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1.
J Agric Food Chem ; 2020 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32614586

RESUMO

In the context of the expansion of the human population, availability of food, and in extension of animal feed, is a big issue. Favoring a circular economy by the valorisation of by-products is a sustainable way to be more efficient. Animal by-products are an interesting source of feed materials due to their richness in proteins of high nutritional value. Prevention and control efforts have allowed a gradual lifting of the feed ban regarding the use of animal by-products. Nevertheless, the challenge remains the development of analytical methods enabling a distinction between authorized and unauthorized feed materials. This review focuses on the historical and epidemiological context of the official control, the evaluation of current and foreseen legislation and the available methods of analysis for the detection of constituents of animal origin in feedingstuffs. It also underlines the analytical limitations of the approach and discusses some prospects of novel methods to ensure food and feed safety.

2.
Prev Vet Med ; 179: 104992, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32438203

RESUMO

Farm biosecurity includes all measures preventing pathogens from entering (external) and spreading within a herd (internal) and is important in facilitating the shift from cure to prevention in veterinary medicine. To assess biosecurity on farm level quantitatively an objective measurement process is required. This study describes the development and implementation of risk-based weighted biosecurity evaluation tools for veal, beef and dairy cattle farms. Based on risk factors and biosecurity measures associated with priority cattle diseases and the results of a cross-sectional survey on Belgian farms, questions were selected for the Biocheck-tool. The scoring system consists of three separate questionnaires that contain 69 (veal), 104 (beef) and 124 (dairy) questions. Experts in various fields of veterinary medicine were asked to weigh the different biosecurity categories and questions according to the method of Gore. The system obtained provides biosecurity scores per category (external and internal biosecurity) and subcategory (e.g. purchase, transport, health management). The Biocheck tool was subsequently used in a survey to assess biosecurity in 20 veal, 50 beef and 50 dairy farms. For all production systems, both internal and external biosecurity were considered low, resulting in low mean total biosecurity scores of 39.7 points for veal (SD = 7.4), 44.3 for beef (SD = 8.4), and 48.6 points for dairy farms (SD = 8.1), out of a maximum of 100 points. For all farm types, the scores for internal biosecurity were lower compared to external biosecurity. Veal farms scored significantly lower for "purchase" than beef and dairy, while scoring higher for the other subcategories of external biosecurity. In dairy and beef, "purchase and reproduction" was the highest scoring subcategory. For internal biosecurity, "health management" was particularly low in the three farm types, while subcategories exceeding 50 points were rare. With this tool, implementation of biosecurity on cattle farms can be assessed in a standardized and reproducible manner. This evaluation allows for benchmarking of farms and herd-specific advice for improvements.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32091313

RESUMO

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contamination was monitored in grilled pork sold in Beninese street restaurants, as well as in grilled pork from a well-controlled experiment replicating traditional grilling using Acacia auriculiformis wood as fuel. Fifteen PAHs were analysed using a high-performance liquid chromatography method coupled with fluorescence detection. To assess the risk for the consumer, the margins of exposure (MOEs) were calculated, as the ratio between benchmark PAHs levels and consumer intakes. A MOE below 10,000 indicates a concern for human health for carcinogenic compounds such as PAHs. Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) levels up to 17.9 and 53.6 µg/kg were found in grilled pork sampled in restaurants and from the controlled experiment, respectively. When considering both median estimated daily intake and median PAHs contamination levels, MOEs calculated for Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) alone, or for the sum of 2, 4 or 8 PAHs were above 10,000, meaning no risk in these cases. However, for the same PAHs contamination level, MOE for consumers having large amounts of grilled pork (97.5th percentile and maximum level of pork consumption) were well below 10,000. When considering the maximum level of PAHs contamination, MOEs ranged between 257 and 2,757 for the high and median levels of consumption, indicating a safety concern for these consumers. This study reveals that Beninese grilled pork consumers from South Benin can be exposed to high levels of PAHs, which might result in public health issues.

