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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32350745

RESUMO

COVID-19 is a rapidly evolving public health emergency that has largely impacted the provision of healthcare services around the world. The challenge for electrophysiology teams is double; on one side preventing disease spread by limiting all nonessential face-to-face interactions, but at the same time ensuring continued care for patients who need it. These guidelines contain recommendations regarding triaging in order to define what procedures, device checks and clinic visits can be postponed during the pandemic. We also discuss best practices to protect patients and healthcare workers and provide guidance for the management of COVID-19 patients with arrhythmic conditions.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32418181

RESUMO

COVID-19 infection has shown rapid growth worldwide, and different therapies have been proposed for treatment, in particular, the combination of immune response modulating drugs such as chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine (antimalarials) alone or in combination with azithromycin. Although the clinical evidence supporting their use is scarce, the off label use of these drugs has spread very quickly in face of the progression of the epidemic and the high mortality rate in susceptible populations. However, these medications can pathologically prolong the QT interval and lead to malignant ventricular arrhythmias such that organized guidance on QT evaluation and management strategies are important to reduce morbidity associated with the potential large-scale use.

4.
Cancer Lett ; 469: 490-497, 2020 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31738959

RESUMO

The quantification and isolation of Circulating Tumor Cells (CTC) is being the battleground during last years. There are many groups that are investing economic resources in trying to solve this jigsaw. Technological platforms based on different proofs of concept have been developed achieving in some cases excellent results despite not having been able to detect the total compute of the patient's CTC population. The handicap of this matter has been the lack of universal markers. Several years have gone so that in detection of CTC is take into account a basic characteristic that possesses the most of tumor cells, the loss of inactivation of the enzyme telomerase. Gene therapy has been combined with telomerase activity concept for develop a molecular tool that makes it possible to identify CTC: Telomerase-specific replication-selective viruses. This review includes for the first time all the scientific studies that have been published to date with this advanced technology. Furthermore, it describes the role in the diagnosis and prognosis that Telomerase-specific attenuated viruses have been playing in cancer patients study during this last decade.

5.
JACC Clin Electrophysiol ; 5(7): 789-800, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31068260

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study describes the use of septal coronary venous mapping to facilitate substrate characterization and ablation of intramural septal ventricular arrhythmia (VA). BACKGROUND: Intramural septal VA represents a challenge for substrate definition and catheter ablation. METHODS: Between 2015 and 2018, 12 patients with structural heart disease, recurrent VA, and suspected intramural septal substrate underwent a septal coronary venous procedure in which mapping was performed by advancement of a wire into the septal perforator branches of the anterior interventricular vein. A total of 5 patients with idiopathic VA were also included as control subjects to compare substrate characteristics. RESULTS: Patients were 63 ± 14 years of age, and 11 (92%) were men. Most patients with structural heart disease had nonischemic cardiomyopathy (83%). Six patients underwent ablation for premature ventricular contractions (PVC) and 6 for ventricular tachycardia. All patients had larger septal unipolar voltage abnormalities than bipolar voltage abnormalities (mean area 35.3 ± 16.8 cm2 vs. 10.7 ± 8.4 cm2, respectively; p = 0.01), Patients with idiopathic VA had normal voltage. Septal coronary venous mapping revealed low-voltage, fractionated, and multicomponent electrograms in sinus rhythm in all patients with substrate compared to that in patients with idiopathic VA (amplitude 0.9 ± 0.9 mV vs. 4.4 ± 3.7 mV, respectively; p = 0.007; and duration 147 ± 48 ms vs. 92 ± 10 ms, respectively; p = 0.03). Ablation targeted early activation, pace map match, and/or good entrainment sites from intraseptal recording. Over a mean follow-up of 339 ± 240 days, the PVC and insertable cardioverter-defibrillator therapies burden were significantly reduced (from a mean of 22 ± 11% to 4 ± 8%; p = 0.005; and a mean 5 ± 2 to 1 ± 1; p = 0.001, respectively). Most patients (80%) with idiopathic VA remained arrhythmia free. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with suspected intramural septal VA, mapping of the septal coronary veins may be helpful to characterize the arrhythmia substrate, identify ablation targets, and guide endocardial ablation.

