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1.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 22(13): 6826-6837, 2020 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32186570

RESUMO

Copper(ii) containing materials are widely studied for a very diverse array of applications from biology, through catalysis, to many other materials chemistry based applications. We show that, for grafted copper compounds at the surface of silica, and for the study of the selective conversion of methane to methanol using copper ion-exchanged zeolites, the application of focused X-ray beams for spectroscopic investigations is subject to significant challenges. We demonstrate how unwanted effects due to the X-rays manifest, which can prevent the study of certain types of reactive systems, and/or lead to the derivation of results that are not at all representative of the behavior of the materials in question. With reference to identical studies conducted at a beamline that does not focus its X-rays, we then delineate how the total photon throughput and the brilliance of the applied X-rays affect the apparent behavior of copper in zeolites during the stepwise, high temperature and aerobic activation approach to the selective conversion of methane to methanol. We show that the use of increasingly brilliant X-ray sources for X-ray spectroscopy can bring with it significant caveats to obtaining valid and quantitative structure-reactivity relationships (QSARS) and kinetics for this class of material. Lastly, through a systematic study of these effects, we suggest ways to ensure that valuable allocations of X-ray beam time result in measurements that reflect the real nature of the chemistry under study and not that due to other, extraneous, factors.

2.
J Am Chem Soc ; 141(45): 18286-18292, 2019 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31618022

RESUMO

Despite the importance of the heterogeneous tungsten-oxo-based olefin metathesis catalyst (WO3/SiO2) in industry, understanding of its initiation mechanism is still very limited. It has been proposed that reduced W(IV)-oxo surface species act as precatalysts. In order to understand the reactivity and initiation mechanism of surface W(IV)-oxo species, we synthesized a well-defined silica-supported W(IV)-oxo species, (≡SiO)WO(OtBuF6)(py)3 (F6@SiO2-700; OtBuF6 = OC(CH3)(CF3)2; py = pyridine), via surface organometallic chemistry (SOMC). F6@SiO2-700 was shown to be highly active in olefin metathesis upon removal of pyridine ligands through the addition of tris(pentafluorophenyl)borane (B(C6F5)3) or thermal treatment under high vacuum. The metathesis activity toward olefins with and without allylic C-H groups, namely ß-methylstyrene and styrene, respectively, was investigated. In the case of styrene, we demonstrated the role of surface OH groups in initiating metathesis activity. We proposed that the presence of strong Brønsted acidic OH sites, which likely arises from the presence of adjacent W sites in the catalyst as revealed by 15N-labeled pyridine adsorption, can assist styrene metathesis. In contrast, initiation of olefins with allylic C-H groups (e.g., ß-methylstyrene) is independent of the surface OH density and likely involves an allylic C-H activation mechanism, like the molecular W(IV)-oxo species. This study indicates that initiation mechanisms depend on the olefinic substrates and reveals the synergistic effect of Brønsted acidic surface sites and reduced W(IV) sites in the initiation of olefin metathesis.

3.
J Am Chem Soc ; 141(44): 17809-17816, 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31540549

RESUMO

Two-dimensional (2D) carbides, nitrides, and carbonitrides known as MXenes are emerging materials with a wealth of useful applications. However, the range of metals capable of forming stable MXenes is limited mostly to early transition metals of groups 3-6, making the exploration of properties inherent to mid or late transition metal MXenes very challenging. To circumvent the inaccessibility of MXene phases derived from mid-to-late transition metals, we have developed a synthetic strategy that allows the incorporation of such transition metal sites into a host MXene matrix. Here, we report the structural characterization of a Mo2CTx:Co phase (where Tx are O, OH, and F surface terminations) that is obtained from a cobalt-substituted bulk molybdenum carbide (ß-Mo2C:Co)  through a two-step synthesis: first an intercalation of gallium yielding Mo2Ga2C:Co followed by removal of Ga via HF treatment. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analysis confirms that Co atoms occupy Mo positions in the Mo2CTx lattice, providing isolated Co centers without any detectable formation of other cobalt-containing phases. The beneficial effect of cobalt substitution on the redox properties of Mo2CTx:Co is manifested in a substantially improved hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) activity, as compared to the unsubstituted Mo2CTx catalyst. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations attribute the enhanced HER kinetics of Mo2CTx:Co to the favorable binding of hydrogen on the oxygen terminated MXene surface that is strongly influenced by the substitution of Mo by Co in the Mo2CTx lattice. In addition to the remarkable HER activity, Mo2CTx:Co features excellent operational and structural stability, on par with the best performing non-noble metal-based HER catalysts. Overall, our work expands the compositional space of the MXene family by introducing a material with site-isolated cobalt centers embedded in the stable matrix of Mo2CTx. The synthetic approach presented here illustrates that tailoring the properties of MXenes for a specific application can be achieved via substitution of the host metal sites by mid or late transition metals.