4.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 67(4): 1716-1724, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32011088

RESUMO

This paper describes three episodes of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) that were detected during 2013-2015 in scimitar-horned oryx (Oryx dammah) (SHO), a large Sahelo-Saharan antelope extinct in the wild housed in a wild ungulate breeding facility located 50 km east of Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates. While no mortality attributable to FMD was noted in the population of nearly 4,000 SHO during two of the three outbreaks, the morbidity varied according to the circulating strains and seroconversion reached a plateau of 78.0% within two weeks and remained at this level for at least nine months. Partial or complete sequencing of the VP1 encoding region demonstrated that the three outbreaks were caused by three different FMDV lineages (O/ME-SA/PanAsia-2, A/ASIA/Iran-05 and O/ME-SA/Ind-2001), consistent with FMD viruses that are circulating elsewhere in the region. These findings demonstrate that SHO are susceptible to FMD and highlight the risks of virus incursion into zoos and captive facilities in the Arabian Peninsula.

5.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 67(1): 344-376, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31520577

RESUMO

During the past decade, livestock diseases have (re-)emerged in areas where they had been previously eradicated or never been recorded before. Drivers (i.e. factors of (re-)emergence) have been identified. Livestock diseases spread irrespective of borders, and therefore, reliable methods are required to help decision-makers to identify potential threats and try stopping their (re-)emergence. Ranking methods and multicriteria approaches are cost-effective tools for such purpose and were applied to prioritize a list of selected diseases (N = 29 including 6 zoonoses) based on the opinion of 62 experts in accordance with 50 drivers-related criteria. Diseases appearing in the upper ranking were porcine epidemic diarrhoea, foot-and-mouth disease, low pathogenic avian influenza, African horse sickness and highly pathogenic avian influenza. The tool proposed uses a multicriteria decision analysis approach to prioritize pathogens according to drivers and can be applied to other countries or diseases.

6.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 67(2): 769-777, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31648411

RESUMO

Over the last few years, the interest of decision-makers and control agencies in biosecurity (BS), aiming at preventing and controlling the introduction and spread of infectious diseases, has considerably increased. Nevertheless, previous studies highlighted a low implementation level of biosecurity measures (BSM), especially in cattle farms; different reasons were identified such as perceived costs, utility, importance, increased workload and lack of knowledge. In order to convince cattle farmers to adopt BSM, it is necessary to gather more information and evidence on their cost-effectiveness and their importance or utility in terms of disease prevention and control. The objectives of this study were to determine whether the farm or farmers' profile correlated with the implementation level of BSM and if there was a positive correlation between the BSM implementation and the farm production and health parameters. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews conducted in 100 Belgian farms as part of a stratified and randomized survey. The Regional Animal Health Services provided the farm health status and production data. A general BS score and five sub-scores related to the five BS compartments (bio-exclusion, bio-compartmentation, bio-containment, bio-prevention and bio-preservation) were calculated for each farm based on the implementation level of different BSM grouped in 16 domains. The study highlighted a significant and negative correlation between the mortality rates in adult cattle (over 24 months of age) and young calves (aged 0-7 days) and different BS compartment scores. The study also demonstrated that the farms having a higher general BS score were indeed more likely to have a BVD-free status. These evidence-based findings are encouraging as they demonstrate the benefits of implementing BSM and could promote their adoption by farmers.

7.
Sci Total Environ ; 704: 135312, 2020 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31780165

RESUMO

In order to assess bee and human exposure to residues of glyphosate-based herbicide (GBH) and its main degradation products aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) and to characterise the risk posed by these substances, we analysed 3 different bee matrices; beebread (N = 81), wax (N = 100) and 10-paired samples of wax/honey collected in 2016/2017 from 379 Belgian apiaries. A high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS-MS) was used as analytical method. Limit of quantification and detection (LOQ and LOD) for GBH residues and AMPA in the 3 matrices was respectively of 10 ng g-1 and 1 ng g-1. In beebread, 81.5% of the samples showed a residue concentration > LOQ and 9.9% of the samples a residue concentration < LOQ (detection without quantification); no significant difference in detection rate was found between the north and the south of the country. Glyphosate was detected in beeswax less frequently than in beebread (i.e. 26% >LOQ versus 81.5% >LOQ). The maximum GBH residues and AMPA concentration found in beebread (respectively 700 ng g-1 and 250 ng g-1) led to sub-lethal exposure to bees. The Hazard Quotient (HQ) for beebread and beeswax (7 and 3.2, respectively) were far below the "safety" oral and contact thresholds for bees. For human health, the highest exposure to GBH residues in pollen corresponded to 0.312% and 0.187% of the ADI and of the ARfD respectively and, to 0.002% and to 0.001% for beeswax. No transfer of glyphosate from wax to honey was detected. Considering our results and the available regulatory data on the glyphosate molecule considered solely, not including the adjuvants in GBH formulation, the consumption of these three contaminated matrices would not be a food safety issue. Nonetheless, caution should be taken in the interpretation of the results as new studies indicate possible glyphosate/GBH residues toxicity below regulatory limits and at chronic sub-lethal doses.


