Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 14 de 14
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 740302, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34744723

RESUMO

This commentary critically examines the modern paradigm of natural volatiles in 'medical aromatherapy', first by explaining the semantics of natural volatiles in health, then by addressing chemophenetic challenges to authenticity or reproducibility, and finally by elaborating on pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes in food, therapy, and disease prophylaxis. Research over the last 50 years has generated substantial knowledge of the chemical diversity of volatiles, and their strengths and weaknesses as antimicrobial agents. However, due to modest in vitro outcomes, the emphasis has shifted toward the ability to synergise or potentiate non-volatile natural or pharmaceutical drugs, and to modulate gene expression by binding to the lipophilic domain of mammalian cell receptors. Because essential oils and natural volatiles are small and lipophilic, they demonstrate high skin penetrating abilities when suitably encapsulated, or if derived from a dietary item they bioaccumulate in fatty tissues in the body. In the skin or body, they may synergise or drive de novo therapeutic outcomes that range from anti-inflammatory effects through to insulin sensitisation, dermal rejuvenation, keratinocyte migration, upregulation of hair follicle bulb stem cells or complementation of anti-cancer therapies. Taking all this into consideration, volatile organic compounds should be examined as candidates for prophylaxis of cardiovascular disease. Considering the modern understanding of biology, the science of natural volatiles may need to be revisited in the context of health and nutrition.

2.
Plants (Basel) ; 10(10)2021 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34685925

RESUMO

The aromatic species Piper gaudichaudianum Kunth (Piperaceae) is widely used in Brazil for medicinal and ritualistic applications. In the current study, chemophenetic patterns were realized across season and circadian rhythm based on the chemical profile of essential oils (EOs) from leaves. Hydrodistilled essential oils were analyzed by GC-MS and GC-FID, and a new calculation of metabolite oxidation level, averaged for each individual molecule component of the EO, was used to explore the patterns of metabolism/biosynthesis. This new index used an intermediate calculation, the 'weighted average redox standard' (SRO), to enable a value for mixtures of metabolites to be generated, the 'general mixture redox index' (GMOR). The indices were subjected to a proof-of-concept approach by making comparison to outcomes from multivariate analyses, i.e., PCA and HCA. Chemical analysis demonstrated that the essential oils were dominated by sesquiterpenes, constructed of 15 classes of compound (C-skeletons), and 4 C-skeletons were recognized in the monoterpene group, giving a total of 19. The variation of chemical profiles was distinct at different phenological stages, but stronger chemical variation was evident between day and night as compared to season. Furthermore, due to comprehensive sampling across different regions, nine chemotypes were recognized, including those previously reported. The SRO and GMRO indices demonstrate that phenological variation of chemistry is mainly an outcome of redox fluctuations in terpene biosynthesis, changing from day to night. These indices also corroborate that chemical diversity is increased with oxidative metabolism. Lastly, the current study demonstrates pronounced phenotypic plasticity in P. gaudichaudianum, which makes it a suitable candidate to help further our understanding of chemophenetics and chemical ecology.

3.
FASEB Bioadv ; 3(8): 601-610, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34377956

RESUMO

One of the side effects of oral antiaging retinoids is increased hair shedding. Retinoids promote the expression of TGF-ß2 from fibroblasts, which stimulate collagen expression but silences keratinocytes. Since keratinocytes normally influence differentiation of dermal papilla cells at the base of the hair follicle, retinoids feasibly inhibit hair growth via the increased expression of TGF-ß2, which inhibits Wnt/ß-catenin signaling. Fortunately, the plant kingdom provides an array of alternatives as dual-acting nutricosmetics and topicals that work independently of TGF-ß2 to confer dermal antiaging and hair health effects. These alternatives include "plant hormones" such as cytokinins and phytoestrogens. Many cytokinins are agonists of the G-coupled adenosine receptors. Partial agonism of adenosine receptors promotes collagen synthesis independently of TGF-ß2 signaling. Adenosine expression is potentially also the mechanism of minoxidil in promotion of scalp hair growth. Because of crosstalk between adenosine and cannabinoid receptors it makes sense to try combinations of specific CB2 agonists and cytokinins (or phytoestrogens). However, dual-acting cosmetics including peptides with high numbers of positively charged amino acids, such as lysine or arginine, offer real potential as they can be processed from multiple botanical candidates, including almond, fenugreek, pea sprouts, soy, and seaweeds. The current review summarizes much of what is known about retinoid alternatives in the plant kingdom and identifies potentially fruitful new areas of research.

