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1.
Infect Immun ; : iai0022221, 2022 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34978927

RESUMO

The hypoxia-inducible transcription factor 1 (HIF-1) has been shown to enhance microbial killing and to ameliorate the course of bacterial infections. While the impact of HIF-1 on inflammatory diseases of the gut has been studied intensively, its function in bacterial infections of the gastrointestinal tract remains largely elusive. With the help of a publicly available gene expression data set, we could infer significant activation of HIF-1 after oral infection of mice with Salmonella Typhimurium. Immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis confirmed marked HIF-1α protein stabilization, especially in the intestinal epithelium. This prompted us to analyze conditional Hif1a-deficient mice to examine cell type-specific functions of HIF-1 in this model. Our results demonstrate enhanced non-canonical induction of HIF-1 activity upon Salmonella infection in the intestinal epithelium as well as in macrophages. Surprisingly, Hif1a deletion in intestinal epithelial cells did not impact on inflammatory gene expression, bacterial spread or disease outcome. In contrast, Hif1a deletion in myeloid cells enhanced intestinal Cxcl2 expression and reduced the cecal Salmonella load. In vitro, HIF-1α-deficient macrophages showed an overall impaired transcription of mRNA encoding pro-inflammatory factors, however, intracellular survival of Salmonella was not impacted by HIF-1α deficiency.

2.
J Proteomics ; 252: 104424, 2021 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34775100

RESUMO

Mutations in the Melanoma-Associated Antigen D2 (MAGED2) cause antenatal Bartter syndrome type 5 (BARTS5). This rare disease is characterized by perinatal loss of urinary concentration capability and large urine volumes. The underlying molecular mechanisms of this disease are largely unclear. Here, we study the effect of MAGED2 knockdown on kidney cell cultures using proteomic and phosphoproteomic analyses. In HEK293T cells, MAGED2 knockdown induces prominent changes in protein phosphorylation rather than changes in protein abundance. MAGED2 is expressed in mouse embryonic kidneys and its expression declines during development. MAGED2 interacts with G-protein alpha subunit (GNAS), suggesting a role in G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR) signalling. In kidney collecting duct cell lines, Maged2 knockdown subtly modulated vasopressin type 2 receptor (V2R)-induced cAMP-generation kinetics, rewired phosphorylation-dependent signalling, and phosphorylation of CREB. Maged2 knockdown resulted in a large increase in aquaporin-2 abundance during long-term V2R activation. The increase in aquaporin-2 protein was mediated transcriptionally. Taken together, we link MAGED2 function to cellular signalling as a desensitizer of V2R-induced aquaporin-2 expression. SIGNIFICANCE: In most forms of Bartter Syndrome, the underlying cause of the disease is well understood. In contrast, the role of MAGED2 mutations in a newly discovered form of Bartter Syndrome (BARTS5) is unknown. In our manuscript we could show that MAGED2 modulates vasopressin-induced protein and phosphorylation patterns in kidney cells, providing a broad basis for further studies of MAGED2 function in development and disease.

3.
Arch Toxicol ; 95(12): 3745-3775, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34626214

RESUMO

Mechanism-based risk assessment is urged to advance and fully permeate into current safety assessment practices, possibly at early phases of drug safety testing. Toxicogenomics is a promising source of mechanisms-revealing data, but interpretative analysis tools specific for the testing systems (e.g. hepatocytes) are lacking. In this study, we present the TXG-MAPr webtool (available at https://txg-mapr.eu/WGCNA_PHH/TGGATEs_PHH/ ), an R-Shiny-based implementation of weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) obtained from the Primary Human Hepatocytes (PHH) TG-GATEs dataset. The 398 gene co-expression networks (modules) were annotated with functional information (pathway enrichment, transcription factor) to reveal their mechanistic interpretation. Several well-known stress response pathways were captured in the modules, were perturbed by specific stressors and showed preservation in rat systems (rat primary hepatocytes and rat in vivo liver), with the exception of DNA damage and oxidative stress responses. A subset of 87 well-annotated and preserved modules was used to evaluate mechanisms of toxicity of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and oxidative stress inducers, including cyclosporine A, tunicamycin and acetaminophen. In addition, module responses can be calculated from external datasets obtained with different hepatocyte cells and platforms, including targeted RNA-seq data, therefore, imputing biological responses from a limited gene set. As another application, donors' sensitivity towards tunicamycin was investigated with the TXG-MAPr, identifying higher basal level of intrinsic immune response in donors with pre-existing liver pathology. In conclusion, we demonstrated that gene co-expression analysis coupled to an interactive visualization environment, the TXG-MAPr, is a promising approach to achieve mechanistic relevant, cross-species and cross-platform evaluation of toxicogenomic data.