Assuntos
Exposição Dietética/estatística & dados numéricos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Mel/análise , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Própole/química , Ceras/química , Contaminação de Alimentos , Glicina/análise , Herbicidas
8.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 2019 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31821736

RESUMO

In Europe, African swine fever virus (ASFV) is one of the most threatening infectious transboundary diseases of domestic pigs and wild boar. In September 2018, ASF was detected in wild boar in the South of Belgium. France, as a bordering country, is extremely concerned about the ASF situation in Belgium, and an active preparedness is ongoing in the country. One of the questions raised by this situation relates to disturbing activities that may affect wild boar movements and their possible impact on the spread of ASFV. Despite evidence of disturbance related to hunting practices, there is a paucity of information on the impact of forestry and human leisure activities. To assess this impact on wild boar movements, a systematic review was first conducted but very few useful data were obtained. For this reason, an expert elicitation was carried out by the French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health & Safety in order to deal with this knowledge gap. A total of 30 experts originating from France and adjacent neighbouring countries (Spain, Belgium and Switzerland) were elicited about the relative importance of six factors of spatial disturbance of wild boar (noise, smell, invasion of space, modification of the environment, duration and frequency of the activity). Then, for each factor of disturbance, they were asked about the impact of 16 different commercial forestry and human leisure activities. A global weighted score was estimated in order to capture the variability of a wide range of territorial conditions and the uncertainty of expert elicitation. This estimate permitted ranking all 16 activities and aggregating them in three groups according to their potential for disturbance of wild boar, using a regression tree analysis. The results of this expert elicitation provide a methodological approach that may be useful for French and other European decision makers and stakeholders involved in the crisis management of ASF.

9.
Viruses ; 11(11)2019 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31671816

RESUMO

Feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) is a retrovirus associated with fatal disease in progressively infected cats. While testing/removal and vaccination led to a decreased prevalence of FeLV, recently, this decrease has reportedly stagnated in some countries. This study aimed to prospectively determine the prevalence of FeLV viraemia in cats taken to veterinary facilities in 32 European countries. FeLV viral RNA was semiquantitatively detected in saliva, using RT-qPCR as a measure of viraemia. Risk and protective factors were assessed using an online questionnaire to report geographic, demographic, husbandry, FeLV vaccination, and clinical data. The overall prevalence of FeLV viraemia in cats visiting a veterinary facility, of which 10.4% were shelter and rescue cats, was 2.3% (141/6005; 95% CI: 2.0%-2.8%) with the highest prevalences in Portugal, Hungary, and Italy/Malta (5.7%-8.8%). Using multivariate analysis, seven risk factors (Southern Europe, male intact, 1-6 years of age, indoor and outdoor or outdoor-only living, living in a group of ≥5 cats, illness), and three protective factors (Northern Europe, Western Europe, pedigree cats) were identified. Using classification and regression tree (CART) analysis, the origin of cats in Europe, pedigree, and access to outdoors were important predictors of FeLV status. FeLV-infected sick cats shed more viral RNA than FeLV-infected healthy cats, and they suffered more frequently from anaemia, anorexia, and gingivitis/stomatitis than uninfected sick cats. Most cats had never been FeLV-vaccinated; vaccination rates were indirectly associated with the gross domestic product (GDP) per capita. In conclusion, we identified countries where FeLV was undetectable, demonstrating that the infection can be eradicated and highlighting those regions where awareness and prevention should be increased.