4.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr ; : 1-16, 2021 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33480270

RESUMO

With the increasing demand for natural products by the consumer in the marketplace it is necessary to see a proportional increase in behind-the-scenes science to ensure that the ideology of safety and honesty, that is justifiably expected by the wider public, is adequately satisfied. It is of essence to have a fair yet firm governance of nutraceuticals, cosmetics, therapies, and foods. However, with increasing sophistications in adulteration and "claim" loopholes that make it easier for adulterated or counterfeited natural products to be "fudged" to meet the pharmacopeia standards, governance protocols must utilize an "identification and authentication" approach that goes beyond the Pharmacopeia standards to help regulate and transparently communicate natural products in the commercial context. While it is becoming a rat race in keeping commercial natural products honest, modern technology can support authenticators and adequately defeat these challenges.

5.
Phytochemistry ; 176: 112403, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32422392

RESUMO

Prostanthera lasianthos (Lamiaceae) is commonly referred to as the 'Victorian Christmas Bush', a name that derives from the floral display it gives in the Christmas period. However, botanists recognise P. lasianthos as a heterogeneous species aggregate that includes several putative new species that are confined to disjunct locations. Recently one taxon was revised to P. eungella B.J.Conn & K.M.Proft. In the current study the chemistry of essential oils was determined for 25 specimens, representative of 8 taxa (including P. eungella). Chemical relationships were investigated using two types of multivariate analysis and several distinct chemical profiles were identified. One taxon (P. sp. Wollomombi Gorge) was sampled nine times from three different locations during the year to determine the effects of seasonal variation and subjectively-assessed soil moisture content. It was demonstrated that the chemistry of this taxon is strongly influenced by soil moisture independently of growth stage, but possibly influenced by periods of dry or wet weather. Two distinct chemotypes and one intermediate type were identified. These chemotypes differed by mediated expression of linalool and hence linalyl acetate. These metabolites were also present in specimens of P. sp. Bald Mountain, but as minor components. This latter taxon could be reliably distinguished by higher relative abundance of butanoic acid, 1-methylbutyl ester. As judged by a smaller sampling size for the other taxa, evidence that this pattern of mediated expression between terpene species was found. However, the identity of terpenes that demonstrated this mediated expression were different for each taxon; for example, volatiles from P. eungella demonstrated mediation between α-pinene and caryophyllene. Nevertheless, it is possible that chemical expression of all taxa in the heterogeneous species aggregate is strongly mediated by the moisture or nutrient content of soils. Thus, the dataset produced during this study can be used as a reference against other chemical data to investigate taxonomic placement in members of this group.


Assuntos
Lamiaceae , Óleos Voláteis , Adaptação Fisiológica , Austrália , Terpenos
6.
Front Microbiol ; 10: 2470, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31736910

RESUMO

The new era of multidrug resistance of pathogens against frontline antibiotics has compromised the immense therapeutic gains of the 'golden age,' stimulating a resurgence in antimicrobial research focused on antimicrobial and immunomodulatory components of botanical, fungal or microbial origin. While much valuable information has been amassed on the potency of crude extracts and, indeed, purified compounds there are too many reports that uncritically extrapolate observed in vitro activity to presumed ingestive and/or topical therapeutic value, particularly in the discipline of ethnopharmacology. Thus, natural product researchers would benefit from a basic pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic understanding. Furthermore, therapeutic success of complex mixtures or single components derived therefrom is not always proportionate to their MIC values, since immunomodulation can be the dominant mechanism of action. Researchers often fail to acknowledge this, particularly when 'null' activity is observed. In this review we introduce the most up to date theories of oral and topical bioavailability including the metabolic processes affecting xenobiotic biotransformation before and after drugs reach the site of their action in the body. We briefly examine the common methodologies employed in antimicrobial, immunomodulatory and pharmacokinetic research. Importantly, we emphasize the contribution of synergies and/or antagonisms in complex mixtures as they affect absorptive processes in the body and sometimes potentiate activity. Strictly in the context of natural product research, it is important to acknowledge the potential for chemotypic variation within important medicinal plants. Furthermore, polar head space and rotatable bonds give a priori indications of the likelihood of bioavailability of active metabolites. Considering this and other relatively simple chemical insights, we hope to provide the basis for a more rigorous scientific assessment, enabling researchers to predict the likelihood that observed in vitro anti-infective activity will translate to in vivo outcomes in a therapeutic context. We give worked examples of tentative pharmacokinetic assessment of some well-known medicinal plants.