6.
Heart Rhythm ; 16(8): 1174-1181, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31085181

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In patients with ischemic ventricular tachycardia (VT), substrate may be "protected" by the posteromedial papillary muscle (PMPM), explaining failure of endocardial-only ablation. OBJECTIVE: We sought to characterize the arrhythmogenic substrate and ablation approach in patients with ischemic VT mapped to the inferior left ventricle in which endocardial ablation failed because of inaccessible substrate underlying the PMPM. METHODS: We included 10 patients with recurrent ischemic VT, evidence of inferior scar, and failed endocardial ablation. In all patients, epicardial mapping was performed via a percutaneous (n = 9) or surgical (n = 1) approach, and VT elimination was achieved by ablation opposite to the PMPM. Clinical characteristics, electrocardiographic characteristics, and procedural data were analyzed. RESULTS: In all patients, intracardiac echocardiography showed hyperechoic scar below the PMPM, and 5 exhibited a pattern characterized by subendocardial basal scar that became intramural and epicardial at distal segments. In 4 patients, VT remained inducible despite endocardial scar isolation, manifested by the absence of electrograms, dissociated potentials, and/or exit block. Eleven inducible VTs were mapped to the epicardium underlying the PMPM: 8 had a right bundle branch block configuration with variable transition, while 3 exhibited left bundle branch block with negative concordance. An inferior QS pattern was present in 10 of 11 VTs. Noninducibility was achieved in 8 patients, and 7 patients remained arrhythmia-free after a mean follow-up of 27 ± 23 months. CONCLUSION: In patients with inferior ischemic scar, VT may arise from the area underneath the PMPM, limiting endocardial ablation. Intracardiac echocardiography accurately defines the substrate distribution, and an epicardial approach may eliminate VT. A pattern of "basal-endocardial/apical-epicardial" ischemic involvement is described.

7.
Heart Rhythm ; 16(10): 1538-1544, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30954600

RESUMO

Idiopathic ventricular arrhythmias may arise from anywhere in the heart, and the majority of them can be effectively treated with catheter ablation. The 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) is the initial mapping tool to predict the most likely site of origin and is valuable to choose the appropriate ablation strategy. Crucial to ECG interpretation is understanding the attitudinal orientation of the heart within the chest and the relationship between the different cardiac structures. In this review, we provide a stepwise anatomical approach for the localization of idiopathic ventricular arrhythmias based on sequential analysis of the most relevant ECG features.

8.
Rev. colomb. cardiol ; 26(2): 107-110, mar.-abr. 2019. graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1058392

RESUMO

Resumen Se hizo ablación tridimensional de aleteo auricular, dependiente del istmo cavotricuspídeo, en un paciente con cirugía previa de válvula tricúspide. El uso de ecocardiografía intracardiaca permitió identificar una estructura sacular en el aspecto septal del istmo. Después de la ablación en este punto, el aleteo terminó y se confirmó bloqueo bidireccional. Este reporte sugiere, además, que el miocardio auricular ligado al anillo valvular, sirve como vía de conducción crítica del aleteo auricular.


Abstract A three-dimensional ablation of an atrial flutter, dependent on the cavo-tricuspid isthmus, was performed on a patient with previous tricuspid valve surgery. The use of intracardiac echocardiography enabled a saccular structure to be identified in the septal aspect of the isthmus. After the ablation in this point, the flutter stopped and a two-directional block was confirmed. This report suggests, furthermore, that the atrial myocardium together with the valvular ring, serves as a critical conduction pathway of the atrial flutter.

