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1.
BMC Psychol ; 9(1): 137, 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34496963

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has led to prolonged exposure to stress and anxiety, raising concerns about a large spectrum of psychological side effects. The primary objective of the study was to validate the COVID-19 Bullying Scale (CBS-11). The second objective was to explore factors associated with COVID-19-related bullying and evaluate the mediating effect of fear and anxiety between knowledge and COVID-19-related bullying. METHODS: A cross-sectional online survey conducted between December 20, 2020, and January 5, 2021, recruited 405 Lebanese adults using a snowball sampling technique. The CBS-11, an 11-item tool specifically created for this study, was used to measure bullying behaviors towards COVID-19 patients. RESULTS: All items of the CBS-11 converged over a 1-factor solution with an eigenvalue over 1, accounting for a variance of 75.16%. The scale has a high Cronbach's alpha (.974), indicating excellent reliability. A positive correlation was found between the COVID-19 bullying scale and fear, anxiety, and stigma discrimination. The logistic regression showed that higher fear of COVID-19 (ORa = 1.04), a positive attitude toward COVID-19 preventive measures and hygiene recommendations (ORa = 1.18), higher stigma discrimination scores (ORa = 1.09), and having a health professional family member (ORa = 2.42) were significantly associated with bullying. CONCLUSION: Our main findings showed that the CBS-11 could be an efficient tool to measure bullying behaviors toward COVID-19 patients. Stigma discrimination and fear from COVID-19 were associated with higher bullying attitudes. Future prospective studies are needed to understand better the factors related to bullying among adults during a pandemic, such as COVID-19.


Assuntos
Bullying , COVID-19 , Adulto , Ansiedade , Estudos Transversais , Medo , Humanos , Pandemias , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , SARS-CoV-2
2.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1627, 2021 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488694

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Salameh et al. developed the Lebanese Waterpipe Dependence Scale (LWDS-11) that assesses nicotine dependence among adult waterpipe smokers. In view of the high waterpipe use among Lebanese youth and other neighboring countries, it was deemed necessary to check the psychometric properties of the LWDS-11, originally adapted to the Lebanese population, to measure nicotine dependence among adolescents. METHODS: Two cross-sectional investigations were conducted; Study 1 (January and May 2019) enrolled a total of 449 students who were exclusive waterpipe smokers; this sample was used to conduct the exploratory factor analysis. Study 2 enrolled another sample composed of 243 waterpipe smoking adolescents. This sample was independent from the first one and was used to conduct the confirmatory analysis. RESULTS: The results also showed that 312 (69.5%) [95% CI 0.652-0.738] had high waterpipe dependence (scores of ≥10). Results of the factor analysis in sample 1 showed that all LWDS-11 items were extracted following the factor analysis. Items converged over a solution of one factor; total variance explained = 70.45%, αCronbach = 0.96). The results of the confirmatory factor analysis were as follows: the Maximum Likelihood Chi-Square = 129.58 and Degrees of Freedom = 45, which gave a χ2/df = 2.88. For non-centrality fit indices, the Steiger-Lind Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA) was 0.08 [0.071-0.106]. Moreover, the Comparative Fit Index (CFI) value was 0.77. CONCLUSION: The preliminary results suggest that the LWDS-11 has good psychometric properties to measure waterpipe dependence among adolescents. We hope this tool would serve the benefit of research and epidemiology.


Assuntos
Cachimbos de Água , Tabagismo , Fumar Cachimbo de Água , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tabagismo/diagnóstico , Tabagismo/epidemiologia , Fumar Cachimbo de Água/epidemiologia
3.
Sultan Qaboos Univ Med J ; 21(3): 442-449, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34522411