4.
Mol Syst Biol ; 17(10): e10402, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34661974

RESUMO

Recent technological developments allow us to measure the status of dozens of proteins in individual cells. This opens the way to understand the heterogeneity of complex multi-signaling networks across cells and cell types, with important implications to understand and treat diseases such as cancer. These technologies are, however, limited to proteins for which antibodies are available and are fairly costly, making predictions of new markers and of existing markers under new conditions a valuable alternative. To assess our capacity to make such predictions and boost further methodological development, we organized the Single Cell Signaling in Breast Cancer DREAM challenge. We used a mass cytometry dataset, covering 36 markers in over 4,000 conditions totaling 80 million single cells across 67 breast cancer cell lines. Through four increasingly difficult subchallenges, the participants predicted missing markers, new conditions, and the time-course response of single cells to stimuli in the presence and absence of kinase inhibitors. The challenge results show that despite the stochastic nature of signal transduction in single cells, the signaling events are tightly controlled and machine learning methods can accurately predict new experimental data.

6.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 78(11): 1145-1165, 2021 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34503684

RESUMO

Medial arterial calcification (MAC) is a chronic systemic vascular disorder distinct from atherosclerosis that is frequently but not always associated with diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, and aging. MAC is also a part of more complex phenotypes in numerous less common diseases. The hallmarks of MAC include disseminated and progressive precipitation of calcium phosphate within the medial layer, a prolonged and clinically silent course, and compromise of hemodynamics associated with chronic limb-threatening ischemia. MAC increases the risk of complications during vascular interventions and mitigates their outcomes. With the exception of rare monogenetic defects affecting adenosine triphosphate metabolism, MAC pathogenesis remains unknown, and causal therapy is not available. Implementation of genetics and omics-based approaches in research recognizing the critical importance of calcium phosphate thermodynamics holds promise to unravel MAC molecular pathogenesis and to provide guidance for therapy. The current state of knowledge concerning MAC is reviewed, and future perspectives are outlined.

7.
Nat Metab ; 3(9): 1150-1162, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34531575

RESUMO

Macrophages exhibit a spectrum of activation states ranging from classical to alternative activation1. Alternatively, activated macrophages are involved in diverse pathophysiological processes such as confining tissue parasites2, improving insulin sensitivity3 or promoting an immune-tolerant microenvironment that facilitates tumour growth and metastasis4. Recently, the metabolic regulation of macrophage function has come into focus as both the classical and alternative activation programmes require specific regulated metabolic reprogramming5. While most of the studies regarding immunometabolism have focussed on the catabolic pathways activated to provide energy, little is known about the anabolic pathways mediating macrophage alternative activation. In this study, we show that the anabolic transcription factor sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP1) is activated in response to the canonical T helper 2 cell cytokine interleukin-4 to trigger the de novo lipogenesis (DNL) programme, as a necessary step for macrophage alternative activation. Mechanistically, DNL consumes NADPH, partitioning it away from cellular antioxidant defences and raising reactive oxygen species levels. Reactive oxygen species serves as a second messenger, signalling sufficient DNL, and promoting macrophage alternative activation. The pathophysiological relevance of this mechanism is validated by showing that SREBP1/DNL is essential for macrophage alternative activation in vivo in a helminth infection model.