9.
Heart Rhythm ; 16(3): 334-342, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30827462

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Imaging guidance for left atrial appendage (LAA) closure (LAAC) conventionally consists of transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) and fluoroscopy under general anesthesia (GA). Intracardiac echocardiography (ICE) can eliminate the need for GA, expedite procedural logistics, and reduce the patient experience to a simple venous puncture. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to define optimal ICE views and compare procedural parameters and cost of ICE vs TEE during LAAC with the Watchman device. METHODS: Optimal ICE views of the LAA for Watchman implant were delineated using Carto-Sound and 3-dimensional rendition of the LAA in 6 patients. Procedural and financial parameters of 104 consecutive patients with standard indications for LAAC undergoing Watchman implant using ICE guidance through a single transseptal puncture (n = 53 [51%]) were compared with those of TEE-guided implants (n = 51 [49%]) in 3 centers. RESULTS: Clinical characteristics were similar between the 2 groups. Total in-room, turnaround, and fluoroscopy times all were shorter using ICE (P <.05) under local anesthesia compared to the TEE group. Implant success was 100% in both groups without peri-device leaks or procedural complications. Follow-up TEE showed no significant peri-device leak in both groups. Total hospital charges for ICE with local anesthesia vs TEE were similar, as were total hospital direct and indirect costs. Professional fees were significantly lower with ICE and local anesthesia than with TEE because the charge of anesthesia staff was avoided. CONCLUSION: ICE-guided Watchman implant is safe, feasible, and comparable in cost to TEE during LAAC with a Watchman device but avoids GA and expedites procedure turnaround.

10.
J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol ; 30(7): 1159-1163, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30801805

RESUMO

Catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation may predispose patients to the development of atypical atrial flutters (AFL). We describe two cases of roof dependent AFLs that failed to terminate despite posterior wall isolation. An epicardial breakthrough involving the septopulmonary bundle is proposed. The correlation between the electrophysiological findings and the anatomical substrate is described.

12.
JACC Clin Electrophysiol ; 4(9): 1176-1185, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30236391

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to evaluate the efficacy and safety of using half-normal saline (HNS) as the cooling radiofrequency ablation (RFA) irrigant among patients who had failed prior, standard RFA. BACKGROUND: Effective control of ventricular arrhythmias that arise from mid-myocardium may be refractory to standard RFA. Recent data suggest that delivering fluid with decreased ionic concentration during open-irrigated RFA can produce deeper RFA lesions. METHODS: A 12-center prospective analysis was performed of all ablations using HNS for the treatment of ventricular arrhythmias (premature ventricular complex [PVC]/ventricular tachycardia [VT]) refractory to standard ablation with normal saline irrigant. RESULTS: HNS RFA was used clinically to target 94 PVC/VTs refractory to standard ablation. Acute success was achieved in 78 of 94 (83%), with longer-term success occurring in 78 subjects after a mean follow-up of 6.1 ± 6.7 months (range, 3.0 to 25.2 months). Steam pops were observed among 12 (12.6%) patients. There were no significant changes in electrolytes measured before and after the use of HNS, and there were no complications related to HNS use. CONCLUSIONS: The use of HNS instead of normal saline irrigant during high-power delivery targeting deep myocardial substrate is safe and effective. PVC/VT sources previously unaffected by standard ablation may be successfully ablated with improved efficiency of radiofrequency delivery using HNS.


Assuntos
Ablação por Radiofrequência , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Estudos Prospectivos , Ablação por Radiofrequência/efeitos adversos , Ablação por Radiofrequência/métodos , Ablação por Radiofrequência/estatística & dados numéricos , Taquicardia Ventricular/epidemiologia , Taquicardia Ventricular/cirurgia , Irrigação Terapêutica
13.
Methods Mol Biol ; 1815: 161-170, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29981119

RESUMO

Coconut is a crop that is economically important in several countries throughout the world. Unfortunately, production is decreasing because palms are affected by very serious phytoplasma diseases, such as lethal yellowing, and also most of coconuts are already very old. On the other hand, markets for coconut products have been rapidly growing in recent years. Hence, replanting of most cultivation surface worldwide, as well as establishing new surface, is urgently needed. This is an immense task, requiring at least a billion coconut palms that cannot be accomplished by traditional propagation through seed. Therefore the biotechnological alternative of micropropagation by somatic embryogenesis is needed. Research has been carried out on this subject in laboratories in several countries studying different approaches, testing different types of explants. The most responsive tissue has been plumule from zygotic embryos. A protocol for micropropagation of coconut based on plumule explants is described here. It involves the use of different media that are based on Y3 medium complemented with activated charcoal, gelling agent, sucrose, and growth regulators. These media allow the formation of embryogenic callus and somatic embryos, growth of shoots, and development of plantlets.