RESUMO

Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the association between sociodemographic characteristics and antibiotic knowledge in the Lebanese population. Methods: A questionnaire-based survey was conducted in community pharmacies across all Lebanese governorates. Data were collected by well-trained pharmacists through face-to-face interviews from January until March 2017. The survey tool was adapted from a questionnaire developed by the World Health Organization. A knowledge index was computed for comparative purposes and a linear regression model was performed to assess factors associated with knowledge. Results: A total of 623 participants were included in the analysis of this study (response rate: 90.6%). The mean antibiotic knowledge index was 12.5 ± 3.2 (minimum score: 3 and maximum score: 19). Higher knowledge score was inversely correlated with age (r = -0.118; P = 0.003), but no gender differences were reported (females: 12.6 versus males: 12.3; P = 0.191). However, statistically significant differences were found for residence type (P = 0.002), educational level (P <0.001) and total household income categories (P <0.001). The linear regression model showed a significant association between residence type and knowledge (urban versus rural: ß = 0.793; P = 0.011). Furthermore, a higher knowledge index was significantly associated with a higher income combined with higher education (additive scale/ß = 1.590; P = 0.025). Finally, interactions between income and age, gender and residence type were not significant. Conclusion: Individuals residing in urban areas, with combined high income and educational levels, are more knowledgeable about antibiotics use and resistance compared to other groups. More studies are needed to assess the interaction of sociodemographic interactions with health literacy.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Adulto , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Farmacêuticos , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
Int J Pharm Pract ; 2021 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34562077

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The Order of Pharmacists of Lebanon, the official pharmacists' association in Lebanon, had suggested a core competencies framework based on global and international frameworks and adapted to the local context. The objective of this study was to validate the structure of this comprehensive set of competencies in the Lebanese context of pharmacy practice. METHODS: The framework structure was assessed through multiple factor analyses, correlational and reliability measures of self-declared assessment, based on a cross-sectional survey of practising pharmacists. KEY FINDINGS: The framework had adequate structural validity and reliability: all measured coefficients were of appropriate magnitude. Behaviours adequately loaded on competencies, and competencies adequately loaded on domains and the entire framework. The exploratory factor analysis showed an adequate distribution of competencies in domains. Domains were also inter-correlated, without over-correlation. CONCLUSIONS: Our results are an essential step towards standardizing pharmacy competencies in Lebanon and show that the Lebanese core competencies framework developed by the Order of Pharmacists of Lebanon is structurally valid and reliable, although not yet applied in the Lebanese educational system. This tool would be helpful to assess the minimum competencies of pharmacists upon and after graduation.

5.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1583, 2021 08 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34425819

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Waterpipe and cigarette smoking dependence are becoming increasingly prevalent forms of addiction globally. This study examined whether cumulative cigarette smoking and cumulative waterpipe smoking are associated with higher dependence on both cigarettes and waterpipe. METHODS: This cross-sectional study conducted between February and April 2020, enrolled 363 participants drawn from all Lebanese districts. The mean age was 29.51 years, 64.8% were females, and 124 (34.2%) exclusive cigarette smokers, 189 (52.1%) exclusive waterpipe smokers, and 50 (13.8%) dual smokers (waterpipe and cigarette). We used the Hooked on Nicotine Checklist (HONC) as an indicator of decreased autonomy towards nicotine, in addition to the Lebanon Waterpipe Dependence Scale-11 (LWDS11) and the Lebanese Cigarette Dependence scale (LCD). A stepwise linear regression was performed taking the HONC scores due to cigarette and waterpipe smoking, LCD and LWDS-11 scores as dependent variables. RESULTS: The results showed that in the total sample, higher cumulative cigarette smoking (B = 0.005 with a confidence interval of 0.004, 0.006) was significantly associated with higher HONC cigarette scores, whereas higher cumulative waterpipe smoking (B = -0.006 with a confidence interval of - 0.009, - 0.002) was significantly associated with lower HONC cigarette scores. Moreover, higher cumulative waterpipe smoking (B = 0.012 with a confidence interval of 0.009,0.015) was significantly associated with higher HONC waterpipe scores. The results showed that, in both sexes, higher cumulative cigarette smoking was associated with higher HONC cigarette scores and lower HONC waterpipe scores. Furthermore, higher cumulative waterpipe smoking was significantly associated with higher HONC waterpipe scores in both sexes. CONCLUSION: Our study supports the fact that heavy nicotine consumption, related to both the increased frequency and smoking duration, can increase the risk of dependence. It raises the need for strategic plans to minimize and discourage the use of nicotine products in Lebanese community settings.


