with acute chest discomfort to the emergency department (ED) into 3 groups according to their probability for ACS as assessed by the treating ED physician using a visual analog scale: ≤10%, 11% to 79%, and ≥80%, reviewing all information available at 90 min. hs-cTnT and hs-cTnI concentrations were determined in a blinded fashion. Two independent cardiologists adjudicated the final diagnosis. RESULTS: Among 3828 patients eligible for analysis, 1189 patients had low (≤10%) probability for ACS. The incidence of non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) increased from 1.3% to 12.2% and 54.8% in patients with low, intermediate, and high ACS probability, respectively. The positive predictive value of hs-cTnT and hs-cTnI was low in patients with low ACS probability and increased with the incidence of NSTEMI, whereas the diagnostic accuracy of hs-cTnT and hs-cTnI for NSTEMI as quantified by the area under the curve (AUC) was very high and comparable among all 3 strata, e.g., AUC hs-cTnI, 0.96 (95% CI, 0.94-0.97); 0.87 (95% CI, 0.85-0.89); and 0.89 (95% CI, 0.87-0.92), respectively. Findings were validated using bootstrap analysis as an alternative methodology to define ACS probability. Similarly, higher hs-cTnT/I concentrations independently predicted all-cause mortality within 2 years (e.g., hs-cTnT hazard ratio, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.27-1.52), irrespective of ACS probability. CONCLUSIONS: Diagnostic and prognostic accuracy and utility of hs-cTnT and hs-cTnI remain high in patients with acute chest discomfort and low ACS probability.ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00470587.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/diagnóstico , Troponina I/sangue , Troponina T/sangue , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/sangue , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Probabilidade , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
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