10.
Prev Vet Med ; 172: 104768, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31557684

RESUMO

The shift from cure toward prevention in veterinary medicine involves the implementation of biosecurity. In cattle farming, the application of biosecurity measures has been described to a limited degree, yet no data on biosecurity on veal farms is available. A high degree of commingling of veal calves from multiple farms causes frequent disease outbreaks, and thereby high antimicrobial usage and increased risk of antimicrobial resistance. Therefore, this study aimed to describe the current implementation of biosecurity on veal farms in Belgium. To this extent, a list of the most important calf diseases (n = 34) was created, and risk factors and related biosecurity measures for these diseases were determined and included in a questionnaire. Herd visits and face-to-face interviews were conducted on 20 randomly selected veal farms, comprising 8.3% of the target population. A categorical principal component and clustering analysis were performed to determine the influence of the veal companies on the farms' biosecurity level. Awareness of biosecurity was very low among the farmers. All farms used an "all-in, all-out" production system with calves originating from multiple farms without quarantine. On average, farms were filled in 11.4 days (range 2-52). The degree of commingling for these farms was 1.24, meaning that, on average, 124 calves originated from 100 farms. Veterinarians wore farm-specific boots on eight farms (40%) and farm-specific clothes on six farms (30%), while technical advisors wore farm-specific boots on six farms (30%) and farm-specific clothes on four farms (20%). Disinfection footbaths were only used in five farms (25%) despite being present in all farms in the sample. Concerning internal biosecurity, none of the farmers isolated sick animals; only one farmer (5%) had a physically separated hospital pen, and only 11 farmers (55%) both cleaned and disinfected the stables after each production cycle. In most farms, animals were of comparable age. Healthy calves generally remained in the same compartment during the entire production cycle, limiting the risks associated with the movement of animals. No influence of the integrations on the biosecurity level could be determined. It can be concluded that a few biosecurity measures, such as "'all-in, all-out" and compartmentation, are implemented relatively well, while other measures, such as good cleaning and disinfection and proper entrance measures for visitors and personnel can easily be improved. The improvement of measures regarding the introduction of animals of different origins will require more fundamental changes in the veal industry.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Fazendeiros/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Animais , Bélgica , Bovinos , Fatores de Risco
11.
Prev Vet Med ; 171: 104746, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31491708

RESUMO

In numerous species, low birth weight is a risk factor for neonatal mortality. In the canine species, definition of a low birth weight is complex due to the huge interbreed variability in size. To identify puppies at higher risk of neonatal death, data from 6,694 puppies were analysed. The data were collected from 75 French breeding kennels, examining 27 breeds and totaling 1,202 litters of puppies. Generalised linear mixed models allowed to identify birth weight, birth weight heterogeneity within the litter, and size of the breeding kennel as significant risk factors for neonatal mortality. Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) and classification and regression tree (CART) analyses were combined to define breed specific thresholds for birth weight allowing the identification of puppies at higher risk of neonatal mortality. Due to differences in birth weights between breeds, including when belonging to the same breed size, analyses were conducted at the breed level. First, ROC analysis thresholds were successfully established for 12 breeds (area under the ROC ≥ 0.70; sensitivity ≥ 75%; specificity: 45-68%) and they ranged from 162 g in the Maltese to 480 g in the Bernese Mountain dog. Secondly, CART analysis thresholds from 22 breeds ranged from 105 g in the Maltese and 436 g in the Boxer. Puppies were grouped into three categories according to birth weight: low, moderate and high risk of neonatal mortality (higher than the ROC threshold, between ROC and CART thresholds, and lower than the CART threshold respectively). In the current study, 44% of the puppies were classified as at moderate risk and 5.3% for a high risk of neonatal mortality. Thresholds defined by CART analysis (and not ROC analysis) were used to define low birth weight puppies and were sometimes quite different between breeds with similar birth weight distributions suggesting a variable relationship between birth weight reduction and neonatal death. These results allow the identification of puppies at an increased risk of neonatal death, thus requiring specific nursing to improve their chances of survival. With these high risk puppies identified, both animal welfare and kennel productivity is predicted to improve.


