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1.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(1): e2136644, 2022 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34985520

RESUMO

Importance: Transient ischemic attack (TIA) often indicates a high risk of subsequent cerebral ischemic events. Timely preventive measures improve the outcome. Objective: To estimate and compare the risk of subsequent ischemic stroke among patients with TIA or minor ischemic stroke (mIS) by care setting. Data Sources: MEDLINE, Web of Science, Scopus, Embase, International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, ClinicalTrials.gov, Trip Medical Database, CINAHL, and all Evidence-Based Medicine review series were searched from the inception of each database until October 1, 2020. Study Selection: Studies evaluating the occurrence of ischemic stroke after TIA or mIS were included. Cohorts without data on evaluation time for reporting subsequent stroke, with retrospective diagnosis of the index event after stroke occurrence, and with a report of outcomes that were not limited to patients with TIA or mIS were excluded. Two authors independently screened the titles and abstracts and provided the list of candidate studies for full-text review; discrepancies and disagreements in all steps of the review were addressed by input from a third reviewer. Data Extraction and Synthesis: The study was prepared and reported following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses, Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology, Methodological Expectations of Cochrane Intervention Reviews, and Enhancing the Quality and Transparency of Health Research guidelines. The Risk of Bias in Nonrandomized Studies-of Exposures (ROBINS-E) tool was used for critical appraisal of cohorts, and funnel plots, Begg-Mazumdar rank correlation, Kendall τ2, and the Egger bias test were used for evaluating the publication bias. All meta-analyses were conducted under random-effects models. Main Outcomes and Measures: Risk of subsequent ischemic stroke among patients with TIA or mIS who received care at rapid-access TIA or neurology clinics, inpatient units, emergency departments (EDs), and unspecified or multiple settings within 4 evaluation intervals (ie, 2, 7, 30, and 90 days). Results: The analysis included 226 683 patients from 71 articles recruited between 1981 and 2018; 5636 patients received care at TIA clinics (mean [SD] age, 65.7 [3.9] years; 2291 of 4513 [50.8%] men), 130 139 as inpatients (mean [SD] age, 78.3 [4.0] years; 49 458 of 128 745 [38.4%] men), 3605 at EDs (mean [SD] age, 68.9 [3.9] years; 1596 of 3046 [52.4%] men), and 87 303 patients received care in an unspecified setting (mean [SD] age, 70.8 [3.8] years, 43 495 of 87 303 [49.8%] men). Among the patients who were treated at a TIA clinic, the risk of subsequent stroke following a TIA or mIS was 0.3% (95% CI, 0.0%-1.2%) within 2 days, 1.0% (95% CI, 0.3%-2.0%) within 7 days, 1.3% (95% CI, 0.4%-2.6%) within 30 days, and 2.1% (95% CI, 1.4%-2.8%) within 90 days. Among the patients who were treated as inpatients, the risk of subsequent stroke was to 0.5% (95% CI, 0.1%-1.1%) within 2 days, 1.2% (95% CI, 0.4%-2.2%) within 7 days, 1.6% (95% CI, 0.6%-3.1%) within 30 days, and 2.8% (95% CI, 2.1%-3.5%) within 90 days. The risk of stroke among patients treated at TIA clinics was not significantly different from those hospitalized. Compared with the inpatient cohort, TIA clinic patients were younger and had had lower ABCD2 (age, blood pressure, clinical features, duration of TIA, diabetes) scores (inpatients with ABCD2 score >3, 1101 of 1806 [61.0%]; TIA clinic patients with ABCD2 score >3, 1933 of 3703 [52.2%]). Conclusions and Relevance: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, the risk of subsequent stroke among patients who were evaluated in a TIA clinic was not higher than those hospitalized. Patients who received treatment in EDs without further follow-up had a higher risk of subsequent stroke. These findings suggest that TIA clinics can be an effective component of the TIA care component pathway.