7.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 227: 206-236, 2018 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30195058

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Research in the past half a century has gradually sketched the biological mechanism leading to androgenetic alopecia (AGA). Until recently the aetiological paradigm has been too limited to enable intelligent commentary on the use of folk remedies to treat or reduce the expression of this condition. However, our understanding is now at a point where we can describe how some folk remedies work, predict how effective they will be or why they fail. RESULTS: The new paradigm of AGA is that inheritance and androgens (dihydrotestosterone) are the primary contributors and a secondary pathology, microinflammation, reinforces the process at more advanced stages of follicular miniaturisation. The main protagonist to microinflammation is believed to be microbial or Demodex over-colonisation of the infundibulum of the pilosebaceous unit, which can be ameliorated by antimicrobial/acaricidal or anti-inflammatory therapies that are used as adjuvants to androgen dependent treatments (either synthetic or natural). Furthermore, studies reveal that suboptimal androgen metabolism occurs in both AGA and insulin resistance (low SHBG or high DHT), suggesting comorbidity. Both can be ameliorated by dietary phytochemicals, such as specific classes of phenols (isoflavones, phenolic methoxy abietanes, hydroxylated anthraquinones) or polycyclic triterpenes (sterols, lupanes), by dual inhibition of key enzymes in AGA (5α-reductase) and insulin resistance (ie., DPP-4 or PTP1B) or agonism of nuclear receptors (PPARγ). Evidence strongly indicates that some plant-based folk remedies can ameliorate both primary and secondary aetiological factors in AGA and improve insulin resistance, or act merely as successful adjuvants to mainstream androgen dependent therapies. CONCLUSION: Thus, if AGA is viewed as an outcome of primary and secondary factors, then it is better that a 'multimodal' or 'umbrella' approach, to achieve cessation and/or reversal, is put into practice, using complementation of chemical species (isoflavones, anthraquinones, procyanidins, triterpenes, saponins and hydrogen sulphide prodrugs), thereby targeting multiple 'factors'.


Assuntos
Alopecia/tratamento farmacológico , Medicina Tradicional , Inibidores de 5-alfa Redutase/uso terapêutico , Alopecia/epidemiologia , Alopecia/etnologia , Alopecia/etiologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina , Plantas Medicinais
8.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 154(3): 758-66, 2014 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24837304