Assuntos
Cocos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Técnicas de Embriogênese Somática de Plantas/métodos , Cocos/embriologia , Meios de Cultura , Endosperma/metabolismo , Zigoto/metabolismo
15.
Rev. costarric. cardiol ; 20(1): 36-40, ene.-jun. 2018.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-960266

RESUMO

Resumen Paciente de 48 años con historia de fibrilación auricular paroxística, dislipidemia y antecedente de ablación de vía accesoria (2013). Anti coagulado con Rivaroxaban 20 mg PO. Paciente es llevado a aislamiento percutáneo de venas pulmonares (AVP) con sistema de navegación tridimensional Carto 3. 48 horas post AVP inicia con cuadro de distrés respiratorio agudo que requiere hospitalización en unidad de cuido intensivo, que resuelve con manejo diurético y antiinflamatorio. Describimos la importancia del manejo hídrico en relación al AVP.


Abstract 48 years old male, previous history of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation, hiperlipemia and previous accesory pathway ablation an 2013. Anticoagulated with Rivaroxaban 20mg PO. Patient underwent pulmonary vein insolation (PVI) with Carto 3 tridimensional navigation and mapping system. Discharged on day 1 after PVI, readmitted with acute respiratory distress that required intensive care unit admission that resolves with diuretics and anti-inflammatory management. We describe the role of hydric management related with PVI procedure.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Arritmias Cardíacas , Veias Pulmonares , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto , Fibrilação Atrial , Rivaroxabana/uso terapêutico , Insuficiência Cardíaca
16.
Circulation ; 137(21): 2278-2294, 2018 05 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29784681

RESUMO

The indications for catheter-based structural and electrophysiological procedures have recently expanded to more complex scenarios, in which an accurate definition of the variable individual cardiac anatomy is key to obtain optimal results. Intracardiac echocardiography (ICE) is a unique imaging modality able to provide high-resolution real-time visualization of cardiac structures, continuous monitoring of catheter location within the heart, and early recognition of procedural complications, such as pericardial effusion or thrombus formation. Additional benefits are excellent patient tolerance, reduction of fluoroscopy time, and lack of need for general anesthesia or a second operator. For these reasons, ICE has largely replaced transesophageal echocardiography as ideal imaging modality for guiding certain procedures, such as atrial septal defect closure and catheter ablation of cardiac arrhythmias, and has an emerging role in others, including mitral valvuloplasty, transcatheter aortic valve replacement, and left atrial appendage closure. In electrophysiology procedures, ICE allows integration of real-time images with electroanatomic maps; it has a role in assessment of arrhythmogenic substrate, and it is particularly useful for mapping structures that are not visualized by fluoroscopy, such as the interatrial or interventricular septum, papillary muscles, and intracavitary muscular ridges. Most recently, a three-dimensional (3D) volumetric ICE system has also been developed, with potential for greater anatomic information and a promising role in structural interventions. In this state-of-the-art review, we provide guidance on how to conduct a comprehensive ICE survey and summarize the main applications of ICE in a variety of structural and electrophysiology procedures.


Assuntos
Técnicas Eletrofisiológicas Cardíacas , Arritmias Cardíacas/diagnóstico por imagem , Arritmias Cardíacas/cirurgia , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico por imagem , Fibrilação Atrial/cirurgia , Átrios do Coração/anatomia & histologia , Átrios do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Comunicação Interatrial/diagnóstico por imagem , Comunicação Interatrial/cirurgia , Humanos , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção
18.
3 Biotech ; 8(2): 94, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29430356

RESUMO

This work aimed to evaluate the embryogenic competence of different tissues from different stages (friable callus, bud-regenerating callus, and whole buds) of Vanilla planifolia, through the molecular detection of the somatic embryogenesis receptor-like kinase (VpSERK) and knotted-like homeobox (VpKNOX1) genes. RNA was extracted with Trizol®, cDNA was obtained, and the studied transcripts were amplified. Using non-specific primers, VpSERK and VpSTM gene expression was detected in the three stages evaluated. This study might contribute to providing an explanation for the recalcitrance of this Vanilla species to somatic embryogenesis.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29133379