Assuntos
Cachimbos de Água , Produtos do Tabaco , Tabagismo , Fumar Cachimbo de Água , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Tabagismo/epidemiologia , Fumar Cachimbo de Água/efeitos adversos , Fumar Cachimbo de Água/epidemiologia
6.
Psychol Health Med ; : 1-10, 2021 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34256660

RESUMO

The study objectives were to investigate correlates of healthy orthorexia (HeOr), its relation with impulsivity, and the moderating role of adaptive personality traits among a Lebanese adult sample. The sample was recruited from seven community pharmacies, from the five districts in Lebanon, chosen from a list provided by the Lebanese Order of Pharmacists in a convenient way. The questionnaire included the Teruel Orthorexia Scale (TOS) to measure HeOr, Big Five Inventory (BFI) to assess adaptive personality traits, and the I-8 scale for impulsivity. Higher extraversion (B = -4.31) was significantly associated with lower healthy orthorexia. The interaction perseverance by extraversion was associated with higher healthy orthorexia; in those with higher perseverance, higher extraversion was associated with more healthy orthorexia. Our study presents findings that could be of significant clinical relevance in the future, especially with the interest increase in Orthorexia Nervosa prevalence, which subsequently prompts more research and intrigue about HeOr. Furthermore, it places healthy eating and consistent commitment to a healthy diet within a clearly defined scientific frame, on which further investigation can be based.

7.
J Pharm Policy Pract ; 14(1): 51, 2021 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34116719

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lebanon, a developing Middle Eastern country, was hit by the COVID-19 pandemic that occurred amid a severe national economic crisis. Community pharmacists are responsible for dispensing appropriate medications and products in addition to counseling, informing and educating the public, and promoting disease prevention and infection control. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess community pharmacists' knowledge, attitude, and practice towards the COVID-19 pandemic and evaluate behavior changes and safety measures. METHODS: An anonymous and standardized online questionnaire in English was disseminated via social media platforms to Lebanese community pharmacists. The questionnaire consisted of 95 items designed as Likert-scales and multiple-choice questions divided into four different sections: socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge-based, attitude-based, and pharmacy practice questions. Descriptive statistical analysis was used to summarize the demographic characteristics, and indices were created for knowledge, attitude, and practice by computing the correct answers for each section. RESULTS: A total of 310 questionnaires were completed. Around 61% have expressed their fear of getting infected with COVID-19 due to occupational exposure. The respondents were able to answer 80-90% of the knowledge-based questions of the survey. A more careful/anxious attitude, but not knowledge, was associated with overall better practice (p = 0.03). Also, respondents stated that they are dispensing protective equipment items such as masks (87%), gloves (60%), and sanitizers (77%) in small quantities due to limited availability. CONCLUSION: Our findings revealed an adequate level of knowledge and good practice towards COVID-19 among Lebanese community pharmacists. Their fears of contracting the virus and compromising the safety of those around them are justified. However, their supply of protective equipment is limited.

8.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 998, 2021 05 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34044790

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 was first detected in Lebanon on February 21, 2020; it reached its peak in January 2021, with a total number of 418,448 confirmed cases and 5380 deaths (until March 15, 2021). Gaining insight into factors regarding willingness or refusal for vaccination might guide our goals in raising the awareness and target efforts to increase acceptance of the COVID-19 vaccine and maximize the uptake. Therefore, this study aims to assess the intent to receive the COVID-19 vaccine among Lebanese adults and the factors associated with vaccine refusal. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study during November-December 2020 among Lebanese adults from all Lebanese regions using a survey tool with closed-ended questions that included sociodemographic data and questions about vaccine hesitancy, knowledge, attitude, practice, and fear of COVID-19. We used the snowball technique to collect the data because of the COVID-19 imposed lockdown. RESULTS: Of the 579 participants, 21.4% were willing to receive the vaccine, 40.9% refused, and the remainder were unsure of their response. More vaccine hesitancy (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.06; 95% CI 1.03-1.09) was significantly associated with more odds of disagreeing/ strongly disagreeing on receiving the COVID-19 vaccine compared to being neutral. More vaccine hesitancy (aOR = 0.95; 95% CI 0.91-0.99), female gender compared to males (aOR = 0.53; 95% CI 0.32-0.87), and being married compared to single (aOR = 0.53; 95% CI 0.29-0.98) were significantly associated with lower odds of agreeing/strongly agreeing on receiving the COVID-19 vaccine compared to being neutral. CONCLUSION: Overall, our findings revealed a high percentage of people (40%) who strongly disagreed with receiving the vaccine, mainly females, married participants, and those who have a general vaccine hesitancy. Moreover, no significant association was found with knowledge, attitude, or prevention practice regarding COVID-19. Targeted efforts are necessary to increase acceptance of a COVID-19 vaccine among the Lebanese population to control the COVID-19 pandemic. Further studies with a larger sample size are warranted to validate our results and provide better insights into the underlying reasons for refusing vaccination.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Adulto , Atitude , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Líbano , Masculino , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Vacinação
9.
BMC Pulm Med ; 21(1): 162, 2021 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33985479