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Eremophila longifolia is considered by some Australian Aboriginal tribal groups to be among the most significant of the medicinal plants in contemporary and traditional use. Usage modalities traditionally involved lipophilic extraction into animal fats and most importantly, ceremonial or medicinal smoking applications, involving the fumigation of mothers and infants following childbirth or boys following circumcision. An attempt was made to replicate the smoking modalities used by Australian Aboriginal people in the laboratory to identify bioactive compounds. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two methods were used to produce smoke extracts; smoke was channelled through a condenser then bubbled into solvent, or bubbled directly into H2O then partitioned into chloroform followed by butanol. Extracts were used, firstly for antimicrobial screening using micro-titre plate broth dilution to produce minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC), and secondly for chemical analysis. Structure elucidation of an abundant compound isolated from the smoke extract was performed using 2D-NMR and derivatisation. RESULTS: Significant antimicrobial activity (<1.0 mg/ml) was produced using the smoke extracts against the Gram-positive species Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and the yeast Candida albicans. A major component of the smoke with strong antimicrobial activity (0.13-0.5 mg/ml) was isolated which we have named (-)-genifuranal. Structure elucidation using 2D-NMR and derivatisation demonstrated genifuranal to be 5,6-dihydro-4H-cyclopenta[c]furan-4-ylacetaldehyde. Genifuranal is not observed in the leaves before heating, but is produced in the smoking or heating process and is thought to derive from hydrolysis and rearrangement of geniposidic acid or a related glycoside. Only geographically specific specimens of Eremophila longifolia produced (-)-genifuranal, which strongly supports previous hypothesised geographical variation in traditional usage, reflective of phytochemical variation. CONCLUSION: It would appear that genifuranal is the medicinal principal involved in traditional use of Eremophila longifolia when smoking modalities are used. Topical treatments traditionally produced by lipophilic extraction into animal fats are not likely to have had genifuranal present, as the mechanism for its formation requires heat.


Assuntos
Aldeídos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/isolamento & purificação , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Furanos/farmacologia , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos , Scrophulariaceae/química , Fumar , Aldeídos/química , Aldeídos/isolamento & purificação , Antifúngicos/química , Austrália , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Furanos/química , Furanos/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
9.
Phytochemistry ; 105: 43-51, 2014 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24874947

RESUMO

Previous studies have demonstrated that the widely distributed desert plant Eremophila longifolia has at least six geographically defined essential oil chemotypes. The focus of the present study is to extend and enhance information concerning known chemotypes and to investigate the involvement of cell nuclei ploidy in this variation. Forty field collected specimens of E. longifolia were taken from most of the mainland states of Australia then subjected to hydrodistillation to produce essential oils, which were then chemically characterised. Ploidy was determined using relative fluorescence of cell nuclei stained with propidium iodide, measured in a flow cytometer. Using principal component analysis (PCA), at least three essential oil chemotypes, in addition to the six already described, were identified in the present study. Previously described high yielding essential oil chemotypes were also characterised in terms of diploidy. For the first time diploid populations were identified in New South Wales, correlating with high yielding isomenthone/menthone and karahanaenone chemotypes. Furthermore, the separate diploid population previously described from Western Australia was demonstrated to be the safrole/methyl eugenol type, which is restricted to a small geographic range in far north-west Western Australia (Murchison District). All other chemotypes were shown to be tetraploid, including apparently randomly emerging individuals, representative of chemotypes producing low yields of isomenthone/menthone and karahanaenone similar in composition to the high yielding diploid types.


Assuntos
Eremophila (Planta)/química , Óleos Voláteis/química , Scrophulariaceae/química , Austrália , Eugenol/análogos & derivados , Eugenol/análise , Eugenol/química , Humanos , Mentol/análise , Mentol/química , Estrutura Molecular , Análise de Componente Principal , Safrol/análise , Safrol/química , Scrophulariaceae/genética
10.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 153(3): 872-83, 2014 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24690774

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Callitrisendlicheri and C.glaucophylla were highly valued by Australian Aboriginal people for use in medicinal applications. Pine needles were prepared using modalities of either smoking or topical preparations, requiring either aqueous or lipophilic extraction into animal fat. Extracts treated various ailments consistent with pathogenic infection, or other topical or tracheal ailments not clearly elucidated in ethnopharmacological records. AIM OF THE STUDY: Here we aim firstly to investigate antimicrobial activities of both smoke, essential oil and solvent extracts and secondly to chemically characterise significant volatile compounds potentially related to medicinal or antimicrobial activities. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Essential oils were produced using traditional hydrodistillation of pine needles collected from Callitrisendlicheri and C.glaucophylla. From the same material, solvent extracts were produced separately, using acetone and methanol, and then smoke extracts were produced with separate methods described herein, using fresh needles. All extracts were screened for antimicrobial activity against a range of bacterial organisms and sporicidal activity against pathogenic fungi (Trichophytonmentagrophytes, T.interdigitalis and T.rubrum). RESULTS: Essential oils produced only modest antibacterial activity and the Callitris endlicheri essential oil had moderate antifungal activity. Smoke extracts demonstrated considerable broad spectrum antimicrobial activity, but solvent extracts demonstrated more selective activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and the yeast Candida albicans. Chemical character of essential oils was consistent with previous studies; however, solvent and smoke extracts from fresh needles produced high concentrations of potentially medicinal abietane diterpenes, specifically pisiferal, pisiferol and ferruginol; well known from Japanese species with demonstrated bioactivity. CONCLUSION: The occurrence of these diterpenes and other phenolics, in conjunction with significant antimicrobial activities from the various extracts, is in alignment with the use of Australian Callitris species in Aboriginal medicinal practice.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Antifúngicos , Cupressaceae , Óleos Voláteis , Extratos Vegetais , Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/isolamento & purificação , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Austrália , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida albicans/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Medicina Tradicional , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Óleos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Trichophyton/efeitos dos fármacos , Trichophyton/crescimento & desenvolvimento
11.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 145(3): 813-21, 2013 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23274743

