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1.
Nutr Hosp ; 34(5): 1146-1154, 2017 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29130714

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Among the non-pharmacologic measures for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases (CVD), which are the first cause of death worldwide, the adequate intake of dietary fibers (DF) has shown an important role. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between the intake of DF and the cardio-metabolic risk factors in individuals on a secondary prevention for CVD. METHODS: Transversal study with basal data of the study's DICA Br participants belonging to collaborative centers in the states of Maranhão (MA), Bahia (BA) and Rio de Janeiro (RJ). Sociodemographic and clinical data were used, as well as the daily intake of DF in individuals of both sexes, with age ≥ 45 years and manifest evidence of arteriosclerosis. The association between the intake of dietary fibers and the cardio-metabolic risk factors was obtained through Poisson's regression model. RESULTS: With 141 evaluated individuals, high frequency of non-appropriateness of DF intake was observed. The participants in the centers of RJ (PR = 0.63; CI 95% = 0.49-0.80) and BA (PR = 0.79; CI 95% = 0.66-0.95), former smokers (PR = 0.59; CI 95% = 0.45-0.78) and non-smokers (PR = 0.62; CI 95% = 0.66-0.95) had fewer chances of having non appropriate intake of DF. On the other hand, overweight individuals showed 28.0% more chances of non-appropriate intake of DF. CONCLUSION: Results showed that the majority of the observed population presented non-appropriate intake of DF and that this low intake was significantly associated with overweight, smoking and location of the collaborative center.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/dietoterapia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Fibras na Dieta , Doenças Metabólicas/dietoterapia , Doenças Metabólicas/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Brasil , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Prevenção Secundária , Fumar , Fatores Socioeconômicos
2.
Nutr. hosp ; 34(5): 1146-1154, sept.-oct. 2017. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-167576

RESUMO

Introduction: Among the non-pharmacologic measures for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases (CVD), which are the first cause of death worldwide, the adequate intake of dietary fibers (DF) has shown an important role. Objective: To evaluate the association between the intake of DF and the cardio-metabolic risk factors in individuals on a secondary prevention for CVD. Methods: Transversal study with basal data of the study’s DICA Br participants belonging to collaborative centers in the states of Maranhão (MA), Bahia (BA) and Rio de Janeiro (RJ). Sociodemographic and clinical data were used, as well as the daily intake of DF in individuals of both sexes, with age ≥ 45 years and manifest evidence of arteriosclerosis. The association between the intake of dietary fibers and the cardio-metabolic risk factors was obtained through Poisson’s regression model. Results: With 141 evaluated individuals, high frequency of non-appropriateness of DF intake was observed. The participants in the centers of RJ (PR = 0.63; CI 95% = 0.49-0.80) and BA (PR = 0.79; CI 95% = 0.66-0.95), former smokers (PR = 0.59; CI 95% = 0.45-0.78) and non-smokers (PR = 0.62; CI 95% = 0.66-0.95) had fewer chances of having non appropriate intake of DF. On the other hand, overweight individuals showed 28.0% more chances of non-appropriate intake of DF. Conclusion: Results showed that the majority of the observed population presented non-appropriate intake of DF and that this low intake was significantly associated with overweight, smoking and location of the collaborative center (AU)