2.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(23)2021 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34883945

RESUMO

Dental radiographs are essential for diagnosis and treatment planning, but are sometimes difficult to acquire for patients with developmental disabilities (PDD). Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a non-ionizing imaging modality that has the potential application as an alternative to dental radiographs for PDD. This study aimed to determine the feasibility of intraoral OCT imaging for PDD. Ten participants were recruited in the Dental Education in the Care of Persons with Disabilities (DECOD) Clinic to explore the utility of dental OCT. The prototype system (Yoshida Dental) creates in-depth and three-dimensional images of teeth. The participants indicated their degree of pain during imaging on the Wong-Baker FACES Pain Rating Scale, and the degree of discomfort after imaging on a visual analog scale. OCT can be used for patients with developmental disabilities with minimal levels of pain and discomfort, without ionizing radiation.

3.
J Clin Med ; 10(23)2021 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34884412

RESUMO

The future of healthcare is an organic blend of technology, innovation, and human connection. As artificial intelligence (AI) is gradually becoming a go-to technology in healthcare to improve efficiency and outcomes, we must understand our limitations. We should realize that our goal is not only to provide faster and more efficient care, but also to deliver an integrated solution to ensure that the care is fair and not biased to a group of sub-population. In this context, the field of cardio-cerebrovascular diseases, which encompasses a wide range of conditions-from heart failure to stroke-has made some advances to provide assistive tools to care providers. This article aimed to provide an overall thematic review of recent development focusing on various AI applications in cardio-cerebrovascular diseases to identify gaps and potential areas of improvement. If well designed, technological engines have the potential to improve healthcare access and equitability while reducing overall costs, diagnostic errors, and disparity in a system that affects patients and providers and strives for efficiency.

4.
Materials (Basel) ; 14(22)2021 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34832458

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of one week of Computer-aided design/Computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) crown storage on the µTBS between resin cement and CAD/CAM resin composite blocks. The micro-tensile bond strength (µTBS) test groups were divided into 4 conditions. There are two types of CAD/CAM resin composite blocks, namely A block and P block (KATANA Avencia Block and KATANA Avencia P Block, Kuraray Noritake Dental, Tokyo, Japan) and two types of resin cements. Additionally, there are two curing methods (light cure and chemical cure) prior to the µTBS test-Immediate: cementation was performed immediately; Delay: cementation was conducted after one week of storage in air under laboratory conditions. The effect of Immediate and Delayed cementations were evaluated by a µTBS test, surface roughness measurements, light intensity measurements, water sorption measurements and Scanning electron microscope/Energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM/EDS) analysis. From the results of the µTBS test, we found that Delayed cementation showed significantly lower bond strength than that of Immediate cementation for both resin cements and both curing methods using A block. There was no significant difference between the two types of resin cements or two curing methods. Furthermore, water sorption of A block was significantly higher than that of P block. Within the limitations of this study, alumina air abrasion of CAD/CAM resin composite restorations should be performed immediately before bonding at the chairside to minimize the effect of humidity on bonding.

5.
Biomed Phys Eng Express ; 7(5)2021 07 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34265746

RESUMO

Background and purpose.Accurate volume delineation plays an essential role in radiotherapy. Contouring is a potential source of uncertainties in radiotherapy treatment planning that could affect treatment outcomes. Therefore, reducing the degree of contouring uncertainties is crucial. The role of utilized imaging modality in the organ delineation uncertainties has been investigated. This systematic review explores the influential factors on inter-and intra-observer uncertainties of target volume and organs at risk (OARs) delineation focusing on the used imaging modality for these uncertainties reduction and the reported subsequent histopathology and follow-up assessment.Methods and materials.An inclusive search strategy has been conducted to query the available online databases (Scopus, Google Scholar, PubMed, and Medline). 'Organ at risk', 'target', 'delineation', 'uncertainties', 'radiotherapy' and their relevant terms were utilized using every database searching syntax. Final article extraction was performed following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guideline. Included studies were limited to the ones published in English between 1995 and 2020 and that just deal with computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) modalities.Results.A total of 923 studies were screened and 78 were included of which 31 related to the prostate 20 to the breast, 18 to the head and neck, and 9 to the brain tumor site. 98% of the extracted studies performed volumetric analysis. Only 24% of the publications reported the dose deviations resulted from variation in volume delineation Also, heterogeneity in studied populations and reported geometric and volumetric parameters were identified such that quantitative synthesis was not appropriate.Conclusion.This review highlightes the inter- and intra-observer variations that could lead to contouring uncertainties and impede tumor control in radiotherapy. For improving volume delineation and reducing inter-observer variability, the implementation of well structured training programs, homogeneity in following consensus and guidelines, reliable ground truth selection, and proper imaging modality utilization could be clinically beneficial.