8.
Hepatol Commun ; 2021 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34558834

RESUMO

Mouse models are frequently used to study chronic liver diseases (CLDs). To assess their translational relevance, we quantified the similarity of commonly used mouse models to human CLDs based on transcriptome data. Gene-expression data from 372 patients were compared with data from acute and chronic mouse models consisting of 227 mice, and additionally to nine published gene sets of chronic mouse models. Genes consistently altered in humans and mice were mapped to liver cell types based on single-cell RNA-sequencing data and validated by immunostaining. Considering the top differentially expressed genes, the similarity between humans and mice varied among the mouse models and depended on the period of damage induction. The highest recall (0.4) and precision (0.33) were observed for the model with 12-months damage induction by CCl4 and by a Western diet, respectively. Genes consistently up-regulated between the chronic CCl4 model and human CLDs were enriched in inflammatory and developmental processes, and mostly mapped to cholangiocytes, macrophages, and endothelial and mesenchymal cells. Down-regulated genes were enriched in metabolic processes and mapped to hepatocytes. Immunostaining confirmed the regulation of selected genes and their cell type specificity. Genes that were up-regulated in both acute and chronic models showed higher recall and precision with respect to human CLDs than exclusively acute or chronic genes. Conclusion: Similarly regulated genes in human and mouse CLDs were identified. Despite major interspecies differences, mouse models detected 40% of the genes significantly altered in human CLD. The translational relevance of individual genes can be assessed at https://saezlab.shinyapps.io/liverdiseaseatlas/.

9.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 9: 695684, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34458258

RESUMO

Background: The protein 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase-3 (PFKFB3) is a key stimulator of glycolytic flux. Systemic, partial PFKFB3 inhibition previously decreased total plaque burden and increased plaque stability. However, it is unclear which cell type conferred these positive effects. Myeloid cells play an important role in atherogenesis, and mainly rely on glycolysis for energy supply. Thus, we studied whether myeloid inhibition of PFKFB3-mediated glycolysis in Ldlr-/-LysMCre+/-Pfkfb3 fl/fl (Pfkfb3 fl/fl ) mice confers beneficial effects on plaque stability and alleviates cardiovascular disease burden compared to Ldlr-/-LysMCre+/-Pfkfb3 wt/wt control mice (Pfkfb3 wt/wt ). Methods and Results: Analysis of atherosclerotic human and murine single-cell populations confirmed PFKFB3/Pfkfb3 expression in myeloid cells, but also in lymphocytes, endothelial cells, fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells. Pfkfb3 wt/wt and Pfkfb3 fl/fl mice were fed a 0.25% cholesterol diet for 12 weeks. Pfkfb3 fl/fl bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) showed 50% knockdown of Pfkfb3 mRNA. As expected based on partial glycolysis inhibition, extracellular acidification rate as a measure of glycolysis was partially reduced in Pfkfb3 fl/fl compared to Pfkfb3 wt/wt BMDMs. Unexpectedly, plaque and necrotic core size, as well as macrophage (MAC3), neutrophil (Ly6G) and collagen (Sirius Red) content were unchanged in advanced Pfkfb3 fl/fl lesions. Similarly, early lesion plaque and necrotic core size and total plaque burden were unaffected. Conclusion: Partial myeloid knockdown of PFKFB3 did not affect atherosclerosis development in advanced or early lesions. Previously reported positive effects of systemic, partial PFKFB3 inhibition on lesion stabilization, do not seem conferred by monocytes, macrophages or neutrophils. Instead, other Pfkfb3-expressing cells in atherosclerosis might be responsible, such as DCs, smooth muscle cells or fibroblasts.