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: No national research has yet explored the prevalence of asthma among adults in Lebanon. This study aims to evaluate the prevalence of physician-diagnosed asthma and current asthma, and their determinants among Lebanese adults 16 years old or above. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out using a multistage cluster sampling. The questionnaire used collected information on asthma, respiratory symptoms, and risk factors. RESULTS: The prevalence of physician-diagnosed asthma was 6.7% (95% CI 5-8.7%), and that of current asthma was 5% (95% CI 3.6-6.9%). Chronic symptoms such as cough, wheezing, and shortness of breath were worst at night. Factors positively associated with physician-diagnosed asthma were a secondary educational level (adjusted OR, aOR = 4.45), a family history of chronic respiratory diseases (aOR = 2.78), lung problems during childhood (15.9), and allergic rhinitis (4.19). Additionally, consuming fruits and vegetables less than once per week (3.36), a family history of chronic respiratory diseases (3.92), lung problems during childhood (9.43), and allergic rhinitis (8.12) were positively associated with current asthma. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of asthma was within the range reported from surrounding countries. However, repeated cross-sectional studies are necessary to evaluate trends in asthma prevalence in the Lebanese population.

10.
Value Health Reg Issues ; 25: 90-98, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33852980

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The rising incidence of urinary tract infections (UTIs) attributable to Escherichia coli resistant isolates is becoming a serious public health concern. Although global rates of infection vary considerably by region, the growing prevalence of this uropathogen has been associated with a high economic burden and health strain. This study aims: (1) to estimate the differences in clinical and economic outcomes between 2 groups of adult hospitalized patients with UTIs from E. coli resistant and susceptible bacteria and (2) to investigate drivers of this cost from a payer's perspective. METHODS: A prospective multicenter cohort study was conducted in 10 hospitals in Lebanon. The cost analysis followed a bottom-up microcosting approach; a linear regression was constructed to evaluate the predictors of hospitalization costs and a Cox proportional hazards model was used to estimate the impact of resistance on length of stay (LOS) and in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: Out of 467 inpatients, 250 cases were because of resistant E. coli isolates. Results showed that patients with resistant uropathogens had 29% higher mean total hospitalization costs ($3429 vs $2651; P = .004), and an extended median LOS (6 days vs 5 days; P = .020) compared with susceptible cohorts. The selection of resistant bacteria and the Charlson comorbidity index predicted higher total hospitalization costs and in-hospital mortality. CONCLUSION: In an era of increased pressure for cost containment, this study showed the burden of treating UTIs resulting from resistant bacteria. The results can inform cost-effectiveness analyses that intend to evaluate the benefit of a national action plan aimed at decreasing the impact of antibiotic resistance.