6.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(10)2021 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34064860

RESUMO

The aims of this study were to investigate the feasibility of using a DLP 3D printer to fabricate a crown using scan data before tooth preparation, and to investigate the effect of additional heat curing on the mechanical properties of the urethane dimethacrylate (UDMA)-based 3D printed crown. A silicone fitting test was used to evaluate the internal adaptation of the crown. For ultimate tensile strength (UTS), the specimens were tested after 24 h storage in water at 37 °C or after 10,000 thermal cycles (TC) between 5-55 °C. For shear bond strength (SBS), a PMMA self-curing resin was filled into a Teflon ring mounted onto the polished UDMA specimens. The internal adaptation of the crowns fabricated with cement space was better than those with no cement space. There was no significant difference in UTS between light-curing and additional heat-curing groups after TC. As for the SBS, there was a significant difference after TC between the two groups. Crowns can be fabricated by a DLP 3D printer using pre-preparation scans with a cement space defined in the software. Additional heat curing of the UDMA-based crown reduced residual monomer and improved its mechanical properties.

7.
Dent Mater ; 37(8): 1260-1272, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33965251

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate morphological, mechanical and chemical characteristics at resin-dentin interfaces using multiple combinations of adhesives and resins after a short-term biofilm-induced degradation. METHODS: Cervical cavities were prepared in bovine incisors, treated by Clearfil SE Bond 2 (SE) or FL-Bond II (FL), restored by Clearfil Majesty ES Flow (ES) or Beautifil Flow Plus (BFP) and grouped into SE-ES, SE-BFP, FL-ES and FL-BFP. After biofilm challenge, interfacial gaps and dentin wall lesions were examined by optical coherence tomography (OCT). Gap depth (GD), gap pattern scale (GPS) and dentin wall lesion depth (WLD) were evaluated from confocal laser scanning microscope. Microhardness of dentin lesions was measured with a Vickers microhardness tester. Chemical elements in resins and dentin wall lesions were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM/EDS). Morphological structures of interfacial gaps were observed by SEM. RESULTS: OCT could detect adhesive-dentin-bonded and adhesive-dentin-debonded gaps. SE-containing groups showed significantly lower GPS than FL-containing groups. FL-BFP showed significantly lower WLD than FL-ES. Microhardness of dentin wall lesions was higher than that of outer lesions and they showed significant differences in FL-BFP. SE-BFP showed a lower GPS curve and higher intensities of Ca and P in the upper half of dentin wall lesions than other groups. From SEM, microgaps between filler and matrix, break and loss of matrix, separation of adhesive matrix with hybrid layer occurred at interfacial gaps. SIGNIFICANCE: The morphological, mechanical and chemical characteristics of resin-dentin interfacial degradation depend on the component and chemistry of restorative materials.


Assuntos
Colagem Dentária , Dentina , Adesivos , Animais , Biofilmes , Bovinos , Resinas Compostas , Cimentos Dentários , Materiais Dentários , Adesivos Dentinários , Teste de Materiais , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Cimentos de Resina , Propriedades de Superfície
8.
Stroke ; 52(5): e117-e130, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33878892
9.
J Clin Med ; 10(5)2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33804307