Assuntos
Animais Recém-Nascidos , Animais Lactentes , Peso ao Nascer/fisiologia , Cães , Mortalidade , Animais , Cruzamento , Cães/classificação , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Modelos Lineares , Tamanho da Ninhada de Vivíparos , Masculino , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco
12.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 66(6): 2523-2536, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31376342

RESUMO

In Kenya and East Africa, contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP) is one of the most prevalent infectious diseases affecting small ruminants in pastoral areas with adverse consequences on livelihoods. This is so despite the implementation of bi-annual vaccination campaigns. Unfortunately, the impact of the disease and the cost-effectiveness of its prevention and control in a pastoral context have been difficult to assess due to a lack of reliable data. The dynamic of flock population, high illiteracy and limited outreach are the main challenges for proper data collection. Nevertheless, such analysis is important to justify the implementation of national vaccination campaign for livestock disease control and to contribute to pastoral households' economy support programme. A continuous flock monitoring was performed for a year in Turkana County to collect data on flock dynamics and the different causes of mortalities. A stochastic model was developed to evaluate the annual economic losses due to CCPP in a standard flock of 100 heads and evaluate the cost-benefit ratio of the vaccination programmes based on different scenarios of 95%, 50% and 20% vaccination effectiveness. The annual economic losses due to CCPP for a standard flock of 100 heads were estimated at Euros 1,712.66 in average. The benefits-costs ratio of the vaccination supports the current bi-annual vaccination campaigns, even with a vaccine effectiveness limited to 20% (average benefits-costs ratio of 5.715 with SD of 3.914). This justifies the campaigns as part of a food security or livelihood support programme. However, from an overall health perspective and for long-term effects on livestock asset protection and disease control, a higher vaccination effectiveness is required.


Assuntos
Doenças das Cabras/economia , Pleuropneumonia Contagiosa/economia , Vacinação/economia , Animais , Análise Custo-Benefício , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Cabras , Quênia/epidemiologia , Pleuropneumonia Contagiosa/epidemiologia , Vacinação/veterinária
13.
Viruses ; 11(8)2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31443153

RESUMO

Starting in 2006, bluetongue virus serotype 8 (BTV8) was responsible for a major epizootic in Western and Northern Europe. The magnitude and spread of the disease were surprisingly high and the control of BTV improved significantly with the marketing of BTV8 inactivated vaccines in 2008. During late summer of 2011, a first cluster of reduced milk yield, fever, and diarrhoea was reported in the Netherlands. Congenital malformations appeared in March 2012 and Schmallenberg virus (SBV) was identified, becoming one of the very few orthobunyaviruses distributed in Europe. At the start of both epizootics, little was known about the pathogenesis and epidemiology of these viruses in the European context and most assumptions were extrapolated based on other related viruses and/or other regions of the World. Standardized and repeatable models potentially mimicking clinical signs observed in the field are required to study the pathogenesis of these infections, and to clarify their ability to cross the placental barrier. This review presents some of the latest experimental designs for infectious disease challenges with BTV or SBV. Infectious doses, routes of infection, inoculum preparation, and origin are discussed. Particular emphasis is given to the placental crossing associated with these two viruses.

14.
Sci Total Environ ; 687: 712-719, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31412474

RESUMO

To assess the health risk posed by flumethrin residues in beeswax to honeybees and honey consumers, 124 wax samples randomly distributed in Belgium were analysed for flumethrin residues using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. The risk posed by flumethrin residues in beeswax to honeybee health was assessed through the calculation of a non-pondered and a pondered Hazard Quotient by the prevalence rate of flumethrin considering an oral or topical exposure. No statistical difference was found when comparing both the average flumethrin residues concentrations and contact and oral pondered hazard quotients between apiaries with lower and equal or higher than 10% of colony loss. Flumethrin residues estimated daily intake by Belgian consumers through honey and wax ingestion was estimated via a deterministic (worst-case scenario) and a probabilistic approach. The probabilistic approach was not possible for beeswax consumption due to the lack of individual consumption data. The highest estimated exposure was <0.1% of the theoretical maximum daily intake for both approaches, meaning no risk for human health.


Assuntos
Exposição Dietética/análise , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Piretrinas/análise , Ceras/química , Animais , Abelhas , Bélgica , Exposição Dietética/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos
15.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 100(6): 1312-1320, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31038099