11.
Pharmacogenomics ; 22(7): 389-399, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33858192

RESUMO

Aim: Explore the possible association between clinical factors and genetic variants of the dopamine pathways and negative symptoms. Materials & methods: Negative symptoms were assessed in 206 patients with schizophrenia using the Arabic version of the self-evaluation of negative symptoms scale and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. Genotyping for COMT, DRD2, MTHFR and OPRM1 genes was performed. Results: Multivariable analysis showed that higher self-evaluation of negative symptoms scale scores were significantly associated with higher age, higher chlorpromazine-equivalent daily dose for typical antipsychotics and in married patients. Higher negative Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale scores were significantly associated with women and having the CT genotype for MTHFR c.677C>T (ß = 4.25; p = 0.008) compared with CC patients. Conclusion: Understanding both clinical/genetic factors could help improve the treatment of patients.

12.
BMC Pediatr ; 21(1): 204, 2021 04 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33910536

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Presently, 1 in 4 Lebanese adolescents is involved in bullying, with 12% being perpetrators. In Lebanon, around 90% of bullying incidents occur in schools. Given the lack of studies tackling bullying perpetration in Lebanon, this study aims to identify and target risk factors of bullying perpetration among Lebanese adolescents, which would serve future prevention and intervention programs. METHODS: This cross-sectional study took place between January and May 2019 in a proportionate random sample of schools from all Lebanese districts. A total of 1810 (90.5%) out of 2000 students accepted to participate. RESULTS: Results showed that 831 (49.1%, CI: 0.46-0.51) participants had bullied other people. A stepwise linear regression, using as the dependent variable the bullying perpetration score, showed that higher psychological (ß = 0.12; 95% CI 0.083-0.176), sexual (ß = 0.26; 95% CI 0.128-0.411), neglect (ß = 0.08; 95% CI 0.051-0.120), physical abuse (ß = 0.13; 95% CI 0.036-0.235), higher internet addiction (ß = 0.07; 95% CI 0.057-0.097), higher social fear (ß = 0.10; 95% CI 0.075-0.140), and having separated parents (ß = 1.60; 95% CI 0.561-2.650) were significantly associated with more bullying perpetration. Higher social avoidance (ß = - 0.03; 95% CI -0.062- -0.003) was significantly associated with less bullying perpetration. CONCLUSION: The results revealed that bullying perpetration is significantly associated with parental status, child abuse, internet addiction, and social fear. Educational and relevant governmental institutions could use our findings to develop and implement efficient bullying prevention and intervention programs for all involved parties.


Assuntos
Bullying , Maus-Tratos Infantis , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Líbano/epidemiologia , Instituições Acadêmicas
13.
Arch Public Health ; 79(1): 56, 2021 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33892801

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In clinical practice, quality of life measures can be used alongside some types of assessment to give valuable information that can identify areas that influence an individual and help the clinician make the best healthcare choices. This study aimed to investigate the psychometric properties of the Arabic version of the 12-item short-form health survey (SF-12) in a sample of Lebanese adults. METHODS: This cross-sectional study performed between July and November 2019 recruited 269 participants. Cronbach's alpha was used to assess the reliability of the SF-12 questionnaire, and a factor analysis using the principal component analysis was performed to confirm its construct validity. RESULTS: The mean score for the "physical component summary (PCS-12)" was 50.27 ± 8.94 (95 % CI: 49.18-51.36) and for the "Mental component summary (MCS-12)" was 44.95 ± 12.17 (95 % CI: 43.47-46.43). A satisfactory Cronbach's alpha was found for the two components: MCS (α = 0.707) and PCS (α = 0.743). The principal component analysis converged over a two-factor solution (physical and mental), explaining a total variance of 55.75 %. Correlations between the SF-12 scales and single items were significant, showing a good construct validity. The "physical functioning", "role physical", "bodily pain", and "general health" subscales were highly associated with "PCS-12", while the "vitality", "social functioning", "role emotional", and "mental health" subscales were more associated with MCS-12. CONCLUSIONS: The Arabic version of the SF-12 is a reliable, easy-to-use, and valid tool to measure health-related quality of life in the general population. Future studies using a larger sample size and focusing on questionnaire psychometric properties are necessary to confirm our findings.