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 infected patients are suggested to have a higher incidence of thrombotic events such as acute ischemic strokes (AIS). This study aimed at exploring vascular comorbidity patterns among SARS-CoV-2 infected patients with subsequent stroke. We also investigated whether the comorbidities and their frequencies under each subclass of TOAST criteria were similar to the AIS population studies prior to the pandemic. METHODS: This is a report from the Multinational COVID-19 Stroke Study Group. We present an original dataset of SASR-CoV-2 infected patients who had a subsequent stroke recorded through our multicenter prospective study. In addition, we built a dataset of previously reported patients by conducting a systematic literature review. We demonstrated distinct subgroups by clinical risk scoring models and unsupervised machine learning algorithms, including hierarchical K-Means (ML-K) and Spectral clustering (ML-S). RESULTS: This study included 323 AIS patients from 71 centers in 17 countries from the original dataset and 145 patients reported in the literature. The unsupervised clustering methods suggest a distinct cohort of patients (ML-K: 36% and ML-S: 42%) with no or few comorbidities. These patients were more than 6 years younger than other subgroups and more likely were men (ML-K: 59% and ML-S: 60%). The majority of patients in this subgroup suffered from an embolic-appearing stroke on imaging (ML-K: 83% and ML-S: 85%) and had about 50% risk of large vessel occlusions (ML-K: 50% and ML-S: 53%). In addition, there were two cohorts of patients with large-artery atherosclerosis (ML-K: 30% and ML-S: 43% of patients) and cardioembolic strokes (ML-K: 34% and ML-S: 15%) with consistent comorbidity and imaging patterns. Binominal logistic regression demonstrated that ischemic heart disease (odds ratio (OR), 4.9; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.6-14.7), atrial fibrillation (OR, 14.0; 95% CI, 4.8-40.8), and active neoplasm (OR, 7.1; 95% CI, 1.4-36.2) were associated with cardioembolic stroke. CONCLUSIONS: Although a cohort of young and healthy men with cardioembolic and large vessel occlusions can be distinguished using both clinical sub-grouping and unsupervised clustering, stroke in other patients may be explained based on the existing comorbidities.

10.
Materials (Basel) ; 14(8)2021 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33918865

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the mechanism of action and the inhibiting effects of two types of desensitizers against dentin demineralization using pre-demineralized hypersensitivity tooth model in vitro. In this study, we confirmed that a hypersensitivity tooth model from our preliminary experiment could be prepared by immersing dentin discs in an acetic acid-based solution with pH 5.0 for three days. Dentin discs with three days of demineralization were prepared and applied by one of the desensitizers containing calcium fluoro-alumino-silicate glass (Nanoseal, NS) or fluoro-zinc-silicate glass (Caredyne Shield, CS), followed by an additional three days of demineralization. Dentin discs for three days of demineralization (de3) and six days of demineralization (de6) without the desensitizers were also prepared. The dentin discs after the experimental protocol were scanned using swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) to image the cross-sectional (2D) view of the samples and evaluate the SS-OCT signal. The signal intensity profiles of SS-OCT from the region of interest of 300, 500, and 700 µm in depth were obtained to calculate the integrated signal intensity and signal attenuation coefficient. The morphological differences and remaining chemical elements of the dentin discs were also analyzed using scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. SS-OCT images of CS and NS groups showed no obvious differences between the groups. However, SS-OCT signal profiles for both the CS and NS groups showed smaller attenuation coefficients and larger integrated signal intensities than those of the de6 group. Reactional deposits of the desensitizers even after the additional three days of demineralization were observed on the dentin surface in NS group, whereas remnants containing Zn were detected within the dentinal tubules in CS group. Consequently, both CS and NS groups showed inhibition effects against the additional three days of demineralization in this study. Our findings demonstrate that SS-OCT signal analysis can be used to monitor the dentin demineralization and inhibition effects of desensitizers against dentin demineralization in vitro.

11.
Neural Comput Appl ; : 1-11, 2021 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33723477

RESUMO

Anomaly detection is challenging, especially for large datasets in high dimensions. Here, we explore a general anomaly detection framework based on dimensionality reduction and unsupervised clustering. DRAMA is released as a general python package that implements the general framework with a wide range of built-in options. This approach identifies the primary prototypes in the data with anomalies detected by their large distances from the prototypes, either in the latent space or in the original, high-dimensional space. DRAMA is tested on a wide variety of simulated and real datasets, in up to 3000 dimensions, and is found to be robust and highly competitive with commonly used anomaly detection algorithms, especially in high dimensions. The flexibility of the DRAMA framework allows for significant optimization once some examples of anomalies are available, making it ideal for online anomaly detection, active learning, and highly unbalanced datasets. Besides, DRAMA naturally provides clustering of outliers for subsequent analysis.