Introducción: entre las medidas no farmacológicas para la prevención y el tratamiento de enfermedades cardiovasculares (ECV), que representan la principal causa de muerte en el mundo, la ingesta adecuada de fibra dietética (FD) ha mostrado desempeñar un papel importante. Objetivo: evaluar la asociación entre el consumo de FD y los factores de riesgo cardiometabólico en pacientes en prevención secundaria de ECV. Métodos: estudio transversal con datos de referencia de los participantes en el estudio DICA Br pertenecientes a los centros examinadores en los estados de Maranhão (MA), Bahía (BA) y Río de Janeiro (RJ). Se utilizaron medidas sociodemográficas, clínicas, conductuales, antropométricas y el consumo diario de FD de individuos de ambos sexos, con edades ≥ 45 años y manifiesta evidencia de aterosclerosis. La asociación entre en el consumo de FD y los factores de riesgo cardiometabólico se obtuvo por el modelo de regresión de Poisson. Resultados: fueron evaluados 141 sujetos y se observó alta frecuencia de consumo insuficiente de FA. Los participantes de los centros de RJ (RP = 0,63; IC 95% = 0,49-0,80), BA (RP = 0,79; IC 95%: 0,66-0,95), los ex fumadores (RP = 0,59; IC 95% = 0,78-0,45) y los no fumadores (OR = 0,62; IC 95%: 0,66-0,95) eran menos propensos a tener un consumo insuficiente FD. Las personas con sobrepeso mostraron un 28,0% más de probabilidades de tener una ingesta inadecuada de FD. Conclusión: los resultados indicaron que la mayoría de la población observada presentaba una ingesta inadecuada de FD y que el consumo bajo se asoció significativamente con el sobrepeso, el tabaquismo y el centro de desarrollo (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Fibras na Dieta , Síndrome Metabólica/dietoterapia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Prevenção Secundária/métodos , Estudos Transversais/métodos , Antropometria/métodos , Distribuição de Poisson , Sobrepeso/complicações
3.
Nutr. hosp ; 28(4): 988-998, jul.-ago. 2013. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-120270

RESUMO

Considering the controversies existent on the subject, the aim of this review is to discuss adherence to diet in obese adolescents. The selection of articles was made in the SCOPUS, COCHRANE, APA Psyc Net, SciELO, LILACS, CAPES Journals, PUBMED/MEDLINE and GOOGLE ACADEMIC databases. Studies published between 2002 and 2012 were selected. There was lack of evidence of conceptual discussion about adherence to diet in obesity in the child-youth context, in addition to scarcity of data on adherence to diet itself in obese adolescents and the methods of evaluating this. Lastly, multiple interdependent factors were found which both facilitated and made the process of adherence to diet difficult for obese youngsters. The majority of these (factors) belong to the socioeconomic and cultural dimension, in addition to pointing out cognitive and psychological factors and those associated with health services and professionals (AU)


Considerando las actuales controversias sobre el tema, el objetivo de esta revisión es discutir la adhesión a la dieta en adolescentes obesos. Los artículos publicados entre 2002 y 2012 fueron seleccionados en las siguientes basis de datos SCOPUS, COCHRANE, APA Psyc Net, SciELO, LILACS, Revistas CAPES, PubMed/MEDLINE y GOOGLE ACADÉMICO. Observa-se ausencia de discusión conceptual sobre el tema, así como escasez de datos sobre adherencia a la dieta en adolescentes obesos y de métodos de evaluación para aferir esta adherencia. Por último, fueron identificados varios factores ínter-dependientes que facilitan y obstaculizan la adhesión a la dieta en jóvenes obesos. La mayoría de estas dimensiones se refieren a los factores socio-económicos y culturales, además de los cognitivos, psicológicos y aquellos relacionados con los servicios de salud y los profesionales (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Dieta Redutora , Cooperação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Avaliação de Resultado de Intervenções Terapêuticas , Fatores de Risco , Pacientes Desistentes do Tratamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Fatores Culturais
4.
Nutr Hosp ; 28(4): 988-98, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23889613

RESUMO

Considering the controversies existent on the subject, the aim of this review is to discuss adherence to diet in obese adolescents. The selection of articles was made in the SCOPUS, COCHRANE, APA Psyc Net, SciELO, LILACS, CAPES Journals, PUBMED/MEDLINE and GOOGLE ACADEMIC databases. Studies published between 2002 and 2012 were selected. There was lack of evidence of conceptual discussion about adherence to diet in obesity in the child-youth context, in addition to scarcity of data on adherence to diet itself in obese adolescents and the methods of evaluating this. Lastly, multiple interdependent factors were found which both facilitated and made the process of adherence to diet difficult for obese youngsters. The majority of these (factors) belong to the socioeconomic and cultural dimension, in addition to pointing out cognitive and psychological factors and those associated with health services and professionals.


