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1.
Virol J ; 17(1): 114, 2020 07 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32709248

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Detection of HIV-1 transmitted drug resistance (TDR) and subtype diversity (SD) are public health strategies to assess current HIV-1 regimen and ensure effective therapeutic outcomes of antiretroviral therapy (ART) among HIV-1 patients. Globally, limited data exist on TDR and SD among blood donors. In this study, drug resistance mutations (DRMs) and SD amongst HIV-1 sero-positive blood donors in Accra, Ghana were characterized. METHODS: Purposive sampling method was used to collect 81 HIV sero-positive blood samples from the Southern Area Blood Center and confirmed by INNO-LIA as HIV-1 and/or HIV-2. Viral RNA was only extracted from plasma samples confirmed as HIV-1 positive. Complementary DNA (cDNA) was synthesized using the RNA as a template and subsequently amplified by nested PCR with specific primers. The expected products were verified, purified and sequenced. Neighbour-joining tree with the Kimura's 2-parameter distances was generated with the RT sequences using Molecular Evolutionary Genetic Analysis version 6.0 (MEGA 6.0). RESULTS: Out of the 81 plasma samples, 60 (74%) were confirmed as HIV-1 sero-positive by INNO-LIA HIVI/II Score kit with no HIV-2 and dual HIV-1/2 infections. The remaining samples, 21 (26%) were confirmed as HIV sero-negative. Of the 60 confirmed positive samples, (32) 53% and (28) 47% were successfully amplified in the RT and PR genes respectively. Nucleotide sequencing of amplified samples revealed the presence of major drug resistance mutations in two (2) samples; E138A in one sample and another with K65R. HIV-1 Subtypes including subtypes A, B, CRF02_AG and CRF09_cpx were found. CONCLUSION: This study found major drug resistance mutations, E138A and K65R in the RT gene that confer high level resistance to most NNRTIs and NRTI respectively. CRF02_AG was most predominant, the recorded percentage of subtype B and the evolutionary relationship inferred by phylogenetic analysis may suggest possible subtype importation. However, a more prospective and detailed analysis is needed to establish this phenomenon. The data obtained would inform the selection of drugs for ART initiation to maximize therapeutic options in drug-naïve HIV-1 patients in Ghana.


Assuntos
Doadores de Sangue , Farmacorresistência Viral/genética , HIV-1/genética , Mutação , Filogenia , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/farmacologia , Doadores de Sangue/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Gana , Infecções por HIV/virologia , HIV-1/classificação , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , RNA Viral/genética , Adulto Jovem
2.
Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob ; 15(1): 38, 2016 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27251610

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Co-infection of HIV with HBV is common in West Africa but little information is available on the effects of HBV on short-term therapy for HIV patients. A 28 day longitudinal study was conducted to examine short-term antiretroviral therapy (ART) outcomes in HIV infected individuals with HBV co-infection. METHODS: Plasma from 18 HIV infected individuals co-infected with HBV and matched controls with only HIV infection were obtained at initiation, and 7 and 28 days after ART. HIV-1 viral load changes were monitored. Clinical and demographic data were also obtained from patient folders, and HIV-1 drug resistance mutation and subtype analysis performed. RESULTS: The presence of HBV co-infection did not significantly affect HIV-1 viral load changes within 7 or 28 days. The CD4(+) counts on the other hand of patients significantly affected the magnitude of HIV-1 viral load decline after 7 days (ρ = -0.441, p = 0.040), while the pre-ART HIV-1 VL (ρ = 0.844, p = <0.001) and sex (U = 19.0, p = 0.020) also determined HIV-1 viral load outcomes after 28 days of ART. Even though the geometric sensitivity score of HIV-1 strains were influenced by the HIV-1 subtypes (U = 56.00; p = 0.036), it was not a confounder for ART outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: There may be the need to consider the confounder effects of sex, pre-ART CD4(+), and pre-ART HIV-1 viral load in the discourse on HIV and HBV co-infection.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , HIV-1/genética , Hepatite B/tratamento farmacológico , RNA Viral/antagonistas & inibidores , Adulto , África Ocidental , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Coinfecção , Feminino , Genótipo , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/virologia , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , HIV-1/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Hepatite B/imunologia , Hepatite B/virologia , Vírus da Hepatite B/efeitos dos fármacos , Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , Vírus da Hepatite B/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , RNA Viral/sangue , RNA Viral/genética , Fatores Sexuais , Resultado do Tratamento , Carga Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
3.
Asian Pac J Trop Biomed ; 3(2): 129-39, 2013 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23593592

