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1.
Breed Sci ; 66(2): 281-92, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27162499

RESUMO

Fusarium head blight (FHB), caused by the fungal plant pathogen Fusarium, is a fungal disease that occurs in wheat and can cause significant yield and grain quality losses. The present paper examines variation in the resistance of spring wheat lines derived from a cross between Zebra and Saar cultivars. Experiments covering 198 lines and parental cultivars were conducted in three years, in which inoculation with Fusarium culmorum was applied. Resistance levels were estimated by scoring disease symptoms on kernels. In spite of a similar reaction of parents to F. culmorum infection, significant differentiation between lines was found in all the analyzed traits. Seven molecular markers selected as linked to FHB resistance QTLs gave polymorphic products for Zebra and Saar: Xgwm566, Xgwm46, Xgwm389, Xgwm533, Xgwm156, Xwmc238, and Xgwm341. Markers Xgwm389 and Xgwm533 were associated with the rate of Fusarium-damaged kernels (FDK) as well as with kernel weight per spike and thousand kernel weight in control plants. Zebra allele of marker Xwmc238 increased kernel weight per spike and thousand kernel weight both in control and infected plants, whereas Zebra allele of marker Xgwm566 reduced the percentage of FDK and simultaneously reduced the thousand kernel weight in control and infected plants.

2.
J. physiol. biochem ; 70(4): 981-990, dic. 2014. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-131431

RESUMO

Lycopene is a carotenoid pigment produced by vegetables and fruits, with tomatoes and their processed products being the most abundant sources. A high number of conjugated dienes make lycopene a powerful radical scavenger. Its antioxidant properties are considered to be primarily involved in many beneficial health effects. The present study was designed to assess the protective effect of lycopene-enriched tomato paste against N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA)-induced oxidative stress in rats. Forty-eight male Wistar rats were divided randomly into six groups. Four groups were treated with tomato paste, per os, for 28 days in doses which were equivalent to 0.5 (groups II and V) and 2.5 mg/kg b.w./day of lycopene (groups III and VI). Rats from groups IV-VI were given intraperitoneally a single dose of NDEA, 150 mg/kg b.w. Group I (control) was given distilled water. Pretreatment with tomato paste protected the antioxidant enzymes: superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione reductase. Their activity was recovered by 32-97 %, as compared to NDEA-treated rats. Microsomal lipid peroxidation in the liver was decreased in rats pretreated with a lower dose of tomato paste by 28 %, as compared to animals given NDEA alone. Pretreatment with tomato paste caused a decrease in plasma concentration of protein carbonyls, even below the control level, in rats given NDEA. Moreover, a 10 % reduction of DNA damage in leucocytes caused by NDEA was observed. The tomato paste tested was able to suppress NDEA-induced oxidative stress in rats (AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Ratos , Antioxidantes/farmacocinética , Concentrados de Tomates , Estresse Oxidativo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacocinética , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Ensaio Cometa/métodos , Carbonilação Proteica
3.
J Physiol Biochem ; 70(4): 981-90, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25387411

RESUMO

Lycopene is a carotenoid pigment produced by vegetables and fruits, with tomatoes and their processed products being the most abundant sources. A high number of conjugated dienes make lycopene a powerful radical scavenger. Its antioxidant properties are considered to be primarily involved in many beneficial health effects. The present study was designed to assess the protective effect of lycopene-enriched tomato paste against N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA)-induced oxidative stress in rats. Forty-eight male Wistar rats were divided randomly into six groups. Four groups were treated with tomato paste, per os, for 28 days in doses which were equivalent to 0.5 (groups II and V) and 2.5 mg/kg b.w./day of lycopene (groups III and VI). Rats from groups IV-VI were given intraperitoneally a single dose of NDEA, 150 mg/kg b.w. Group I (control) was given distilled water. Pretreatment with tomato paste protected the antioxidant enzymes: superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione reductase. Their activity was recovered by 32-97 %, as compared to NDEA-treated rats. Microsomal lipid peroxidation in the liver was decreased in rats pretreated with a lower dose of tomato paste by 28 %, as compared to animals given NDEA alone. Pretreatment with tomato paste caused a decrease in plasma concentration of protein carbonyls, even below the control level, in rats given NDEA. Moreover, a 10 % reduction of DNA damage in leucocytes caused by NDEA was observed. The tomato paste tested was able to suppress NDEA-induced oxidative stress in rats.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Carotenoides/farmacologia , Dietilnitrosamina/farmacologia , Lycopersicon esculentum/química , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Dano ao DNA , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Licopeno , Masculino , Ratos Wistar
4.
Acta Neuropsychiatr ; 26(2): 112-9, 2014 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24855889