Assuntos
Cooperação do Paciente , Obesidade Pediátrica/dietoterapia , Adolescente , Criança , Dieta , Humanos , Obesidade Pediátrica/psicologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos
5.
Lipids Health Dis ; 12: 17, 2013 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23406056

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Postprandial lipemia (PL) in adults has been extensively studied, but little explored in youth. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of weight excess on postprandial lipemia in adolescents. METHODS: Eighty-three adolescents were classified into Groups 1 (n= 49, overweight) and 2 (n=34, eutrophic). Total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), HDL and LDL cholesterol were measured before, 2 and 4 hours after a standardized 25 g lipid and 25 g of carbohydrate test meal; glycemia and insulin measured only at baseline. Anthropometric evaluation was performed. RESULTS: Basal TG were higher in Group 1 (p= 0.022). The total increase (Δ-TG), corresponding to the difference between the maximum and the basal TG level was similar in both groups (29.8 ± 21.5 mg/dl vs. 28.2 ± 24.5 mg/dl, p= 0.762). TC, HDL and LDL did not change significantly throughout the test. By analyzing all the adolescents together, the waist circumference was positively correlated with TG at fasting (r = 0.223; p= 0.044) and at 4 hours (r = 0.261; p= 0.019). Only overweight adolescents with hypertriglyceridemia, who also had higher HOMA-IR, presented significant elevation of TG levels 2 and 4 hours after the overload. CONCLUSION: The behavior of lipoproteins in the post-prandial state is similar in eutrophic and overweight adolescents. Thus, apparently the weight excess does not induce post prandial lipemic alterations.


Assuntos
HDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Hiperlipidemias/sangue , Sobrepeso/sangue , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Adolescente , Antropometria , Peso Corporal , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperlipidemias/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Sobrepeso/fisiopatologia , Período Pós-Prandial , Circunferência da Cintura
6.
Endocrinol. nutr. (Ed. impr.) ; 59(2): 131-139, feb. 2012. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-97390

RESUMO

En los últimos cincuenta años, la obesidad se ha transformado en una epidemia global y figura en la lista de los principales problemas de salud pública en varios países del mundo. La adolescencia representa un periodo crítico para el control del peso. Los factores determinantes de la obesidad incluyen un complejo conjunto de factores biológicos, comportamentales y ambientales que se interrelacionan y se potencializan mutuamente. En niños y adolescentes, la obesidad se asocia a la aparición precoz de enfermedades cardiovasculares, diabetes mellitus tipo 2, acanthosis nigricans, complicaciones respiratórias y músculo-esqueléticas, además de problemas psicológicos. Las manifestaciones clínicas de las enfermedades cardiovasculares comienzan a partir de la mediana edad. Sin embargo, estudios indican que el proceso aterosclerótico empieza en la infancia. La hiperlipemia postprandial es un proceso fisiológico que ocurre varias veces al día después de la absorción completa de una dieta con lípidos y es sugerido cómo factor de riesgo para enfermedad arterial coronaria. Nuevas áreas de estudio incluyen los efectos de los diferentes ácidos grasos, las fuentes de los lípidos (endógenos y exógenos) y el efecto de la bebida alcohólica durante la alimentación. Con la evidencia de que la lipemia postprandial es un factor de riesgo independiente para enfermedad arterial coronaria, es de fundamental importancia el establecimiento de valores normativos en niños y adolescentes, pues, de esa forma, medidas preventivas y terapéuticas más efectivas y eficaces podrán ser adoptadas (AU)


