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1.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 56(7): 1105-1108, 2020 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31894766

RESUMO

A series of hydrogen-bonded liquid crystals based on resveratrol and resveratrone is reported and investigated with respect to their photo-switchability (at 405 nm) and photo-cyclisation (at 300 nm).

2.
J Phys Chem B ; 123(44): 9281-9290, 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31525288

RESUMO

Halogen bonding has recently gained well deserved attention in present-day research for its importance in many fields of supramolecular science and crystal engineering. Although generally overlooked in comprehensive studies in the past, halogen bonding has become an important tool also in the field of materials science. An increased number of scientific reports are published every year where halogen bonding is exploited in soft materials rather than in crystal engineering. Here, we focus on a description of the most exciting contemporary developments in the field of halogen-bonded functional soft materials, assembled using the guiding principles of crystal engineering. We give a particular emphasis to those published in the past few years.

3.
Chem Asian J ; 14(6): 814-820, 2019 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30478991

RESUMO

In this contribution, we present the synthesis and self-assembly of alkylated thioethers with interesting photophysical properties. To this end, the emission, absorption and excitation spectra in organic solvents and as aggregates in water were measured as well as the corresponding photoluminescence quantum yields and lifetimes. The aggregates in aqueous media were visualized and measured using transmission electron microscopy. Besides that, crystal structures of selected compounds allowed a detailed discussion of the structure-property relationship. Furthermore, the mesomorphic behavior was investigated using polarized optical microscopy (POM) as well as differential scanning calorimetry (DSC).

4.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 8(12)2018 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30544769

RESUMO

The self-assembly of AB diblock copolymers in three-dimensional (3D) soft confinement of nanoemulsions has recently become an attractive bottom up route to prepare colloids with controlled inner morphologies. In that regard, ABC triblock terpolymers show a more complex morphological behavior and could thus give access to extensive libraries of multicompartment microparticles. However, knowledge about their self-assembly in confinement is very limited thus far. Here, we investigated the confinement assembly of polystyrene-block-poly(4-vinylpyridine)-block-poly(tert-butyl methacrylate) (PS-b-P4VP-b-PT or SVT) triblock terpolymers in nanoemulsion droplets. Depending on the block weight fractions, we found spherical microparticles with concentric lamella⁻sphere (ls) morphology, i.e., PS/PT lamella intercalated with P4VP spheres, or unusual conic microparticles with concentric lamella⁻cylinder (lc) morphology. We further described how these morphologies can be modified through supramolecular additives, such as hydrogen bond (HB) and halogen bond (XB) donors. We bound donors to the 4VP units and analyzed changes in the morphology depending on the binding strength and the length of the alkyl tail. The interaction with the weaker donors resulted in an increase in volume of the P4VP domains, which depends upon the molar fraction of the added donor. For donors with a high tendency of intermolecular packing, a visible change in the morphology was observed. This ultimately caused a shape change in the microparticle. Knowledge about how to control inner morphologies of multicompartment microparticles could lead to novel carbon supports for catalysis, nanoparticles with unprecedented topologies, and potentially, reversible shape changes by light actuation.

5.
Molecules ; 22(11)2017 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29143770

RESUMO

In recent years, supramolecular complexes comprising a poly(4-vinylpyridine) backbone and azobenzene-based halogen bond donors have emerged as a promising class of materials for the inscription of light-induced surface-relief gratings (SRGs). The studies up to date have focused on building supramolecular hierarchies, i.e., optimizing the polymer-azobenzene noncovalent interaction for efficient surface patterning. They have been conducted using systems with relatively low azobenzene content, and little is known about the concentration dependence of SRG formation in halogen-bonded polymer-azobenzene complexes. Herein, we bridge this gap, and study the concentration dependence of SRG formation using two halogen-bond-donating azobenzene derivatives, one functionalized with a tetrafluoroiodophenyl and the other with an iodoethynylphenyl group. Both have been previously identified as efficient molecules in driving the SRG formation. We cover a broad concentration range, starting from 10 mol % azobenzene content and going all the way up to equimolar degree of complexation. The complexes are studied as spin-coated thin films, and analyzed by optical microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and optical diffraction arising during the SRG formation. We obtained diffraction efficiencies as high as 35%, and modulation depths close to 400 nm, which are significantly higher than the values previously reported for halogen-bonded polymer-azobenzene complexes.