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Dependence on ethanol increases the risk of depression in patients and leads to a damage and deficiencies of brain function, which manifest in cognitive functions impairment. Aripiprazole (ARI) is an atypical antipsychotic drug, which has also been shown to have a beneficial effect on cognitive function. Results of many studies show that, for ARI's antidepressant effect to manifest itself, it is necessary to use a combined therapy with a drug from the group of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). The aim of this paper was to assess the antidepressant and impact of ARI on spatial memory in alcohol-preferring rats (EtNPRs). DESIGN AND METHODS: In our study, we used Porsolt's forced swimming test (antidepressant effect) and Morris water maze test. The tests have been conducted upon administration of ARI (6 mg/kg i.p.), fluoxetine (FLX; 5 mg/kg p.o.) and combined administration of both drugs in alcohol-dependent rats. RESULTS: The results of behavioural tests carried out have shown a lack of antidepressant and procognitive effects of either ARI or FLX in EtPRs after acute and chronic treatment. Combined administration of both drugs would lead to spatial memory deterioration in the study animals. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that ARI applied in the experiment had no antidepressant effect and failed to improve spatial memory in study rats. Potential antidepressant and procognitive properties of this drug resulting from its mechanism of action encourage attempts (design) of further research aimed at developing a dose, which will show such effects in alcohol-preferring animals.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo/tratamento farmacológico , Antidepressivos/farmacologia , Antipsicóticos/farmacologia , Fluoxetina/farmacologia , Piperazinas/farmacologia , Quinolonas/farmacologia , Memória Espacial/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico , Aripiprazol , Fluoxetina/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Piperazinas/uso terapêutico , Quinolonas/uso terapêutico , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
5.
PLoS One ; 8(10): e76848, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24204685

RESUMO

Lyme disease (also called borreliosis) is a prevalent chronic disease transmitted by ticks and caused by Borrelia burgdorferi s. l. spirochete. At least one tick protein, namely TROSPA from I. scapularis, commonly occurring in the USA, was shown to be required for colonization of the vector by bacteria. Located in the tick gut, TROSPA interacts with the spirochete outer surface protein A (OspA) and initiates the tick colonization. Ixodes ricinus is a primary vector involved in B. burgdorferi s. l. transmission in most European countries. In this study, we characterized the capacities of recombinant TROSPA protein from I. ricinus to interact with OspA from different Borrelia species and to induce an immune response in animals. We also showed that the N-terminal part of TROSPA (a putative transmembrane domain) is not involved in the interaction with OspA and that reduction of the total negative charge on the TROSPA protein impaired TROSPA-OspA binding. In general, the data presented in this paper indicate that recombinant TROSPA protein retains the capacity to form a complex with OspA and induces a significant level of IgG in orally immunized rats. Thus, I. ricinus TROSPA may be considered a good candidate component for an animal vaccine against Borrelia.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Artrópodes/metabolismo , Vetores Artrópodes/metabolismo , Ixodes/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Antígenos de Superfície/imunologia , Antígenos de Superfície/metabolismo , Proteínas de Artrópodes/genética , Proteínas de Artrópodes/imunologia , Vetores Artrópodes/genética , Vetores Artrópodes/microbiologia , Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/imunologia , Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/metabolismo , Vacinas Bacterianas/imunologia , Vacinas Bacterianas/metabolismo , Sequência de Bases , Borrelia/metabolismo , Borrelia/fisiologia , Borrelia burgdorferi/metabolismo , Borrelia burgdorferi/fisiologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Imunização/métodos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Ixodes/genética , Ixodes/microbiologia , Lipoproteínas/imunologia , Lipoproteínas/metabolismo , Doença de Lyme/imunologia , Doença de Lyme/microbiologia , Doença de Lyme/transmissão , Vacinas contra Doença de Lyme/administração & dosagem , Vacinas contra Doença de Lyme/imunologia , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Mutação , Motivos de Nucleotídeos/genética , Ligação Proteica , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos , Homologia de Sequência do Ácido Nucleico
6.
Pharmacol Rep ; 64(6): 1350-8, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23406745