12.
J Dent ; 106: 103583, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33450311

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate early degradation at resin-dentin interface using non-invasive swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) and confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM). METHODS: Self-etch adhesives and resin-composites containing bisphenol-glycidyl-dimethacrylate (Bis-GMA), which is one of the most widely used monomers in restorative materials, were investigated in this study. Forty cervical cavities were prepared in bovine incisors and applied by the adhesive with/without Bis-GMA (AdhesiveBG/Adhesive), filled by the resin with/without Bis-GMA (ResinBG/Resin) and then challenged by cariogenic biofilm (37 °C, 24 h). Gap Formation and dentin demineralization around resin-composites were observed by SS-OCT and CLSM. RESULTS: Three types of resin-dentin interfacial degradation could be detected from SS-OCT. Type I-dentin demineralization around resin without gap, showing feather-shaped dark zones without bright scattered lines at resin-dentin interfaces. Type II-dentin demineralization around resin with adhesive-dentin bonded gaps, showing feather-shaped dark zones with bright scattered lines at resin-dentin interfaces. Type III-dentin demineralization around resin with adhesive-dentin debonded gaps, showing edge-shaped dark zones with bright scattered lines at resin-dentin interface. From CLSM, the groups were compared in gap scale (GS), gap depth (GD), gap width (GW) and dentin wall lesion depth (WLD). Bis-GMA-containing adhesive groups showed significantly lower GS than Bis-GMA-free adhesive groups. Bis-GMA-containing resin groups showed significantly lower WLD than Bis-GMA-free resin groups. However, they did not show significant differences in GD and GW. CONCLUSION: Three types of early degradation at resin-dentin interface can be noninvasively detected by SS-OCT. Bis-GMA-containing and Bis-GMA-free restorative materials show differences in gap scale and dentin wall lesion depth. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: SS-OCT can nondestructively detect early resin-dentin interfacial degradation. Gap scale can be used as a parameter to evaluate the risk factor of gaps.


Assuntos
Colagem Dentária , Cimentos de Resina , Animais , Bovinos , Resinas Compostas , Dentina/diagnóstico por imagem , Adesivos Dentinários , Lasers , Teste de Materiais , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica
13.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(3)2021 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33499198

RESUMO

Different techniques have been used to construct provisional crowns to protect prepared teeth. The purpose of this in vitro study was to assess the internal fit and marginal discrepancy of provisional crowns made by different methods. A total of 48 provisional crowns were constructed and divided into three groups (n = 16) according to the fabrication methods: fabricated manually-group MAN; computer-aided design/computer aided manufacturing technology-group CAM; and 3-dimensional (3D)-printed technology-group 3DP. The same standard tessellation language (STL) file was used for both CAD/CAM and 3D-printed group. The silicone-checked method was used to measure the internal gap distance. The marginal discrepancy was measured by using the polyvinyl siloxane (PVS) replica method and swept-source optical coherence tomography (OCT) scanning technique. Data were analyzed with one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis and Tukey tests at α = 0.05. At the central pit and axial walls, the gap distance mean values of group CAM were higher than those from group MAN and 3DP. The group 3DP was statistically significantly higher in gap distance at the location of occlusion than group MAN and group CAM (p < 0.05). The total gap distances assessed by silicone-checked method revealed there were no statistically significant differences between the tested groups (p > 0.05). The total mean values of absolute and horizontal marginal discrepancy of the group 3DP obtained by using the PVS-replica method and OCT scanning technique were significantly higher than the group MAN and CAM (p < 0.05). Regression correlation results of marginal discrepancy indicated a positive correlation (r = 0.902) between PVS-replica method and OCT scanning technique. The manually fabricated provisional crowns presented better internal fit and a smaller marginal discrepancy. Between different assessment techniques for marginal adaptation, PVS-replica method and OCT scanning technique have a positive correlation.