14.
Eat Weight Disord ; 2021 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33840074

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To explore the possible moderating relation between impulsive behavior and maladaptive personality traits in regards to orthorexia nervosa (ON). METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted between July and December 2019 and recruited 519 Lebanese adults from seven community pharmacies randomly selected from a list provided by the Lebanese Order of Pharmacists. The Teruel Orthorexia Scale (TOS) was employed to assess orthorexic eating tendencies, the I-8 measured impulsivity and the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID) evaluated maladaptive personality traits. RESULTS: Our results showed that, for I-8 subscales, only higher perseverance (B = 0.31) was significantly associated with higher ON. In regard to PID-5 subscales, only higher negative affect (B = - 0.34) was significantly associated with lower ON. Furthermore, significant interactions were found between personality traits and impulsivity to predict TOS-ON. CONCLUSION: The current results show that female gender, maladaptive personality traits and impulsivity present contributing factors regarding orthorexic eating. Certain impulsivity dimensions were confirmed to interact with personality traits in the prediction of orthorexic eating thereby highlighting possible risk factors and psychopathological mechanisms. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level V, cross-sectional descriptive study.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33821486

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To develop and validate a short version of the Beirut Distress Scale (BDS-22), the BDS-10, in the Lebanese population, and evaluate the association between psychological distress and other mental disorders. METHODS: A total of 2260 participants was enrolled in this cross-sectional study (January-July 2019). RESULTS: Items converged over a solution of two factors (Factor 1 = Mood, affect and cognitive symptoms; Factor 2 = Physical symptoms; total variance explained = 64.51%). A significantly high correlation was found between BDS-10 and BDS-22 (r = 0.963, p < 0.001). Higher depression, anxiety, and insomnia were significantly associated with higher stress (higher BDS-10 and BDS-22 scores). PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: This new short tool is valid and reliable to screen for psychological distress, influencing mood and affect, and physical and cognitive functions.

16.
BMC Pediatr ; 21(1): 148, 2021 03 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33781242

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: International literature clearly describes factors associated with problematic internet use, including substance dependence, online gambling, social impairment, and functional difficulties. Therefore, it was imperative to assess the extent to which young adolescents in Lebanese schools are affected by problematic internet use (PIU) and the factors associated with it. This large-scale Lebanese survey aims to evaluate the relationship between PIU, depression, and substance use, including alcohol consumption and nicotine use (cigarettes and waterpipe) among adolescents in Lebanese schools. METHODS: This cross-sectional study conducted between January and May 2019 assessed internet use through the Internet Addiction Test (IAT), with 'severe internet use' being the threshold for problematic internet use. It enrolled a total of 1810 adolescents aged 14 to 17 from 16 schools from all Lebanese Mohafazat. RESULTS: The majority of the participants had an average internet use 74.8% (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.72-0.76), 20.7% (95% CI: 0.18-0.22) had a frequent internet use, and 4.5% (95% CI: 0.03-0.05) had a severe internet use. Higher alcohol dependence (ß = 0.456, p < 0.001), higher depression (ß = 0.079, p = 0.001), and having separated parents vs. living together (ß = 0.136, p < 0.001) were significantly associated with higher IAT scores. Higher waterpipe dependence (ß = -0.218, p < 0.001) was significantly associated with lower IAT scores. CONCLUSION: This study, the first and largest of its kind in the Middle East, showed that some psychiatric disorders, such as depression and substance use (smoking and alcohol), are associated with more problematic internet use among Lebanese adolescents. These results could serve as the first step for policymakers towards implementing early awareness campaigns to look at this problem more in-depth and come up with efficient actions to avoid it.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo , Comportamento Aditivo , Adolescente , Comportamento Aditivo/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Internet , Uso da Internet , Oriente Médio , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0249025, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33765069