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chagasic cardiomyopathy (CC) is the most frequent nonischemic substrate causing left ventricular (LV) tachycardia in Latin America. Systematic characterization of the LV epicardial/endocardial scar distribution and density in CC has not been performed. Additionally, the usefulness of unipolar endocardial electroanatomic mapping to identify epicardial scar has not been assessed in this setting. METHODS AND RESULTS: Nineteen patients with CC undergoing detailed epicardial and endocardial LV tachycardia mapping and ablation were included. A total of 8494 epicardial and 6331 endocardial voltage signals and 314 epicardial/endocardial matched pairs of points were analyzed. Basal lateral LV scar involvement was observed in 18 of 19 patients. Bipolar voltage mapping demonstrated larger epicardial than endocardial scar and core-dense (≤0.5 mV) scar areas (28 [20-36] versus 19 [15-26] and 21 [2-49] versus 4 [0-7] cm2; P=0.049 and P=0.004, respectively). Bipolar epicardial and endocardial voltages within scar were low (0.4 [0.2-0.55] and 0.54 [0.33-0.87] mV, respectively) and confluent, indicating a dense/transmural scarring process in CC. The endocardial unipolar voltage value (with a newly proposed ≤4-mV cutoff) predicted the presence and extent of epicardial bipolar scar (P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: CC causes a unique ventricular tachycardia substrate concentrated to the basal lateral LV, with marked epicardial predominance. The scar pattern is particularly dense and transmural as compared with the more erratic/patchy scar patterns seen in other nonischemic cardiomyopathies. Endocardial unipolar voltage mapping serves to characterize epicardial scar in this setting.


Assuntos
Potenciais de Ação , Cardiomiopatia Chagásica/complicações , Cicatriz/etiologia , Endocárdio/fisiopatologia , Mapeamento Epicárdico , Miocárdio/patologia , Pericárdio/fisiopatologia , Taquicardia Ventricular/diagnóstico , Idoso , Ablação por Cateter , Cardiomiopatia Chagásica/diagnóstico , Cicatriz/diagnóstico , Endocárdio/patologia , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pericárdio/patologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Taquicardia Ventricular/etiologia , Taquicardia Ventricular/fisiopatologia , Taquicardia Ventricular/cirurgia
20.
Rev. colomb. cardiol ; 24(5): 511-511, sep.-oct. 2017. graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-900572

RESUMO

Resumen La afectación cardíaca en pacientes con sarcoidosis está siendo cada vez más reconocida y se asocia con mal pronóstico. Aunque en su patogénesis están implicados los factores ambientales y genéticos, la etiología de la sarcoidosis cardíaca no es clara. Las manifestaciones clínicas incluyen alteraciones de la conducción aurículo-ventricular, arritmias e insuficiencia cardíaca congestiva. Es una entidad extremadamente difícil de diagnosticar debido a que las manifestaciones clínicas son inespecíficas, y la sensibilidad y la especificidad de las modalidades de diagnóstico son limitadas. El tratamiento cardíaco óptimo no ha sido bien definido, y aunque los corticoides siguen siendo el pilar del manejo, hay poca evidencia de la dosis o la duración de la terapia. Se expone el caso de una paciente con sarcoidosis cardíaca aislada, que debutó con extrasístoles ventriculares y progresó a falla cardiaca y arritmias ventriculares sostenidas.


Abstract Cardiac involvement is increasingly being observed in patients with sarcoidosis and is associated with a poor prognosis. Although environmental and genetic factors play a part in its pathogenesis, the aetiology of cardiac sarcoidosis is still not clear. The clinical signs include anomalies in atrial-ventricular conduction, arrhythmias, and congestive cardiac failure. It is an extremely difficult condition to diagnose as the clinical signs are vague, and the sensitivity and specificity of the diagnostic models are limited. There is no well-defined optimum cardiac treatment, and although corticosteroids continue to be the mainstay of its management, there is little evidence on the dose or duration of the treatment. It is presented a case of a patient with isolated cardiac sarcoidosis that debuted with ventricular extrasystoles and progressed to cardiac failure and sustained ventricular arrhythmias.


Assuntos
Humanos , Miocardite , Bloqueio de Ramo , Bloqueio Cardíaco , Taquicardia
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