4.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3377, 2019 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31358766

RESUMO

Metal promotion is broadly applied to enhance the performance of heterogeneous catalysts to fulfill industrial requirements. Still, generating and quantifying the effect of the promoter speciation that exclusively introduces desired properties and ensures proximity to or accommodation within the active site and durability upon reaction is very challenging. Recently, In2O3 was discovered as a highly selective and stable catalyst for green methanol production from CO2. Activity boosting by promotion with palladium, an efficient H2-splitter, was partially successful since palladium nanoparticles mediate the parasitic reverse water-gas shift reaction, reducing selectivity, and sinter or alloy with indium, limiting metal utilization and robustness. Here, we show that the precise palladium atoms architecture reached by controlled co-precipitation eliminates these limitations. Palladium atoms replacing indium atoms in the active In3O5 ensemble attract additional palladium atoms deposited onto the surface forming low-nuclearity clusters, which foster H2 activation and remain unaltered, enabling record productivities for 500 h.

5.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 58(35): 12297-12304, 2019 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31278846

RESUMO

The potential implementation of ruthenium-based catalysts in polyvinyl chloride production via acetylene hydrochlorination is hindered by their inferior activity and stability compared to gold-based systems, despite their 4-fold lower price. Combining in-depth characterization and kinetic analysis we reveal the superior activity of ruthenium nanoparticles with an optimal size of 1.5 nm hosted on nitrogen-doped carbon (NC) and identify their deactivation modes: 1) nanoparticle redispersion into inactive single atoms and 2) coke formation at the metal sites. Tuning the density of the NC carrier enables a catalytic encapsulation of the ruthenium nanoparticles into single layer graphene shells at 1073 K that prevent the undesired metal redispersion. Finally, we show that feeding O2 during acetylene hydrochlorination limits coke formation over the nanodesigned ruthenium catalyst, while the graphene layer is preserved, resulting in a stability increase of 20 times, thus rivalling the performance of gold-based systems.

6.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 58(26): 8724-8729, 2019 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31050138

RESUMO

Controlling the structure sensitivity of catalyzed reactions over metals is central to developing atom-efficient chemical processes. Approaching the minimum ensemble size, the properties enter a non-scalable regime in which each atom counts. Almost all trends in this ultra-small frontier derive from surface science approaches using model systems, because of both synthetic and analytical challenges. Exploiting the unique coordination chemistry of carbon nitride, we discriminate through experiments and simulations the interplay between the geometry, electronic structure, and reactivity of palladium atoms, dimers, and trimers. Catalytic tests evidence application-dependent requirements of the active ensemble. In the semi-hydrogenation of alkynes, the nuclearity primarily impacts activity, whereas the selectivity and stability are affected in Suzuki coupling. This powerful approach will provide practical insights into the design of heterogeneous catalysts comprising well-defined numbers of atoms.