RESUMO

Brucellosis is an important but neglected zoonosis that causes serious economic losses both in livestock and human populations. The aim of the present study was to estimate the true prevalence of brucellosis together with diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of three serological tests in humans of the northwestern part of Ecuador using a Bayesian approach adjusted for the dependencies among the multiple tests to avoid any misinterpretation. In addition, the causal agent responsible for human brucellosis was also identified. Using a total of 3,733 samples collected from humans in this area between 2006 and 2008, the prevalence of human brucellosis and the diagnostic test characteristics of the Rose Bengal fast agglutination test (RBT), Wright's slow agglutination test with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid disodium salt dehydrate (EDTA) (SAT-EDTA), and indirect ELISA (iELISA) were estimated using a Bayesian approach. The estimated true prevalence of human brucellosis was 1% (credibility interval: 0.4-1.6). The sensitivities of iELISA and RBT were higher than and similar (95.1% and 95.0%, respectively) to those of SAT-EDTA (60.8%). Even though all tests indicated a high specificity (> 99.0%), the specificity of SAT-EDTA was highest (99.9%). The circulating strain in this study area was identified to be Brucella abortus biotype 4 based on culture and microbiological characterization. The RBT and the iELISA are recommended for estimating the true prevalence of human brucellosis and/or for surveillance programs following their high sensitivities and specificities. The proposed strategy supports evidence-based medicine for clinicians and policy-makers to ensure appropriate preventive and control program of brucellosis worldwide.


Assuntos
Testes de Aglutinação/normas , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Brucella abortus/isolamento & purificação , Brucelose/diagnóstico , Brucelose/epidemiologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/normas , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Brucella abortus/imunologia , Brucelose/microbiologia , Brucelose/transmissão , Bovinos , Estudos Transversais , Equador/epidemiologia , Ácido Edético/química , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Rosa Bengala/química , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
16.
J Vet Intern Med ; 33(3): 1507-1513, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31004404

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is highly desirable to assess the probability of survival in sick neonatal foals upon admission. The foal survival score (FSS) is a published scoring system used to estimate the probability of survival in hospitalized neonatal foals <4 days old. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the ability of the FSS to predict survival in older foals from a geographically different area compared to the original study. ANIMALS: Five-hundred ninety hospitalized neonatal foals ≤14 days of age. METHODS: Retrospective Danish-Swedish multicenter study that included details of signalment, history, clinical examination, laboratory results, necropsy findings, and outcome. Scores and score variables were compared between survivors and nonsurvivors using logistic regression. The optimal cutoff and its test parameters were calculated using a receiver operator characteristic curve. RESULTS: Prematurity, cold extremities, ≥2 infectious or inflammatory sites, blood glucose concentration, and total white blood cell counts were significantly associated with nonsurvival (P ≤ .02). The optimal cutoff to predict survival was ≥6, resulting in sensitivity 78%, specificity 58%, 92% positive predictive value, and 31% negative predictive value. The test performed equally well in foals <4 days old compared to those 4-14 days old. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: Using the suggested optimal cutoff of ≥6, the FSS performed moderately well and may aid in early determination of prognosis for survival. However, the FSS did perform differently in another population and therefore should be assessed under local conditions so that its diagnostic potential is not overestimated.


Assuntos
Animais Recém-Nascidos , Doenças dos Cavalos/mortalidade , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Animais , Dinamarca , Feminino , Cavalos , Hospitais Veterinários/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Suécia
17.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 66(4): 1462-1480, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30920725

RESUMO

Control of African swine fever (ASF) in countries in Eastern, Central and Southern Africa (ECSA) is particularly complex owing to the presence of all three known epidemiological cycles of maintenance of the virus, namely an ancient sylvatic cycle involving the natural hosts and vectors of the disease as well as domestic cycles with and without involvement of natural vectors. While the situation is well documented in some of the countries, for others very little information is available. In spite of the unfavourable ASF situation, the pig population in the sub-region has grown exponentially in recent decades and is likely to continue to grow in response to rapid urban growth resulting in increasing demand for animal protein by populations that are no longer engaged in livestock production. Better management of ASF will be essential to permit the pig sector to reach its full potential as a supplier of high quality protein and a source of income to improve livelihoods and create wealth. No vaccine is currently available and it is likely that, in the near future, the sub-region will continue to rely on the implementation of preventive measures, based on the epidemiology of the disease, to avoid both the devastating losses that outbreaks can cause and the risk the sub-region poses to other parts of Africa and the world. The current situation in the ECSA sub-region is reviewed and gaps in knowledge are identified in order to support ongoing strategy development for managing ASF in endemic areas.