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Up till today, studies carried in Lebanon have focused more on the prevalence of HIV and behaviors and quality of life of infected individuals, however, none of these studies discussed the degree of stigma towards these populations. Therefore, the aim of this study is to measure the rate of stigma in terms of knowledge, attitude and practice towards patients living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) (PLWHA) and examine the factors associated with this stigma. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey, enrolling 862 participants, was carried across the five governorates in Lebanon: Beirut, Mount Lebanon, North, South and Bekaa. The survey was a self-administered questionnaire which covered information about participants' general demographics, their knowledge, attitudes, practices and awareness towards HIV/AIDS in Lebanon., attitudes towards PLWHA, practices related to HIV/AIDS and awareness regarding HIV/AIDS situation in Lebanon. RESULTS: The response rate to the survey was 78.36% (862 participants). Being Muslim (Beta = -2.56) or Druze (Beta = -2.64) compared to Christians were significantly associated with lower knowledge towards HIV/AIDS, whereas having a secondary (Beta = 2.71) and a university (Beta = 3.04) levels of education compared to illiteracy and higher age (Beta = 0.05) were significantly associated with higher knowledge. Higher knowledge (Beta = 0.66) was significantly associated with better attitude, whereas higher age (Beta = -0.14) and being Muslim compared to Christian (Beta = -3.44) were significantly associated with worse attitude. Better attitude (Beta = 0.02) was significantly associated with better practice, whereas females compared to males (Beta = -0.39), having a secondary level of education compared to illiteracy (Beta = -0.88) and being Muslim compared to Christian (Beta = -0.32) were significantly associated with worse practice. CONCLUSION: Our results stress the need for educational programs, advocacy campaigns and policies to help reduce HIV stigma. This will then help start developing interventions and strategies for a possible reduction in the stigmatization level.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Análise Fatorial , Humanos , Líbano/epidemiologia , Análise Multivariada , Análise de Regressão , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
18.
Pharm. pract. (Granada, Internet) ; 19(1): 0-0, ene.-mar. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-201718

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dentists play an essential role in providing high-quality dental care, taking into consideration the clinical context and concomitant medications taken by the patients. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess drug-prescribing perception and practices in addition to drug-related educational needs among Lebanese dentists; it also evaluated the need for interprofessional collaboration between dentists and pharmacists. METHODS: An exploratory cross-sectional study using an online questionnaire targeted a sample of dentists from all Lebanese districts. Participants gave their consent by accepting to complete the survey (ethics approval reference: USJ-2016-63). The questionnaire consisted of closed-ended questions exploring: 1) drug-prescribing perception, 2) drug-prescribing practice, and 3) collaboration with pharmacists regarding their respective roles in providing appropriate counseling to patients. Two indexes were created: the first evaluated self-confidence in prescribing medications, and the second assessed dentists' confidence in pharmacists. Logistic regressions were performed, taking each index as a dependent variable. RESULTS: A total of 137 dentists completed the survey (59% females; mean age: 42.17; SD: 13.78 years). The majority had a fair to good perceived knowledge in pharmacology and therapeutics (80.3%), only 30.7% reported to be sufficiently equipped to prescribe safely. Dentists exhibited particularly low perceived knowledge about prescribing in elderly patients, dosing, medication use in pregnancy, drug interactions, and adverse reactions. Dentists specialized in periodontics had the lowest odds of having self-confidence in prescribing drugs (aOR=0.25; p < 0.001). Also, 64.3% declared that they routinely check a reference source before prescribing, and 78% relied on pharmaceutical companies and medical representatives to get information on medications. While 61% declared that pharmacists should provide oral care counseling, only half of them encouraged their patients to talk to their pharmacists about their medications. Only 15% considered that patients are getting enough counseling from the pharmacist, with a global confidence index below the median value, suggesting the need for more collaboration, especially with periodontists who exhibited the lowest confidence in pharmacists (aOR=0.45). CONCLUSIONS: Lebanese dentists reported some lack of knowledge and confidence in prescribing practices. Education, training, and close collaboration between pharmacists and dentists are essential to overcome these problems and avoid potential harm to patients


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Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Assistência Odontológica/estatística & dados numéricos , Medicamentos sob Prescrição/uso terapêutico , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Líbano/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Prescrição Inadequada/estatística & dados numéricos , Comunicação Interdisciplinar , Educação Continuada em Odontologia/tendências
19.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(22): 28407-28414, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33543440