Assuntos
Desenho Assistido por Computador , Coroas , Humanos
14.
J Dent ; 106: 103578, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33388389

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Silver diammine fluoride (SDF) is a caries-arresting agent for dentine lesions. This study investigated the effect of application frequency of SDF when used with glass ionomer cement (GI) for remineralising carious dentine. METHODS: Freshly extracted human posterior teeth with advanced caries were used. After superficial removal of infected dentine, single (G3), double (G4), triple (G5) applications of SDF (Advantage Arrest SDF 38 %) followed by a layer of GI (GC Fuji IX GP) were compared to no treatment (negative control-G2), and GI only (G1). All teeth were stored in artificial saliva between treatments and for 2-weeks after final treatment. Micro-computed X-ray tomography (NSI) scans were obtained at each stage and analysed to plot mineral density-depth profile, lesion depth (LD) and mineral loss (ΔZ). Data was statistically analysed at a significance level of 0.05. RESULTS: Mean LD values were 837 µm, 735 µm, 841 µm, 1008 µm, 707 µm at baseline and 785 µm, 727 µm, 712 µm, 855 µm, 639 µm after treatment for groups G1 to G5, respectively. Mean ΔZ values were 6327 vol%µm, 5995 vol%µm, 10014 vol%µm, 7192 vol%µm, 5649 vol%µm at baseline and 3686 vol%µm, 5126 vol%µm, 5539 vol%µm, 2327 vol%µm, 3218 vol%µm after treatment for groups G1 to G5, respectively. Paired t-test showed that LD and ΔZ changed significantly within all groups from baseline to treatment weeks following storage (p < 0.05) except LD in the control (p > 0.05). ANCOVA showed significant difference among groups in net lesion depth recovery and net mineral gain (p < 0.05), and G3 and G4 showed the highest mineral gains. CONCLUSION: One or two applications of SDF prior to placement of GI, were effective in remineralising advanced dentine lesions, while additional applications, when combined with GI, did not demonstrate additional benefit in this study. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: This short-term laboratory research study showed that one or two applications of SDF followed by GI coverage could remineralise advanced dentine caries in the presence of artificial saliva. This procedure carries potential in the treatment of difficult lesions where conventional restorations would require significant tooth structure removal through traumatic procedures.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Fluoretos , Resinas Acrílicas , Amônia , Cárie Dentária/diagnóstico por imagem , Cárie Dentária/tratamento farmacológico , Suscetibilidade à Cárie Dentária , Dentina/diagnóstico por imagem , Fluoretos Tópicos , Cimentos de Ionômeros de Vidro , Humanos , Compostos de Amônio Quaternário , Dióxido de Silício , Compostos de Prata
15.
J Prosthet Dent ; 125(2): 307-315, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32204930

RESUMO

STATEMENT OF PROBLEM: Computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) technology and the improved translucency of recently developed high-strength monolithic zirconia could make them clinically acceptable for veneers if bonding to zirconia was as predictable as to glass-ceramics. Few studies have compared how resin cements behave between glass-ceramic and zirconia veneers before and after polymerization. PURPOSE: The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the volumetric polymerization shrinkage of resin cement, marginal discrepancy, and cement thickness before and after polymerization for glass-ceramic and zirconia veneers with light-polymerizing resin cement. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ten lithium disilicate veneers and 10 zirconia veneers were fabricated with a CAD-CAM workflow on extracted human maxillary anterior teeth with intact enamel surfaces. Zirconia veneers were treated with airborne-particle abrasion, and lithium disilicate veneers were etched with 5% hydrofluoric acid. All specimens were treated with ceramic primer and cemented with a light-polymerized resin cement. All specimens were scanned before and after resin cement polymerization by microcomputed tomography. The data were processed by the Amira software program to compare polymerization volumetric shrinkage, cement thickness, and marginal discrepancy. The data were compared by using a t test and analysis of variance (α=.05). Two bonded veneers were loaded in a mastication simulator for 400 000 cycles to investigate the effect of cyclic fatigue loading. RESULTS: Mean volumetric polymerization shrinkage was 4.2 ±0.8% for the lithium disilicate group and 6.4 ±3.5% for the zirconia group. No significant difference was found for volumetric shrinkage between materials (P=.132). The mean ±standard deviations of the marginal discrepancies before and after polymerization were 178 ±41 µm and 158 ±37 µm for lithium disilicate and 115 ±33 µm and 107 ±32 µm for zirconia. A smaller marginal discrepancy was found for both materials after polymerization (P=.011) and for zirconia compared with lithium disilicate (P=.004). The mean ±standard deviation cement thickness values before and after polymerization were 157 ±27 µm and 147 ±27 µm for lithium disilicate and 162 ±53 µm and 147 ±52 µm for zirconia. Smaller cement thickness was found after polymerization (P<.001), whereas no significant difference was found in cement thickness between materials (P=.144). No changes were noted in marginal discrepancy and cement thickness as a result of the fatigue loading. CONCLUSIONS: The difference in the volumetric polymerization shrinkage of cement between lithium disilicate and zirconia veneers was not statistically significant. Polymerization shrinkage resulted in smaller marginal discrepancy and cement thickness for both veneer materials.