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Although no known medicinal use for Pittosporum undulatum Vent. (Pittosporaceae) has been recorded, anecdotal evidence suggests that Australian Aboriginal people used Pittosporum angustifolium Lodd., G. Lodd. & W. Lodd. topically for eczema, pruritis or to induce lactation in mothers following child-birth and internally for coughs, colds or cramps. AIMS OF THE STUDY: Essential oil composition and bioactivity as well as differential solvent extract antimicrobial activity from Pittosporum angustifolium are investigated here first, to partially describe the composition of volatiles released in traditional applications of Pittosporum angustifolium for colds or as a lactagogue, and second to investigate antibacterial activity related to topical applications. Essential oils were also investigated from Pittosporum undulatum Vent., first to enhance essential oil data produced in previous studies, and second as a comparison to Pittosporum angustifolium. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Essential oils were hydrodistilled from fruit and leaves of both species using a modified approach to lessen the negative (frothing) effect of saponins. This was achieved by floating pumice or pearlite obsidian over the mixture to crush the suds formed while boiling. Essential oil extracts were analysed using GC-MS, quantified using GC-FID then screened for antimicrobial activity using a micro-titre plate broth dilution assay (MIC). Using dichloromethane, methanol, hexane and H(2)O as solvents, extracts were produced from leaves and fruit of Pittosporum angustifolium and screened for antimicrobial activity and qualitative phytochemical character. RESULTS: Although the essential oil from leaves and fruit of Pittosporum undulatum demonstrated some component variation, the essential oil from fruits of Pittosporum angustifolium had major constituents that strongly varied according to the geographical location of collection, suggesting the existence of at least two chemotypes; one with high abundance of acetic acid decyl ester. This chemotype had high antimicrobial activity whilst the other chemotype had only moderate antimicrobial activity against the three microbial species investigated here. This result may support the occurrence of geographical specificity with regard to ethnopharmacological use. Antimicrobial activity screening of the solvent extracts from Pittosporum angustifolium revealed the leaves to be superior to fruit, with water being the most suitable extraction solvent. CONCLUSION: To the best of our knowledge, this study constitutes the first time essential oils, and solvent extracts from the fruits of Pittosporum angustifolium, have been examined employing comprehensive chemical and biological analysis. The essential oil composition presented in this paper, includes components with structural similarity as chemosemiotic compounds involved in mother-infant identification, which may have significance with regard to traditional applications as a lactagogue.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Rosales , Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Antifúngicos/isolamento & purificação , Austrália , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida albicans/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frutas/química , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos , Óleos Voláteis/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química
12.
Phytother Res ; 27(10): 1508-16, 2013 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23193085