7.
Chem Sci ; 10(2): 359-369, 2019 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30746085

RESUMO

Carbon-supported gold catalysts have the potential to replace the toxic mercuric chloride-based system applied industrially for acetylene hydrochlorination, a key technology for the manufacture of polyvinyl chloride. However, the design of an optimal catalyst is essentially hindered by the difficulties in assessing the nature of the active site. Herein, we present a platform of carbon supported gold nanostructures at a fixed metal loading, ranging from single atoms of tunable oxidation state and coordination to metallic nanoparticles, by varying the structure of functionalised carbons and use of thermal activation. While on activated carbon particle aggregation occurs progressively above 473 K, on nitrogen-doped carbon gold single atoms exhibit outstanding stability up to temperatures of 1073 K and under reaction conditions. By combining steady-state experiments, density functional theory, and transient mechanistic studies, we assess the relation between the metal speciation, electronic properties, and catalytic activity. The results indicate that the activity of gold-based catalysts correlates with the population of Au(i)Cl single atoms and the reaction follows a Langmuir-Hinshelwood mechanism. Strong interaction with HCl and thermodynamically favoured acetylene activation were identified as the key features of the Au(i)Cl sites that endow their superior catalytic performance in comparison to N-stabilised Au(iii) counterparts and gold nanoparticles. Finally, we show that the carrier (activated carbon versus nitrogen-doped carbon) does not affect the catalytic response, but determines the deactivation mechanism (gold particle aggregation and pore blockage, respectively), which opens up different options for the development of stable, high-performance hydrochlorination catalysts.

8.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 58(2): 504-509, 2019 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30408311

RESUMO

Single-atom heterogeneous catalysts with well-defined architectures are promising for deriving structure-performance relationships, but the challenge lies in finely tuning the structural and electronic properties of the metal. To tackle this point, a new approach based on the surface diffusion of gold atoms on different cavities of N-doped carbon is presented. By controlling the activation temperature, the coordination neighbors (Cl, O, N) and the oxidation state of the metal can be tailored. Semi-hydrogenation of various alkynes on the single-atom gold catalysts displays substrate-dependent catalytic responses; structure insensitive for alkynols with γ-OH and unfunctionalized alkynes, and sensitive for alkynols with α-OH. Density functional theory links the sensitivity for alkynols to the strong interaction between the substrate and specific gold-cavity ensembles, mimicking a molecular recognition pattern that allows to identify the cavity site and to enhance the catalytic activity.

9.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 57(38): 12430-12434, 2018 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30067303

RESUMO

Alloyed metal nanocatalysts are of environmental and economic importance in a plethora of chemical technologies. During the catalyst lifetime, supported alloy nanoparticles undergo dynamic changes which are well-recognized but still poorly understood. High-temperature O2 -H2 redox cycling was applied to mimic the lifetime changes in model Pt13 In9 nanocatalysts, while monitoring the induced changes by in situ quick X-ray absorption spectroscopy with one-second resolution. The different reaction steps involved in repeated Pt13 In9 segregation-alloying are identified and kinetically characterized at the single-cycle level. Over longer time scales, sintering phenomena are substantiated and the intraparticle structure is revealed throughout the catalyst lifetime. The in situ time-resolved observation of the dynamic habits of alloyed nanoparticles and their kinetic description can impact catalysis and other fields involving (bi)metallic nanoalloys.

10.
J Am Chem Soc ; 140(36): 11395-11401, 2018 09 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30110534

RESUMO

In alkene metathesis, while group 6 (Mo or W) high-oxidation state alkylidenes are accepted to be key reaction intermediates for both homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts, it has been proposed that low valent species in their +4 oxidation state can serve as precatalysts. However, the activation mechanism for these latter species-generating alkylidenes-is still an open question. Here, we report the syntheses of tungsten(IV)-oxo bisalkoxide molecular complexes stabilized by pyridine ligands, WO(OR)2py3 (R = CMe(CF3)2 (2a), R = Si(O tBu)3 (2b), and R = C(CF3)3 (2c); py = pyridine), and show that upon activation with B(C6F5)3 they display alkene metathesis activities comparable to W(VI)-oxo alkylidenes. The initiation mechanism is examined by kinetic, isotope labeling and computational studies. Experimental evidence reveals that the presence of an allylic CH group in the alkene reactant is crucial for initiating alkene metathesis. Deuterium labeling of the allylic C-H group shows a primary kinetic isotope effect on the rate of initiation. DFT calculations support the formation of an allyl hydride intermediate via activation of the allylic C-H bond and show that formation of the metallacyclobutane from the allyl "hydride" involves a proton transfer facilitated by the coordination of a Lewis acid (B(C6F5)3) and assisted by a Lewis base (pyridine). This proton transfer step is rate determining and yields the metathesis active species.