Assuntos
Compostos Azo/química , Halogênios/química , Polímeros/química , Microscopia de Força Atômica , Estrutura Molecular , Propriedades de Superfície
6.
Faraday Discuss ; 203: 407-422, 2017 10 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28725887

RESUMO

We demonstrate that halogen bonding (XB) can offer a novel approach for the construction of photoresponsive ionic liquid crystals. In particular, we assembled two new supramolecular complexes based on 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium iodides and azobenzene derivatives containing an iodotetrafluoro-benzene ring as XB donor, where the iodide anion acted as an XB acceptor. DSC and X-ray diffraction analyses revealed that the preferred stoichiometry between the XB donors and acceptors is 2 : 1, and that the iodide anions act as bidentate XB-acceptors, binding two azobenzene derivatives. Due to the high directionality of the XB, calamitic superanions are obtained, while the segregation occurring between the charged and uncharged parts of the molecules gives rise to a layered structure in the crystal lattice. Despite the fact that the starting materials are non-mesomorphic, the halogen-bonded supramolecular complexes exhibited monotropic lamellar liquid-crystalline phases over broad temperature ranges, as confirmed with polarized optical microscopy. Due to the presence of the azobenzene moieties, the LCs were photoresponsive, and a LC-to-isotropic phase transition could be obtained by irradiation with UV light. We envisage that the light-induced phase transition, in combination with the ionic nature of the LC, provides a route towards light-induced control over ion transport and conductance in these supramolecular complexes.

7.
Chem ; 2(3): 417-426, 2017 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28367516

RESUMO

Self-assembly of block copolymers into well-defined, ordered arrangements of chemically distinct domains is a reliable strategy for preparing tailored nanostructures. Microphase separation results from the system, minimizing repulsive interactions between dissimilar blocks and maximizing attractive interactions between similar blocks. Supramolecular methods have also achieved this separation by introducing small-molecule additives binding specifically to one block by noncovalent interactions. Here, we use halogen bonding as a supramolecular tool that directs the hierarchical self-assembly of low-molecular-weight perfluorinated molecules and diblock copolymers. Microphase separation results in a lamellar-within-cylindrical arrangement and promotes upright cylindrical alignment in films upon rapid casting and without further annealing. Such cylindrical domains with internal lamellar self-assemblies can be cleaved by solvent treatment of bulk films, resulting in separated and segmented cylindrical micelles stabilized by halogen-bond-based supramolecular crosslinks. These features, alongside the reversible nature of halogen bonding, provide a robust modular approach for nanofabrication.

8.
Acta Crystallogr B Struct Sci Cryst Eng Mater ; 73(Pt 2): 227-233, 2017 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28362286

RESUMO

Crystals of trans- and cis-isomers of a fluorinated azobenzene derivative have been prepared and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The presence of F atoms on the aromatic core of the azobenzene increases the lifetime of the metastable cis-isomer, allowing single crystals of the cis-azobenzene to be grown. Structural analysis on the cis-azobenzene, complemented with density functional theory calculations, highlights the active role of the halogen-bond contact (N...I synthon) in promoting the stabilization of the cis-isomer. The presence of a long aliphatic chain on the azobenzene unit induces a phase segregation that stabilizes the molecular arrangement for both the trans- and cis-isomers. Due to the rarity of cis-azobenzene crystal structures in the literature, our paper makes a step towards understanding the role of non-covalent interactions in driving the packing of metastable azobenzene isomers. This is expected to be important in the future rational design of solid-state, photoresponsive materials based on halogen bonding.