In the last 50 years, obesity has become a global epidemic and is one of the main public health problems in many parts of the world. Adolescence is a critical period regarding weight control. The factors determining obesity include a complex group of interrelated biological, behavioral and environmental factors which reinforce each other. In children and adolescents, obesity is associated with premature cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus type 2, acanthosis nigricans, respiratory and skeletal muscle problems, as well as psychological problems. The clinical manifestations of cardiovascular disease begin in middle age. Nevertheless, studies indicate that the atherosclerotic process begins to develop during childhood. Postprandial hyperlipemia is a physiological process that occurs several times a day after the complete absorption of a diet including lipids and has been suggested as a risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD). New study areas include the effects of different fatty acids, lipid sources (endogenous and exogenous), and the effect ingesting alcoholic beverages during meals. Given the evidence that postprandial lipidemia is an independent risk factor for CHD, it is vital to establish normative values for children and adolescents such that more effective and efficient preventive and therapeutic measures can be adopted (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Obesidade/metabolismo , Lipídeos/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Período Pós-Prandial/fisiologia , Fatores de Risco
7.
Endocrinol Nutr ; 59(2): 131-9, 2012 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22137533

RESUMO

In the last 50 years, obesity has become a global epidemic and is one of the main public health problems in many parts of the world. Adolescence is a critical period regarding weight control. The factors determining obesity include a complex group of interrelated biological, behavioral and environmental factors which reinforce each other. In children and adolescents, obesity is associated with premature cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus type 2, acanthosis nigricans, respiratory and skeletal muscle problems, as well as psychological problems. The clinical manifestations of cardiovascular disease begin in middle age. Nevertheless, studies indicate that the atherosclerotic process begins to develop during childhood. Postprandial hyperlipemia is a physiological process that occurs several times a day after the complete absorption of a diet including lipids and has been suggested as a risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD). New study areas include the effects of different fatty acids, lipid sources (endogenous and exogenous), and the effect ingesting alcoholic beverages during meals. Given the evidence that postprandial lipidemia is an independent risk factor for CHD, it is vital to establish normative values for children and adolescents such that more effective and efficient preventive and therapeutic measures can be adopted.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Hiperlipidemias/complicações , Obesidade/complicações , Adolescente , Aterosclerose/etiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Criança , Humanos , Inflamação/etiologia , Período Pós-Prandial , Fatores de Risco
9.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 93(3): 268-74, 2009 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês, Português, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19851655

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Heart Failure (HF) is a common disease with a high rate of mortality. Anemia and renal failure (RF) are often found in patients with HF associated with higher severity of the heart disease and a worse prognosis. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence of anemia and RF, as well as the association between these two conditions, in non-hospitalized patients with HF. METHODS: Patients treated at the HF Outpatient Clinic of a university hospital were followed from July 2003 to November 2006. Anemia was defined as hemoglobin levels < 13 mg/dl for men and 12 mg/dl for women. Renal function was assessed by the glomerular filtration rate (GFR), calculated by the simplified formula of the MDRD (Modification of Diet in Renal Disease) study. RESULTS: Of the 345 patients included in this study, 26.4% (n = 91) had anemia and 29.6% had moderate to severe renal failure (GFR < 60 ml/min). The association between anemia and a higher prevalence of renal failure was statistically significant (41.8% vs. 25.2%; p = 0.005). The patients at functional class III and IV presented a higher incidence of anemia (39.0% vs. 19.4%; p <0.001) and renal failure (38.2% vs. 24.8%; p = 0.007). No association was observed between anemia or renal failure and history of hypertension, diabetes, systolic function or etiology of HF. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of anemia and renal failure was high in this population and was associated with the severity of the HF (functional classes III and IV).