11.
J Am Chem Soc ; 140(33): 10530-10535, 2018 08 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30028948

RESUMO

Copper nanoparticles supported on zirconia (Cu/ZrO2) or related supported oxides (Cu/ZrO2/SiO2) show promising activity and selectivity for the hydrogenation of CO2 to CH3OH. However, the role of the support remains controversial because most spectroscopic techniques provide information dominated by the bulk, making interpretation and formulation of structure-activity relationships challenging. In order to understand the role of the support and in particular of the Zr surface species at a molecular level, a surface organometallic chemistry approach has been used to tailor a silica support containing isolated Zr(IV) surface sites, on which copper nanoparticles (∼3 nm) are generated. These supported Cu nanoparticles exhibit increased CH3OH activity and selectivity compared to those supported on SiO2, reaching catalytic performances comparable to those of the corresponding Cu/ZrO2. Ex situ and in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy reveals that the Zr sites on silica remain isolated and in their +4 oxidation state, while ex situ solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and catalytic performances show that similar mechanisms are involved with the single-site support and ZrO2. These observations imply that Zr(IV) surface sites at the periphery of Cu particles are responsible for promoting CH3OH formation on Cu-Zr-based catalysts and provide a guideline to develop selective CH3OH synthesis catalysts.

12.
J Synchrotron Radiat ; 25(Pt 4): 989-997, 2018 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29979160

RESUMO

A setup for fluorescence-detected X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) with sub-second time resolution has been developed. This technique allows chemical speciation of low-concentrated materials embedded in highly absorbing matrices, which cannot be studied using transmission XAS. Using this setup, the reactivity of 1.5 wt% Pt/CeO2 catalyst was studied with 100 ms resolution during periodic cycling in CO- and oxygen-containing atmospheres in a plug-flow reactor. Measurements were performed at the Pt L3- and Ce L3-edges. The reactivity of platinum and cerium demonstrated a strong correlation. The oxidation of the catalyst starts on the ceria support helping the oxidation of platinum nanoparticles. The new time-resolved XAS setup can be applied to various systems, capable of reproducible cycling between different states triggered by gas atmosphere, light, temperature, etc. It opens up new perspectives for mechanistic studies on automotive catalysts, selective oxidation catalysts and photocatalysts.

13.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 54(32): 3989-3992, 2018 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29611565

RESUMO

A well-defined silica-supported molybdenum dioxo species, ([triple bond, length as m-dash]SiO)2Mo(O)2, is prepared by grafting Mo(O)2[OSi(OtBu)3]2 on partially dehydroxylated silica SiO2-700, followed by thermal treatment under high-vaccum and calcination. Activated by an organosilicon agent the resulting material is active for olefin metathesis at 30 °C.

14.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 20(7): 5312-5318, 2018 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29406541

RESUMO

The fast metal exchange reaction between Au38 and AgxAu38-x nanoclusters in solution at -20 °C has been studied by in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy (time resolved quick XAFS) in transmission mode. A cell was designed for this purpose consisting of a cooling system, remote injection and mixing devices. The capability of the set-up is demonstrated for second and minute time scale measurements of the metal exchange reaction upon mixing Au38/toluene and AgxAu38-x/toluene solutions at both Ag K-edge and Au L3-edge. It has been proposed that the exchange of gold and silver atoms between the clusters occurs via the SR(-M-SR)n (n = 1, 2; M = Au, Ag) staple units in the surface of the reacting clusters during their collision. However, at no point during the reaction (before, during, after) evidence is found for cationic silver atoms within the staples. This means that either the exchange occurs directly between the cores of the involved clusters or the residence time of the silver atoms in the staples is very short in a mechanism involving the metal exchange within the staples.