9.
Chem Mater ; 28(22): 8314-8321, 2016 11 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27917024

RESUMO

Here, we present a new family of light-responsive, fluorinated supramolecular liquid crystals (LCs) showing efficient and reversible light-induced LC-to-isotropic phase transitions. Our materials design is based on fluorinated azobenzenes, where the fluorination serves to strengthen the noncovalent interaction with bond-accepting stilbazole molecules, and increase the lifetime of the cis-form of the azobenzene units. The halogen-bonded LCs were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction, hot-stage polarized optical microscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry. Simultaneous analysis of light-induced changes in birefringence, absorption, and optical scattering allowed us to estimate that <4% of the mesogenic units in the cis-form suffices to trigger the full LC-to-isotropic phase transition. We also report a light-induced and reversible crystal-to-isotropic phase transition, which has not been previously observed in supramolecular complexes. In addition to fundamental understanding of light-responsive supramolecular complexes, we foresee this study to be important in the development of bistable photonic devices and supramolecular actuators.

10.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 55(21): 6300-4, 2016 05 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27073033

RESUMO

Unconventional ionic liquid crystals in which the liquid crystallinity is enabled by halogen-bonded supramolecular anions [Cn F2 n+1 -I⋅⋅⋅I⋅⋅⋅I-Cn F2 n+1 ](-) are reported. The material system is unique in many ways, demonstrating for the first time 1) ionic, halogen-bonded liquid crystals, and 2) imidazolium-based ionic liquid crystals in which the occurrence of liquid crystallinity is not driven by the alkyl chains of the cation.

11.
Top Curr Chem ; 359: 147-66, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25814465

RESUMO

The aim of the present review is to illustrate to the reader the state of the art on the construction of supramolecular azobenzene-containing materials formed by halogen bonding. These materials include several examples of polymeric, liquid crystalline or crystalline species whose performances are either superior to the corresponding performances of their hydrogen-bonded analogues or simply distinctive of the halogen-bonded species.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24441138

RESUMO

Halogen bonding is emerging as a powerful non-covalent interaction in the context of supramolecular photoresponsive materials design, particularly due to its high directionality. In order to obtain further insight into the solid-state features of halogen-bonded photoactive molecules, three halogen-bonded co-crystals containing an azobenzene-based difunctional halogen-bond donor molecule, (E)-bis(4-iodo-2,3,5,6-tetrafluorophenyl)diazene, C12F8I2N2, have been synthesized and structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The crystal structure of the non-iodinated homologue (E)-bis(2,3,5,6-tetrafluorophenyl)diazene, C12H2F8N2, is also reported. It is demonstrated that the studied halogen-bond donor molecule is a reliable tecton for assembling halogen-bonded co-crystals with potential photoresponsive behaviour. The azo group is not involved in any specific intermolecular interactions in any of the co-crystals studied, which is an interesting feature in the context of enhanced photoisomerization behaviour and photoactive properties of the material systems.

13.
Adv Mater ; 24(44): OP345-52, 2012 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23081696

RESUMO

It is demonstrated that halogen bonding can be used to construct low-molecular-weight supramolecular complexes with unique light-responsive properties. In particular, halogen bonding drives the formation of a photoresponsive liquid-crystalline complex between a non-mesogenic halogen bond-donor molecule incorporating an azo group, and a non-mesogenic alkoxystilbazole moiety, acting as a halogen bond-acceptor. Upon irradiation with polarized light, the complex exhibits a high degree of photoinduced anisotropy (order parameter of molecular alignment > 0.5). Moreover, efficient photoinduced surface-relief-grating (SRG) formation occurs upon irradiation with a light interference pattern, with a surface-modulation depth 2.4 times the initial film thickness. This is the first report on a halogen-bonded photoresponsive low-molecular-weight complex, which furthermore combines a high degree of photoalignment and extremely efficient SRG formation in a unique way. This study highlights the potential of halogen bonding as a new tool for the rational design of high-performance photoresponsive suprastructures.


Assuntos
Halogênios/química , Halogênios/efeitos da radiação , Cristais Líquidos/química , Cristais Líquidos/efeitos da radiação , Refratometria/métodos , Luz , Teste de Materiais , Peso Molecular , Propriedades de Superfície
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