RESUMO

Essential oils were extracted by hydrodistillation from the traditional Australian medicinal plant Eremophila bignoniiflora, characterized chemically and then screened for bioactivity. Characterization and quantification were completed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and GC-flame ionization detection, respectively. Antimicrobial capacity was assessed using disc diffusion and micro-titre plate broth dilution and further characterized using thin layer chromatography followed by bioautography to assign activity to separated individual active components. Antifungal capacity was investigated using micro-titre plate broth dilution against pathogenic Trichophyton species. Free radical scavenging ability was assessed using the diphenylpicrylhydradyl reaction in methanol. The predominant components of the essential oil were fenchyl-acetate and bornyl-acetate. However, bioautography indicated antimicrobial ability to be largely linked to the less abundant, more polar constituents. Oils displayed only modest antifungal ability against pathogenic Trichophyton species associated with dermatophytosis, but moderate to high antimicrobial activity, particularly against the yeast Candida albicans and the bacteria Staphylococcus epidermidis. Essential oils exhibited relatively low free radical scavenging ability. Speculation over the role of essential oils in the traditional medicinal applications of E. bignoniiflora follows, exploring correlations between traditional use and investigated bioactivities.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/química , Antifúngicos/química , Sequestradores de Radicais Livres/química , Myoporaceae/química , Óleos Voláteis/química , Plantas Medicinais/química , Acetatos/química , Acetatos/isolamento & purificação , Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Antifúngicos/isolamento & purificação , Austrália , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatografia em Camada Delgada , Sequestradores de Radicais Livres/isolamento & purificação , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Medicina Tradicional , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Óleos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Staphylococcus epidermidis/efeitos dos fármacos , Trichophyton/efeitos dos fármacos
13.
Ecohealth ; 9(3): 315-27, 2012 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22777052

RESUMO

Interest in preserving the cultural knowledge of Aboriginal Australians continues to rise. Various studies have erupted which aim to redefine knowledge that was once lost or obscured in writing and hitherto ignored. Recognising and acknowledging the traditional Aboriginal knowledge of the Australian environment helps to strengthen Aboriginal identity and gives credibility to the rising paradigm of ecotechnology in historic pre-European Australia. This review aims to establish knowledge of a traditional awareness of factors leading towards eutrophication in water resource management. Journals from pioneering explorers were examined for evidence of cyanobacterial blooms and examples of Aboriginal water resource management practices that aimed at avoiding health threats from poor water quality. Some cultural practices, focused on water resource management, are discussed with brief mentioned of the Waugal. It is concluded that in some cases the incorporation of scientific laws into mythology is a form of conceptual modelling compatible with science if examined carefully.


Assuntos
Cianobactérias , Exposição Ambiental/história , Proliferação Nociva de Algas , Austrália , História do Século XIX , Humanos , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos , Microbiologia da Água
14.
Ecohealth ; 6(3): 390-403, 2009 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20108022

RESUMO

During times of pre-European Australia, indigenous people utilized methods of food procurement that resulted in toxic phytochemicals from plants entering their waterholes. This paper focuses on three of these plants, namely the leaves of Acacia colei and Duboisia hopwoodii, which were used by hunters to poison water holes to stun fish or a drinking animal, and the seeds of Castanospermum australe, which were eaten following the leaching of toxins into a running stream. If consumed by humans, the main toxins from these plants--saponins/sesquiterpenes, nicotine/nornicotine, and australine/castanospermine--are fatal. However, it is undetermined whether populations of Cyanobacteria also can be affected. During this study, the previously mentioned plants were administered to populations of the species Anabaena circinalis, Microcystis aeruginosa, and Nodularia spumigena, while mimicking the traditional applications of these plants as closely as possible. Results varied with treatments and species; however, cell chlorosis manifested in nearly all treatments, concomitantly with thylakoid membrane disorganization. Cell dormancy typically manifested, along with destruction of populations at higher treatments. The results indicated that populations of Cyanobacteria could have been destroyed or inhibited by indigenous people during traditional applications of these plants. Findings presented herein indicate a more sophisticated and complex traditional Australian resource management scheme than is currently understood, contributing to the growing awareness of the plight of earlier indigenous Australians. The reintroduction of traditional water management techniques may have potential as a suitable small-scale water resource management strategy.


Assuntos
Cianobactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Plantas Tóxicas/efeitos adversos , Poluição da Água , Austrália , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cianobactérias/citologia , Cianobactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Humanos , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos , Microbiologia da Água
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...