Assuntos
Anemia/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/complicações , Pacientes Ambulatoriais/estatística & dados numéricos , Insuficiência Renal/epidemiologia , Anemia/complicações , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Valores de Referência , Insuficiência Renal/complicações
10.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 93(3): 268-274, set. 2009. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol, Português | LILACS | ID: lil-529174

RESUMO

FUNDAMENTOS: Insuficiência cardíaca (IC) é uma doença comum com alta taxa de mortalidade. Anemia e insuficiência renal (IR) são frequentemente encontradas em portadores de IC associadas com maior gravidade da doença cardíaca e pior prognóstico. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a prevalência de anemia e insuficiência renal, bem como a associação entre esses dois quadros, em portadores de IC não hospitalizados. MÉTODOS: Foram observados pacientes acompanhandos na clínica de IC de um hospital universitário de julho de 2003 a novembro de 2006. Anemia foi definida como níveis de hemoglobina abaixo de 13 mg/dl para homens e de 12 mg/dl para mulheres. A função renal foi avaliada por meio da taxa de filtração glomerular (TFG), calculada pela fórmula simplificada do estudo MDRD (Modification of Diet in Renal Disease). RESULTADOS: Dos trezentos e quarenta e cinco pacientes incluídos neste estudo, 26,4 por cento (n = 91) tinham anemia e 29,6 por cento tinham insuficiência renal moderada a grave (TFG < 60 ml/min). A associação entre anemia e maior prevalência de insuficiência renal foi estatisticamente significante (41,8 por cento vs. 25,2 por cento; p = 0,005). Os pacientes em classe funcional III e IV apresentaram maior incidência de anemia (39,0 por cento vs. 19,4 por cento; p <0,001) e insuficiência renal (38,2 por cento vs. 24,8 por cento; p = 0,007). Não foi observada associação entre anemia ou insuficiência renal e história de hipertensão, diabetes, função sistólica ou etiologia de insuficiência cardíaca. CONCLUSÃO: A prevalência de anemia e insuficiência renal foi elevada nessa população e foi associada com a gravidade da insuficiência cardíaca (classes funcionais III e IV).


BACKGROUND: Heart Failure (HF) is a common disease with a high rate of mortality. Anemia and renal failure (RF) are often found in patients with HF associated with higher severity of the heart disease and a worse prognosis. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence of anemia and RF, as well as the association between these two conditions, in non-hospitalized patients with HF. METHODS: Patients treated at the HF Outpatient Clinic of a university hospital were followed from July 2003 to November 2006. Anemia was defined as hemoglobin levels < 13 mg/dl for men and 12 mg/dl for women. Renal function was assessed by the glomerular filtration rate (GFR), calculated by the simplified formula of the MDRD (Modification of Diet in Renal Disease) study. RESULTS: Of the 345 patients included in this study, 26.4 percent (n = 91) had anemia and 29.6 percent had moderate to severe renal failure (GFR < 60 ml/min). The association between anemia and a higher prevalence of renal failure was statistically significant (41.8 percent vs. 25.2 percent; p = 0.005). The patients at functional class III and IV presented a higher incidence of anemia (39.0 percent vs. 19.4 percent; p <0.001) and renal failure (38.2 percent vs. 24.8 percent; p = 0.007). No association was observed between anemia or renal failure and history of hypertension, diabetes, systolic function or etiology of HF. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of anemia and renal failure was high in this population and was associated with the severity of the HF (functional classes III and IV).