10.
Genome Med ; 13(1): 117, 2021 07 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34271980

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a major health problem, leading to a significant disability and patient suffering. Although chronic activation of the immune system is a hallmark of the disease, its pathogenesis is poorly understood, while current treatments only ameliorate the disease and may produce severe side effects. METHODS: Here, we applied a network-based modeling approach based on phosphoproteomic data to uncover the differential activation in signaling wiring between healthy donors, untreated patients, and those under different treatments. Based in the patient-specific networks, we aimed to create a new approach to identify drug combinations that revert signaling to a healthy-like state. We performed ex vivo multiplexed phosphoproteomic assays upon perturbations with multiple drugs and ligands in primary immune cells from 169 subjects (MS patients, n=129 and matched healthy controls, n=40). Patients were either untreated or treated with fingolimod, natalizumab, interferon-ß, glatiramer acetate, or the experimental therapy epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG). We generated for each donor a dynamic logic model by fitting a bespoke literature-derived network of MS-related pathways to the perturbation data. Last, we developed an approach based on network topology to identify deregulated interactions whose activity could be reverted to a "healthy-like" status by combination therapy. The experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mouse model of MS was used to validate the prediction of combination therapies. RESULTS: Analysis of the models uncovered features of healthy-, disease-, and drug-specific signaling networks. We predicted several combinations with approved MS drugs that could revert signaling to a healthy-like state. Specifically, TGF-ß activated kinase 1 (TAK1) kinase, involved in Transforming growth factor ß-1 proprotein (TGF-ß), Toll-like receptor, B cell receptor, and response to inflammation pathways, was found to be highly deregulated and co-druggable with all MS drugs studied. One of these predicted combinations, fingolimod with a TAK1 inhibitor, was validated in an animal model of MS. CONCLUSIONS: Our approach based on donor-specific signaling networks enables prediction of targets for combination therapy for MS and other complex diseases.

11.
Toxicol Lett ; 350: 40-51, 2021 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34229068

RESUMO

In recent years, network-based methods have become an attractive analytical approach for toxicogenomics studies. They can capture not only the global changes of regulatory gene networks but also the relationships between their components. Among them, a causal reasoning approach depicts the mechanisms of regulation that connect upstream regulators in signaling networks to their downstream gene targets. In this work, we applied CARNIVAL, a causal network contextualisation tool, to infer upstream signaling networks deregulated in drug-induced liver injury (DILI) from gene expression microarray data from the TG-GATEs database. We focussed on six compounds that induce observable histopathologies linked to DILI from repeated dosing experiments in rats. We compared responses in vitro and in vivo to identify potential cross-platform concordances in rats as well as network preservations between rat and human. Our results showed similarities of enriched pathways and network motifs between compounds. These pathways and motifs induced the same pathology in rats but not in humans. In particular, the causal interactions "LCK activates SOCS3, which in turn inhibits TFDP1" was commonly identified as a regulatory path among the fibrosis-inducing compounds. This potential pathology-inducing regulation illustrates the value of our approach to generate hypotheses that can be further validated experimentally.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/genética , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/patologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/fisiologia , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Toxicogenética , Animais , Humanos , Modelos Animais , Ratos
12.
Bioinformatics ; 2021 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34179955

RESUMO

Computational models of biological systems can exploit a broad range of rapidly developing approaches, including novel experimental approaches, bioinformatics data analysis, emerging modelling paradigms, data standards and algorithms. A discussion about the most recent advances among experts from various domains is crucial to foster data-driven computational modelling and its growing use in assessing and predicting the behaviour of biological systems. Intending to encourage the development of tools, approaches and predictive models, and to deepen our understanding of biological systems, the Community of Special Interest (COSI) was launched in Computational Modelling of Biological Systems (SysMod) in 2016. SysMod's main activity is an annual meeting at the Intelligent Systems for Molecular Biology (ISMB) conference, which brings together computer scientists, biologists, mathematicians, engineers, computational and systems biologists. In the five years since its inception, SysMod has evolved into a dynamic and expanding community, as the increasing number of contributions and participants illustrate. SysMod maintains several online resources to facilitate interaction among the community members, including an online forum, a calendar of relevant meetings and a YouTube channel with talks and lectures of interest for the modelling community. For more than half a decade, the growing interest in computational systems modelling and multi-scale data integration has inspired and supported the SysMod community. Its members get progressively more involved and actively contribute to the annual COSI meeting and several related community workshops and meetings, focusing on specific topics, including particular techniques for computational modelling or standardisation efforts.