Assuntos
Cerâmica , Porcelana Dentária , Desenho Assistido por Computador , Humanos , Teste de Materiais , Cimentos de Resina , Propriedades de Superfície , Microtomografia por Raio-X , Zircônio
16.
Int J Dent ; 2021: 9769947, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34992658

RESUMO

This study evaluated the effect of the volume and renewing of storage media on monomer leachability from dental composite. Samples of two dental composites (BEAUTIFIL II Gingiva (BG) and Filtek Bulk-Fill Flowable (FBF)) were stored after polymerization in 1 and 3 milt storage media (ethanol/water 75%) for seven days. Refreshing of storage media was done in half of the samples of each group. The amounts of releasing monomers (UDMA, BisGMA, TEGDMA) in storage media were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Data was analyzed using two-way ANOVA and t-test (α = 0.05). Elution of TEGDMA and UDMA from both composites was significantly higher in 3 mL storage media. In groups with refreshing of storage media, BisGMA had higher amounts of release. Saturation makes the storage media volume important factor in monomer elution. Refreshing of storage media had significant effect on monomer release before the elution of 50% of total released monomer.

17.
Dent Mater ; 36(12): 1615-1623, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33168226

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The study used optical coherence tomography (OCT) and micro Raman microscopy (mRM) to investigate internal defect (ID) and degree of conversion (DC) of two bulk-fill composite systems with high-irradiance or conventional light polymerization settings. METHODS: The ID and DC of the new bulk-fill composites; Tetric PowerFill (PwrPst) and Tetric PowerFlow (PwrFlw) were compared with the predecessor bulk-fill composites; Tetric EvoCeram Bulkfill (EvoPst) and Tetric EvoFlow Bulkfill (EvoFlw), using LED light curing unit in two settings; normal (LED-Nrm: 1000 mW/cm2, 10-s) or PowerCure (LED-Pwr: 3000 mW/cm2, 3-s). ID formation was observed in bonded cylindrical composite cavities (4-mm depth, 3-mm diameter) using Yoshida Dental OCT. From the vertically projected 2D image, ID area percentage (ID-A%) was calculated. DC at the top and bottom and bottom/top DC ratio (DC-R%) of 4-mm thick discs was calculated using mRM. All data were statistically analyzed at significance level of α = 0.05. RESULTS: Flowable composites in LED-Pwr showed smaller ID frequencies than other groups (PwrFlw: 0/8, EvoFlw: 2/8) (p < 0.05). Composite type significantly affected ID-A%, DC and DC-R% (p < 0.001), while light settings significantly affected ID-A% but not DC and DC-R% (p > 0.05). In both light settings, EvoPst showed the lowest DC-R% (<80%). SIGNIFICANCE: Internal defect and degree of conversion of bulk-fill composites were affected by their composition and light settings. There was a tendency for less defects and better polymerization for the flowable bulk-fills. The new flowable bulk-fill composite with 3-seconds high irradiance light curing showed no defect formation.