FUNDAMENTO: La insuficiencia cardiaca (IC) es una enfermedad común con alta tasa de mortalidad. La anemia y la insuficiencia renal (IR), encontradas frecuentemente en portadores de IC, son asociadas a mayor severidad de la enfermedad cardiaca y peor pronóstico. OBJETIVO: Evaluar la prevalencia de anemia e insuficiencia renal, así como la asociación entre esos dos cuadros, en portadores de IC no hospitalizados. MÉTODOS: Se observaron a pacientes seguidos en la clínica de IC de un hospital universitario de julio de 2003 a noviembre de 2006. Se definió la anemia como niveles de hemoglobina abajo de 13 mg/dl para varones y de 12 mg/dl para mujeres. La función renal se evaluó por medio de la tasa de filtración glomerular (TFG), calculada por la fórmula simplificada del estudio MDRD (Modification of Diet in Renal Disease). RESULTADOS: Teniendo en cuenta los trescientos y cuarenta y cinco pacientes incluidos en este estudio, el 26,4 por ciento (n = 91) tenía anemia y el 29,6 por ciento presentaba insuficiencia renal de moderada a severa (TFG < 60 ml/min). La asociación entre anemia y mayor prevalencia de insuficiencia renal fue estadísticamente significante (el 41,8 por ciento vs el 25,2 por ciento; p = 0,005). Los pacientes en clase funcional III e IV presentaron mayor incidencia de anemia (el 39,0 por ciento vs el 19,4 por ciento; p <0,001) e insuficiencia renal (el 38,2 por ciento vs el 24,8 por ciento; p = 0,007). No se observó asociación entre anemia o insuficiencia renal e historia de hipertensión, diabetes, función sistólica o etiología de insuficiencia cardiaca. CONCLUSIÓN: La prevalencia de anemia e insuficiencia renal se elevó en esa población y se asoció con la severidad de la insuficiencia cardiaca (clases funcionales III e IV).


Assuntos
Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Anemia/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/complicações , Pacientes Ambulatoriais/estatística & dados numéricos , Insuficiência Renal/epidemiologia , Anemia/complicações , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Valores de Referência , Insuficiência Renal/complicações
11.
Rev. nutr ; 22(3): 399-408, maio-jun. 2009. ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-528597

RESUMO

A insuficiência cardíaca é um problema grave e crescente de saúde pública em todo o mundo, sendo a via final comum da maioria das cardiopatias. Apesar dos recentes avanços da medicina, pouca atenção vem sendo dada ao tratamento não farmacológico, em particular à terapia nutricional. A evolução clínica dos pacientes com insuficiência cardíaca, via de regra, caminha para quadros variáveis de desnutrição, de causa multifatorial e que não está necessariamente relacionada ao índice de massa corporal. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi revisar a literatura na busca por evidências sobre a composição adequada da dieta no tratamento de pacientes com insuficiência cardíaca. Realizou-se uma revisão sistemática nas bases de dados Medline, Pubmed, Lilacs, SciELO e dos comitês nacionais e internacionais de saúde, dos artigos publicados no período compreendido entre 1981 e 2006. Observou-se que existem poucos estudos bem elaborados, sobre a adequação da dietoterapia na insuficiência cardíaca e que esta ainda é muito restrita ao controle do sal e de líquido, sendo dada pouca atenção à quantidade e à qualidade dos demais nutrientes. Existe uma crescente evidência de que a dieta é um fator importante no prognóstico e no tratamento desses pacientes, porém futuros estudos, incluindo ensaios clínicos com adequado número de participantes, se fazem necessários para que se possa prescrever, com segurança, suplementos nutricionais.


Heart failure is a serious and increasing public health problem around the world, and is the common endpoint of most heart diseases. Despite recent medical advances, little attention has been given to the non-pharmacological treatments, specifically, to nutritional therapy. The clinical course of patients with heart failure constantly progresses to varying degrees of malnutrition caused by different factors and not necessarily related to body mass index. Thus, the objective of this study was to search the literature for evidences of a proper diet composition for heart failure patients. The Medline, Pubmed, Lilacs and SciELO databases, and the national and international health committees were systematically searched for articles published between 1981 and 2006. There were few well-designed studies on proper diet therapies for heart failure patients. The ones reviewed focused on restricting table salt and liquids but gave little attention to the amount and quality of other nutrients. There is growing evidence that diet is an important factor in the prognosis and treatment of these patients. However, future studies, including clinical trials with adequate numbers of participants, are necessary if nutritional supplements are to be safely prescribed.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/dietoterapia , Nutrientes , Micronutrientes/uso terapêutico , Terapia Nutricional/métodos
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