RESUMO

Vulnerable adolescents may lose control over cigarette use within a day or two after smoking their first cigarette, as nicotine dependence (ND) symptoms may appear before actual daily smoking and usually occur at low levels of daily smoking. Moreover, smoking can cause illnesses and promote other types of substance abuse. Therefore, it was deemed essential to adapt the Young Adults' Cigarette Dependence (YACD) Scale to develop and validate the Adolescent Cigarette Dependence Scale (ACDS) in Lebanese adolescents and evaluate whether cumulative cigarette smoking is associated with nicotine dependence and symptoms of dependence. A cross-sectional study was carried out between August and September 2020, during the partial sanitary lockdown imposed by the government to limit COVID-19, coinciding with the summer holidays for most Lebanese. The total sample consisted of 564 community-dwelling adolescents aged 13 to 18. A factor analysis was performed using a varimax rotation. The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) measurement of sampling adequacy and Bartlett's sphericity test were appropriate. The factors retained corresponded to Eigenvalues > 1. Cronbach's alpha value represented the internal consistency of the scale. The Hooked on Nicotine Checklist (HONC) was used to screen for dependence symptoms. All items of the YACD were extracted, except for items 4 (smoking to concentrate at work) and 18 (smoking as a habit), which yielded a three-factor solution (factor 1 = smoking patterns; factor 2 = positive and negative reinforcements; factor 3 = smoking cessation) with Eigenvalues > 1 (variance explained = 56.18%; KMO = 0.784; Bartlett's sphericity test p < 0.001; αCronbach = 0.875). The newly generated scale was termed Adolescent Cigarette Dependence Scale (ACDS) and consisted of 19 items. Higher ACDS scores (higher cigarette dependence) were significantly associated with higher HONC scores (higher symptoms of dependence) (rho = 0.647; p < 0.001). Having deceased (B = 8.54) or divorced (B = 4.26) parents and higher cumulative cigarette smoking (B = 0.29) were significantly associated with higher ACDS scores. Higher cumulative cigarette smoking (B = 0.05) was significantly associated with higher HONC scores due to cigarettes. This study could validate a new tool to evaluate nicotine dependence among Lebanese adolescents, the Adolescent Cigarette Dependence Scale (ACDS). This version adapted from the Young Adults' Cigarette Dependence (YACD) Scale is reliable and valuable and correlates well with other scales, such as the HONC. However, further studies are necessary to improve this instrument, adding new questions useful for the diagnosis and evaluation of cigarette dependence.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Produtos do Tabaco , Adolescente , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
20.
Allergol Immunopathol (Madr) ; 49(1): 40-49, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33528928

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The Asthma Risk Factor Scale (ARFS) is used to screen for asthma in Lebanese preschool children (aged 3-16 years). The study objective was to describe factors associated with asthma, confirm ARFS score validity among Lebanese preschool children, and develop a risk score for asthma diagnosis in this age group (Pre-School Asthma Risk Factor Scale [PS-ARFS]). METHODS: A cross-sectional study enrolled 515 preschool children (November 2018 and March 2019). The ARFS is a 15-item tool that assesses children's environmental exposure, parental history of asthma, and dietary habits. RESULTS: The percentage of asthmatic children was 8.2%. Higher odds of asthma in children were associated with living near a prairie sprayed with pesticides (odds ratio [OR] = 2.33), playing outdoors (OR = 2.89), having a heater in the bedroom (OR = 10.73), attending a nursery (OR = 2.91), having a mother who smokes cigarettes (OR = 3.35) or water pipe (OR = 2.46), a sister with a history of seasonal allergy (OR = 6.81), and a parental history (mother and father) of asthma (OR = 6.15 and OR = 9.83, respectively). Higher ARFS scores (OR = 1.144) were associated with higher odds of asthma. Accordingly, the PS-ARFS was created according to the following formula: ARFS score + (playing outdoor × 2.4) + (heating system in the bedroom × 12.9) + (having attended a nursery × 2.5) (area under the curve = 0.908 [0.860-0.957]; P < 0.001); at value: 14.20, Se = 84.3% and Sp = 90.9%. CONCLUSION: PS-ARFS is suggested for screening of asthma in preschool children in an epidemiological setting and in the absence of spirometry.


Assuntos
Asma/diagnóstico , Asma/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Líbano/epidemiologia , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prevalência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Risco
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