Assuntos
Febre Suína Africana , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , África Central/epidemiologia , África Oriental/epidemiologia , África Austral/epidemiologia , Febre Suína Africana/epidemiologia , Febre Suína Africana/prevenção & controle , Febre Suína Africana/transmissão , Animais , Suínos
18.
PLoS One ; 14(1): e0210317, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30682041

RESUMO

A simple method to estimate the size of the vaccine bank needed to control an epidemic of an exotic infectious disease in case of introduction into a country is presented. The method was applied to the case of a Lumpy Skin disease (LSD) epidemic in France. The size of the stock of vaccines needed was calculated based on a series of simple equations that use some trigonometric functions and take into account the spread of the disease, the time required to obtain good vaccination coverage and the cattle density in the affected region. Assuming a 7-weeks period to vaccinate all the animals and a spread of the disease of 7.3 km/week, the vaccination of 740 716 cattle would be enough to control an epidemic of LSD in France in 90% of the simulations (608 196 cattle would cover 75% of the simulations). The results of this simple method were then validated using a dynamic simulation model, which served as reference for the calculation of the vaccine stock required. The differences between both models in different scenarios, related with the time needed to vaccinate the animals, ranged from 7% to 10.5% more vaccines using the simple method to cover 90% of the simulations, and from 9.0% to 13.8% for 75% of the simulations. The model is easy to use and may be adapted for the control of different diseases in different countries, just by using some simple formulas and few input data.


Assuntos
Doença Nodular Cutânea/epidemiologia , Doença Nodular Cutânea/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Virais/administração & dosagem , Animais , Bovinos , Simulação por Computador , Epidemias/prevenção & controle , Epidemias/veterinária , França/epidemiologia , Vírus da Doença Nodular Cutânea/imunologia , Vacinação/veterinária , Cobertura Vacinal/estatística & dados numéricos
19.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 66(1): 43-46, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30375175

RESUMO

We report the detection of Moku virus in honey bees (Apis mellifera) collected in 2017 from hives with a history of attacks by invasive Asian hornets (Vespa velutina nigrithorax) in Belgium. End 2016, Moku virus was reported in Asian hornets from the same area. In addition, the Moku virus was already present in historical samples of bees collected in 2013, that is, 2 years after the official first detection of Asian hornets in the same area of Belgium. This study suggests a spread of Moku virus to honey bees with possible consequences.


Assuntos
Abelhas/virologia , Vírus de Insetos/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Vírus de RNA/veterinária , Animais , Bélgica/epidemiologia , Vírus de Insetos/genética , Infecções por Vírus de RNA/epidemiologia , Infecções por Vírus de RNA/virologia , Vírus de RNA/genética , RNA Viral/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/veterinária , Vespas/virologia
20.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 66(2): 957-967, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30578746

RESUMO

The lumpy skin disease (LSD) virus belongs to the genus Capripoxvirus and causes a disease in cattle with economic impacts. In November 2014, the disease was first reported in Europe (in Cyprus); it was then reported in Greece (in August 2015) and has spread through different Balkan countries since 2016. Although vector transmission is predominant in at-risk areas, long-distance transmission usually occurs through movements of infected cattle. In order to estimate the threat for France, a quantitative import risk analysis (QIRA) model was developed to assess the risk of LSD being introduced into France by imports of cattle. Based on available information and using a stochastic model, the probability of a first outbreak of LSD in France following the import of batches of infected live cattle for breeding or fattening was estimated to be 5.4 × 10-4 (95% probability interval [PI]: 0.4 × 10-4 ; 28.7 × 10-4 ) in summer months (during high vector activity) and 1.8 × 10-4 (95% PI: 0.14 × 10-4 ; 15 × 10-4 ) in winter months. The development of a stochastic QIRA made it possible to quantify the risk of LSD being introduced into France through imports of live cattle. This tool is of prime importance because the LSD situation in the Balkans is continuously changing. Indeed, this model can be updated to process new information on the changing health situation in addition to new data from the TRAde Control and Expert System (TRACES, EU database). This model is easy to adapt to different countries and to other diseases.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas/veterinária , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Doença Nodular Cutânea/epidemiologia , Vírus da Doença Nodular Cutânea/fisiologia , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas/virologia , França/epidemiologia , Doença Nodular Cutânea/virologia , Probabilidade , Medição de Risco , Processos Estocásticos
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