15.
Chem Sci ; 8(4): 2661-2666, 2017 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28553501

RESUMO

Single-site gallium centers on the surface of silica are prepared via grafting of [Ga(OSi(OtBu)3)3(THF)] on SiO2-700 followed by a thermolysis step. The resulting surface species corresponds to well-defined tetra-coordinate gallium single-sites, [( 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 1111111111111111111111111111111111 1111111111111111111111111111111111 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 1111111111111111111111111111111111 1111111111111111111111111111111111 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 1111111111111111111111111111111111 1111111111111111111111111111111111 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 SiO)3Ga(XOSi)] (X = -H or Si) according to IR, X-ray absorption near-edge structure and extended X-ray absorption fine structure analysis. These gallium sites show high activity, selectivity and stability for propane dehydrogenation with an initial turnover frequency of 20 per h per gallium center, propylene selectivity of ≥93% and remarkable stability over 20 h. The stability of the catalyst probably results from site-isolation of the active site on a non-reducible support such as silica, diminishing facile reduction typical of Ga2O3-based catalysts.

16.
J Am Chem Soc ; 138(45): 14987-14997, 2016 11 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27766836

RESUMO

The activation and conversion of hydrocarbons is one of the most important challenges in chemistry. Transition-metal ions (V, Cr, Fe, Co, etc.) isolated on silica surfaces are known to catalyze such processes. The mechanisms of these processes are currently unknown but are thought to involve C-H activation as the rate-determining step. Here, we synthesize well-defined Co(II) ions on a silica surface using a metal siloxide precursor followed by thermal treatment under vacuum at 500 °C. We show that these isolated Co(II) sites are catalysts for a number of hydrocarbon conversion reactions, such as the dehydrogenation of propane, the hydrogenation of propene, and the trimerization of terminal alkynes. We then investigate the mechanisms of these processes using kinetics, kinetic isotope effects, isotopic labeling experiments, parahydrogen induced polarization (PHIP) NMR, and comparison with a molecular analog. The data are consistent with all of these reactions occurring by a common mechanism, involving heterolytic C-H or H-H activation via a 1,2 addition across a Co-O bond.

18.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 54(30): 8728-31, 2015 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26069026

RESUMO

Identification of active species and the rate-determining reaction steps are crucial for optimizing the performance of oxygen-storage materials, which play an important role in catalysts lowering automotive emissions, as electrode materials for fuel cells, and as antioxidants in biomedicine. We demonstrated that active Ce(3+) species in a ceria-supported platinum catalyst during CO oxidation are short-lived and therefore cannot be observed under steady-state conditions. Using time-resolved resonant X-ray emission spectroscopy, we quantitatively correlated the initial rate of Ce(3+) formation under transient conditions to the overall rate of CO oxidation under steady-state conditions and showed that ceria reduction is a kinetically relevant step in CO oxidation, whereas a fraction of Ce(3+) was present as spectators. This approach can be applied to various catalytic processes involving oxygen-storage materials and reducible oxides to distinguish between redox and nonredox catalytic mechanisms.

20.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 111(32): 11624-9, 2014 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25002479

RESUMO

Mononuclear Cr(III) surface sites were synthesized from grafting [Cr(OSi(O(t)Bu)3)3(tetrahydrofurano)2] on silica partially dehydroxylated at 700 °C, followed by a thermal treatment under vacuum, and characterized by infrared, ultraviolet-visible, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). These sites are highly active in ethylene polymerization to yield polyethylene with a broad molecular weight distribution, similar to that typically obtained from the Phillips catalyst. CO binding, EPR spectroscopy, and poisoning studies indicate that two different types of Cr(III) sites are present on the surface, one of which is active in polymerization. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations using cluster models show that active sites are tricoordinated Cr(III) centers and that the presence of an additional siloxane bridge coordinated to Cr leads to inactive species. From IR spectroscopy and DFT calculations, these tricoordinated Cr(III) sites initiate and regulate the polymer chain length via unique proton transfer steps in polymerization catalysis.

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