13.
Arch Toxicol ; 95(8): 2691-2718, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34151400

RESUMO

5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) is a widely used chemotherapeutical that induces acute toxicity in the small and large intestine of patients. Symptoms can be severe and lead to the interruption of cancer treatments. However, there is limited understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying 5-FU-induced intestinal toxicity. In this study, well-established 3D organoid models of human colon and small intestine (SI) were used to characterize 5-FU transcriptomic and metabolomic responses. Clinically relevant 5-FU concentrations for in vitro testing in organoids were established using physiologically based pharmacokinetic simulation of dosing regimens recommended for cancer patients, resulting in exposures to 10, 100 and 1000 µM. After treatment, different measurements were performed: cell viability and apoptosis; image analysis of cell morphological changes; RNA sequencing; and metabolome analysis of supernatant from organoids cultures. Based on analysis of the differentially expressed genes, the most prominent molecular pathways affected by 5-FU included cell cycle, p53 signalling, mitochondrial ATP synthesis and apoptosis. Short time-series expression miner demonstrated tissue-specific mechanisms affected by 5-FU, namely biosynthesis and transport of small molecules, and mRNA translation for colon; cell signalling mediated by Rho GTPases and fork-head box transcription factors for SI. Metabolomic analysis showed that in addition to the effects on TCA cycle and oxidative stress in both organoids, tissue-specific metabolic alterations were also induced by 5-FU. Multi-omics integration identified transcription factor E2F1, a regulator of cell cycle and apoptosis, as the best key node across all samples. These results provide new insights into 5-FU toxicity mechanisms and underline the relevance of human organoid models in the safety assessment in drug development.

14.
Cell Syst ; 12(6): 636-653, 2021 06 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34139170

RESUMO

Computational and mathematical models are key to obtain a system-level understanding of biological processes, but their limitations have to be clearly defined to allow their proper application and interpretation. Crowdsourced benchmarks in the form of challenges provide an unbiased assessment of methods, and for the past decade, the Dialogue for Reverse Engineering Assessment and Methods (DREAM) organized more than 15 systems biology challenges. From transcription factor binding to dynamical network models, from signaling networks to gene regulation, from whole-cell models to cell-lineage reconstruction, and from single-cell positioning in a tissue to drug combinations and cell survival, the breadth is broad. To celebrate the 5-year anniversary of Cell Systems, we review the genesis of these systems biology challenges and discuss how interlocking the forward- and reverse-modeling paradigms allows to push the rim of systems biology. This approach will persist for systems levels approaches in biology and medicine.

15.
Immunity ; 54(7): 1594-1610.e11, 2021 07 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34174183

RESUMO

COVID-19 can cause severe neurological symptoms, but the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms are unclear. Here, we interrogated the brain stems and olfactory bulbs in postmortem patients who had COVID-19 using imaging mass cytometry to understand the local immune response at a spatially resolved, high-dimensional, single-cell level and compared their immune map to non-COVID respiratory failure, multiple sclerosis, and control patients. We observed substantial immune activation in the central nervous system with pronounced neuropathology (astrocytosis, axonal damage, and blood-brain-barrier leakage) and detected viral antigen in ACE2-receptor-positive cells enriched in the vascular compartment. Microglial nodules and the perivascular compartment represented COVID-19-specific, microanatomic-immune niches with context-specific cellular interactions enriched for activated CD8+ T cells. Altered brain T-cell-microglial interactions were linked to clinical measures of systemic inflammation and disturbed hemostasis. This study identifies profound neuroinflammation with activation of innate and adaptive immune cells as correlates of COVID-19 neuropathology, with implications for potential therapeutic strategies.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , COVID-19/imunologia , Microglia/imunologia , Barreira Hematoencefálica/imunologia , Barreira Hematoencefálica/metabolismo , Barreira Hematoencefálica/patologia , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/patologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , COVID-19/patologia , Comunicação Celular , Sistema Nervoso Central/imunologia , Sistema Nervoso Central/metabolismo , Sistema Nervoso Central/patologia , Humanos , Proteínas de Checkpoint Imunológico/metabolismo , Inflamação , Ativação Linfocitária , Esclerose Múltipla/imunologia , Esclerose Múltipla/patologia , Bulbo Olfatório/imunologia , Bulbo Olfatório/metabolismo , Bulbo Olfatório/patologia , Insuficiência Respiratória/imunologia , Insuficiência Respiratória/patologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/metabolismo
16.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 22(1): 343, 2021 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34167460