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determin the extent to which parvovirus B19 (B19V) and co-infection of B19V and malaria contribute to risk of anaemia in children. METHODS: B19V DNA and malaria parasites were screened for 234 children at the PML Children's Hospital in Accra. The role of B19V and co-infection with B19V and malaria in anaemia was evaluated by analysing full blood cell counts, malaria and B19V DNA results from these children. RESULTS: The prevalence of B19V, malaria and co-infection with B19V and malaria was 4.7%, 41.9% and 2.6%, respectively. Malaria posed a greater risk in the development of mild anaemia compared to severe anaemia (OR=5.28 vrs 3.15) whereas B19V posed a higher risk in the development of severe anaemia compared to mild anaemia (OR=4.07 vrs 1.00) from a non-anaemic child. Persons with co-infection with B19V and malaria had 2.23 times the risk (95% CI=0.40-12.54) of developing severe anaemia should they already have a mild anaemia. The degree of anaemia was about three times affected by co-infection (Pillai's trace=0.551, P=0.001) as was affected by malaria alone (Pillai's trace=0.185, P=0.001). B19V alone did not significantly affect the development of anaemia in a non-anaemic child. Microcytic anaemia was associated with B19V and co-infection with B19V and malaria more than normocytic normochromic anaemia. CONCLUSIONS: B19V was associated with malaria in cases of severe anaemia. The association posed a significant risk for exacerbation of anaemia in mild anaemic children. B19V and co-infection with B19V and malaria may be associated with microcytic anaemia rather than normocytic normochromic anaemia as seen in cases of B19V infection among persons with red cell abnormalities.


Assuntos
Anemia/etiologia , Coinfecção/complicações , Coinfecção/fisiopatologia , Malária Falciparum/complicações , Malária Falciparum/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Parvoviridae/complicações , Infecções por Parvoviridae/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Anemia/epidemiologia , Anemia/parasitologia , Anemia/virologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/parasitologia , Coinfecção/virologia , Feminino , Gana/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Malária Falciparum/epidemiologia , Masculino , Infecções por Parvoviridae/epidemiologia , Parvovirus B19 Humano/isolamento & purificação , Parvovirus B19 Humano/fisiologia , Plasmodium falciparum/isolamento & purificação , Plasmodium falciparum/fisiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
4.
J Med Virol ; 84(1): 6-10, 2012 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22095533

RESUMO

Data on the effects of the presence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) in patients co-infected with these viruses and HIV in West Africa are conflicting and little information is available in Ghana. A cohort of 138 treatment naïve individuals infected with HIV was screened for HBV and HCV serologic markers; HBsAg positive patients were tested for HBeAg, anti-HBe, and anti-HBc IgM. The viral load of HIV-1 in the plasma was determined in 81 patients. Eighteen of the 138 patients (13%) and 5 (3.6%) had HBsAg and anti-HCV, respectively. None of the patients had anti-HBc IgM, but 10 (55.6%) and 8 (44.4%) of the 18 patients who were HBsAg positive had HBeAg and anti-HBe, respectively. In patients with measurement of CD4(+) undertaken within 1 month (n = 83), CD4(+) count was significantly lower in patients with HBeAg (median [IQR], 81 [22-144]) as compared to those with anti-HBe (median [IQR], 210 [197-222]) (P = 0.002, CI: -96.46 to 51.21). However, those with HIV mono-infection had similar CD4(+) counts (median [IQR], 57 [14-159]) compared to those with HBeAg (P = 1.0, CI: -71.75 to 73.66). Similar results were obtained if CD4(+) count was measured within 2 months prior to initiation of HAART (n = 119). Generally, HBV and anti-HCV did not affect CD4(+) and viral loads of HIV-1 in plasma but patients with HIV and HBV co-infection who had HBeAg had more severe immune suppression as compared to those with anti-HBe. This may have implication for initiating HAART in HBV endemic areas.


Assuntos
Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Hepatite B/complicações , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/complicações , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/administração & dosagem , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/métodos , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Comorbidade , Feminino , Gana , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/virologia , HIV-1/isolamento & purificação , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/sangue , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite C/sangue , Humanos , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Carga Viral
5.
J Clin Virol ; 40(2): 163-7, 2007 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17827059

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the HIV-1 drug resistance mutations in Ghana. OBJECTIVES: To determine the background protease (PR) and reverse transcriptase (RT) mutations of HIV-1 from treatment naïve patients in Ghana. STUDY DESIGN: Twenty-five plasma samples randomly selected were analyzed for drug resistance mutations. The molecular phylogeny and recombinant patterns of the polymerase gene of HIV-1 were also analysed. RESULTS: No major drug-resistance mutations were seen in protease or reverse transcriptase genes. The L10I, L10V, V11I and E35G minor mutations were seen in four patients, while the V179E was observed in a patient with subtype G. An insertion of lysine was found at codon 36 of the protease gene of one patient. The predominant subtype was the CRF02_AG strain (n=22), but 3 (13.6%) of these were recombinants with HIV-1 subtype K and/or A1. Two patients harboured unclassified/complex strains with D/CRF01_AE and G/CRFAG_02 subtypes for the PR and RT, respectively, using the Stanford Database. Viral loads (VL) ranged from 2290 to >1,500,000c/ml (mean=339,065c/ml). CONCLUSIONS: Treatment naïve patients in Ghana before scale-up may have minor but not major PR mutations and high viral loads. The clinical effects of minor mutations/polymorphisms in the PR and RT genes and recombinants need to be investigated.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/farmacologia , Genes Virais , Infecções por HIV/virologia , HIV-1/genética , Adulto , Farmacorresistência Viral , Variação Genética , Gana , Protease de HIV/genética , Transcriptase Reversa do HIV/genética , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Filogenia , Distribuição Aleatória
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