Assuntos
Resinas Compostas , Cárie Dentária , Materiais Dentários , Humanos , Teste de Materiais , Polimerização
18.
Sensors (Basel) ; 20(21)2020 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33113981

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to assess the utility of 3D imaging of optical coherence tomography (OCT) for the diagnosis of occlusal tooth wear ex vivo. Sixty-three extracted human molars with or without visible tooth wear were collected to take digital intraoral radiography and 3D OCT images. The degree of tooth wear was evaluated by 12 examiners and scored using 4-rank scale: 1-slight enamel wear; 2-distinct enamel wear; 3-tooth wear with slight dentin exposure; 4-tooth wear with distinct involvement of dentin. The degree of tooth wear was validated by the histological view of confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The sensitivity, specificity, and area under the curve (AUC) of receiver operating characteristic analysis were calculated. Diagnostic accuracy was compared with the agreement with CLSM observation using weighted kappa. The results were statistically analyzed at a significance level of α = 0.05. Three-dimensional OCT showed significantly higher sensitivity (p < 0.05) for all the diagnostic thresholds of enamel wear and dentin exposure than digital radiography (0.82, 0.85, and 0.79 vs. 0.56, 0.52, and 0.57, respectively). Three-dimensional OCT showed higher AUC and kappa coefficients than digital radiography (p < 0.05), where mean AUC and Kappa values were 0.95 and 0.76 for OCT and 0.92 and 0.47 for radiography, respectively. No significant difference of specificity was observed (p > 0.05). Three-dimensional OCT could visualize and estimate the degree of tooth wear and detect the dentin exposure at the tooth wear surface accurately and reproducibly. Consequently, a new guideline for tooth wear assessment can be proposed using OCT.


Assuntos
Tomografia de Coerência Óptica , Desgaste dos Dentes , Humanos , Imageamento Tridimensional , Curva ROC , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Desgaste dos Dentes/diagnóstico por imagem
19.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 15754, 2020 09 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32978464

RESUMO

Optical coherence tomography (OCT) can create cross-sectional images of tooth without X-ray exposure. This study aimed to investigate the diagnostic accuracy of 3D imaging of OCT for proximal caries in posterior teeth. Thirty-six human molar teeth with 51 proximal surfaces visibly 6 intact, 16 slightly demineralized, and 29 distinct carious changes were mounted to take digital radiographs and 3D OCT images. The sensitivity, specificity and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) for the diagnosis of enamel caries and dentin caries were calculated to quantify the diagnostic ability of 3D OCT in comparison with digital radiography. Diagnostic accuracy was evaluated by the agreement with histology using weighted Kappa. OCT showed significantly higher sensitivity, AUC and Kappa values than radiography. OCT can be a safer option for the diagnosis of proximal caries in posterior teeth that can be applied to the patients without X-ray exposure.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária/diagnóstico por imagem , Imageamento Tridimensional , Dente Molar/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica , Humanos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
20.
Dent Mater J ; 39(6): 1009-1015, 2020 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32624525

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of applying the polymer-induced liquid-precursor (PILP) method to enhance silver diamine fluoride (SDF) therapy. One hundred forty micrometer deep artificial caries lesions were treated with (A) 38% SDF solution and (B) 38% SDF containing poly-L-aspartic acid (pASP). Changes in the nanomechanical profile across the lesion were evaluated. Hydrated artificial lesions had a low reduced elastic modulus (0.3 GPa) and nanohardness (0.02 GPa) region extending about 100 µm into the lesion, with a gradual linear increase to about 168 µm where the values plateaued to around 18 GPa/1.0 GPa. Topical application of SDF resulted in significantly recovered properties (p<0.001). SDF containing pASP resulted in greater nanomechanical properties compared to SDF alone, showing similar sloped regions up to 96 µm, then SDF alone dropped while SDF containing pASP continued at a modest slope until reaching normal at 144 µm. This nanoindentation study shows enhanced SDF therapy using the PILP method.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Dentina , Cariostáticos , Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Fluoretos Tópicos , Humanos , Compostos de Amônio Quaternário , Compostos de Prata
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