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Autoimmune diseases are heterogeneous pathologies with difficult diagnosis and few therapeutic options. In the last decade, several omics studies have provided significant insights into the molecular mechanisms of these diseases. Nevertheless, data from different cohorts and pathologies are stored independently in public repositories and a unified resource is imperative to assist researchers in this field. RESULTS: Here, we present Autoimmune Diseases Explorer ( https://adex.genyo.es ), a database that integrates 82 curated transcriptomics and methylation studies covering 5609 samples for some of the most common autoimmune diseases. The database provides, in an easy-to-use environment, advanced data analysis and statistical methods for exploring omics datasets, including meta-analysis, differential expression or pathway analysis. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first omics database focused on autoimmune diseases. This resource incorporates homogeneously processed data to facilitate integrative analyses among studies.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes , Biologia Computacional , Doenças Autoimunes/epidemiologia , Doenças Autoimunes/genética , Bases de Dados Factuais , Humanos
17.
Cell Syst ; 12(5): 401-418.e12, 2021 05 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33932331

RESUMO

One goal of precision medicine is to tailor effective treatments to patients' specific molecular markers of disease. Here, we used mass cytometry to characterize the single-cell signaling landscapes of 62 breast cancer cell lines and five lines from healthy tissue. We quantified 34 markers in each cell line upon stimulation by the growth factor EGF in the presence or absence of five kinase inhibitors. These data-on more than 80 million single cells from 4,000 conditions-were used to fit mechanistic signaling network models that provide insight into how cancer cells process information. Our dynamic single-cell-based models accurately predicted drug sensitivity and identified genomic features associated with drug sensitivity, including a missense mutation in DDIT3 predictive of PI3K-inhibition sensitivity. We observed similar trends in genotype-drug sensitivity associations in patient-derived xenograft mouse models. This work provides proof of principle that patient-specific single-cell measurements and modeling could inform effective precision medicine strategies.

18.
Biochem Pharmacol ; 190: 114591, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33957093

RESUMO

Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is the most prevalent adversity encountered in drug development and clinical settings leading to urgent needs to understand the underlying mechanisms. In this study, we have systematically investigated the dynamics of the activation of cellular stress response pathways and cell death outcomes upon exposure of a panel of liver toxicants using live cell imaging of fluorescent reporter cell lines. We established a comprehensive temporal dynamic response profile of a large set of BAC-GFP HepG2 cell lines representing the following components of stress signaling: i) unfolded protein response (UPR) [ATF4, XBP1, BIP and CHOP]; ii) oxidative stress [NRF2, SRXN1, HMOX1]; iii) DNA damage [P53, P21, BTG2, MDM2]; and iv) NF-κB pathway [A20, ICAM1]. We quantified the single cell GFP expression as a surrogate for endogenous protein expression using live cell imaging over > 60 h upon exposure to 14 DILI compounds at multiple concentrations. Using logic-based ordinary differential equation (Logic-ODE), we modelled the dynamic profiles of the different stress responses and extracted specific descriptors potentially predicting the progressive outcomes. We identified the activation of ATF4-CHOP axis of the UPR as the key pathway showing the highest correlation with cell death upon DILI compound perturbation. Knocking down main components of the UPR provided partial protection from compound-induced cytotoxicity, indicating a complex interplay among UPR components as well as other stress pathways. Our results suggest that a systematic analysis of the temporal dynamics of ATF4-CHOP axis activation can support the identification of DILI risk for new candidate drugs.


Assuntos
Fator 4 Ativador da Transcrição/metabolismo , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/metabolismo , Modelos Biológicos , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Análise de Célula Única/métodos , Fator de Transcrição CHOP/metabolismo , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/patologia , Previsões , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Resposta a Proteínas não Dobradas/efeitos dos fármacos , Resposta a Proteínas não Dobradas/fisiologia
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