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate antidepressant-like effect (Porsolt test), locomotor activity and motor coordination of joint administration of tramadol (TRM) and venlafaxine (VEN) in rats. METHODS: The tests were performed on male Wistar rats after single and chronic treatment (7 and 14 days) with TRM intraperitoneally (ip) and VEN orally (po) administered once a day. The controls were given 0.5% carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) solution (0.5 ml per rat, ip and po). RESULTS: It was found that combination of TRM (5 mg/kg ip) with VEN (20 mg/kg po) caused an increased antidepressant effect compared to TRM and VEN administered alone, with no effect on locomotor activity or motor coordination in rats, which may be of clinical significance. It was also observed that reduced time of active swimming of animals in Porsolt test with an increased dose (10 and 20 mg/kg) and time of administration (7 and 14 days) of TRM were correlated with a decreased locomotor activity in rats. It may indicate the development of tolerance to TRM's antidepressant effect in rats during chronic treatment with doses higher than 5 mg/kg. CONCLUSION: It can be expected that combination of low doses of TRM and VEN could potentially be feasible and relatively safe in cases with acute pain with co-existing depression, however, further investigations are needed.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/farmacologia , Antidepressivos de Segunda Geração/farmacologia , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Cicloexanóis/farmacologia , Inibidores de Captação de Serotonina/farmacologia , Tramadol/farmacologia , Administração Oral , Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Animais , Antidepressivos de Segunda Geração/administração & dosagem , Cicloexanóis/administração & dosagem , Esquema de Medicação , Interações Medicamentosas , Tolerância a Medicamentos , Injeções Intraperitoneais , Masculino , Atividade Motora/efeitos dos fármacos , Desempenho Psicomotor/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Inibidores de Captação de Serotonina/administração & dosagem , Natação , Fatores de Tempo , Tramadol/administração & dosagem , Cloridrato de Venlafaxina
7.
Pharmacol Rep ; 63(2): 372-80, 2011.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21602592

RESUMO

As shown in clinical studies, combinations of first generation normothymics (carbamazepine - CBZ) with atypical neuroleptics (olanzapine - OLA) lead to improvements in approximately half of patients treated for relapses of bipolar affective disease. Our previous studies have shown OLA to have an antidepressant effect when administered at a dose of 0.5 mg/kg only upon single administration; the effect did not last throughout chronic administration, whereas CBZ administered at a dose of 30 mg/kg showed an antidepressant effect only after 7 days of administration. As shown in our previous studies, both OLA and CBZ improve memory in rats but only after chronic administration. The improved antidepressant effect of many drugs, including OLA and CBZ used in combined therapy - as observed in our clinic - as well as confirmed evidence of OLA's and CBZ's positive effects on cognitive functions in humans and animals substantiated commencement of research on defining the effect of combined administration of OLA and CBZ on sedation (tested in a locomotor activity test), antidepressant effect (Porsolt test) and spatial memory (Morris test) in animals. The tests were performed on male Wistar rats. It was found that in combined administration of CBZ and OLA for 7 and 14 days, OLA would completely prevent the CBZ's sedative effect. With combined administration of CBZ and OLA, both as a single dose and after prolonged treatment for 7 days, a significant reduction in immobility time was observed. Combined administration of CBZ and OLA did not improve memory in rats that received these drugs in a single dose, whereas statistically significant differences were observed in the chronic experiments. It can be assumed that the observed effects of combined administration of CBZ and OLA may be due to the pharmacokinetic interactions, but further studies are necessary to confirm these assumptions.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos/farmacologia , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Benzodiazepinas/farmacologia , Carbamazepina/farmacologia , Animais , Antidepressivos/administração & dosagem , Antimaníacos/administração & dosagem , Antimaníacos/farmacologia , Antipsicóticos/administração & dosagem , Antipsicóticos/farmacologia , Benzodiazepinas/administração & dosagem , Carbamazepina/administração & dosagem , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Esquema de Medicação , Interações Medicamentosas , Quimioterapia Combinada , Masculino , Aprendizagem em Labirinto/efeitos dos fármacos , Memória/efeitos dos fármacos , Atividade Motora/efeitos dos fármacos , Olanzapina , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Fatores de Tempo
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