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1.
Retina ; 2019 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479088

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To document the rod-cone dystrophy phenotype of patients with Usher syndrome type 1 (USH1) harboring MYO7A mutations. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study of 53 patients (42 families) with biallelic MYO7A mutations who underwent comprehensive examination, including functional visual tests and multimodal retinal imaging. Genetic analysis was performed either using a multiplex amplicon panel or through direct sequencing. Data were analyzed with IBM SPSS Statistics software v. 21.0. RESULTS: Fifty different genetic variations including 4 novel were identified. Most patients showed a typical rod-cone dystrophy phenotype, with best-corrected visual acuity and central visual field deteriorating linearly with age. At age 29, binocular visual field demonstrated an average preservation of 50 central degrees, constricting by 50% within 5 years. Structural changes based on spectral domain optical coherence tomography, short wavelength autofluorescence, and near-infrared autofluorescence measurements did not however correlate with age. Our study revealed a higher percentage of epiretinal membranes and cystoid macular edema in patients with MYO7A mutations compared with rod-cone dystrophy patients with other mutations. Subgroup analyses did not reveal substantial genotype-phenotype correlations. CONCLUSION: To the best of our knowledge, this is the largest French cohort of patients with MYO7A mutations reported to date. Functional visual characteristics of this subset of patients followed a linear decline as in other typical rod-cone dystrophy, but structural changes were variable indicating the need for a case-by-case evaluation for prognostic prediction and choice of potential therapies.

2.
JAMA Ophthalmol ; 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31369039

RESUMO

Importance: Sensitive outcome measures for disease progression are needed for treatment trials of Stargardt disease. Objective: To estimate the progression rate of atrophic lesions in the prospective Natural History of the Progression of Atrophy Secondary to Stargardt Disease (ProgStar) study over a 12-month period. Design, Setting, and Participants: This multicenter prospective cohort study was conducted in an international selection of tertiary referral centers from October 21, 2013, to February 15, 2017. Patients who were affected by Stargardt disease, aged 6 years and older at baseline, and harboring disease-causing variants of the ABCA4 gene were enrolled at 9 centers in the United States, United Kingdom, and continental Europe. Data analysis occurred from November 2016 to January 2017. Exposures: Autofluorescence images obtained with a standard protocol were sent to a central reading center, and areas of definitely decreased autofluorescence, questionably decreased autofluorescence, and the total combined area of decreased autofluorescence were outlined and quantified. Progression rates were estimated from linear mixed models with time as the independent variable. Main Outcomes and Measures: Yearly rate of progression, using the growth of atrophic lesions measured by autofluorescence imaging. Results: A total of 259 study participants (488 eyes; 230 individuals [88.8%] were examined in both eyes) were enrolled (mean [SD] age at first visit, 33.3 [15.1] years; 118 [54.4%] female). Gradable images were available for evaluation for 480 eyes at baseline and 454 eyes after 12 months. At baseline, definitely decreased autofluorescence was present in 306 eyes, and the mean (SD) lesion size was 3.93 (4.37) mm2. The mean total area of decreased autofluorescence at baseline was 4.07 (4.04) mm2. The estimated progression of definitely decreased autofluorescence was 0.76 (95% CI, 0.54-0.97) mm2 per year (P < .001), and the total area of both questionably and definitely decreased autofluorescence was 0.64 (95% CI, 0.50-0.78) mm2 per year (P < .001). Both progression rates depended on initial lesion size. Conclusions and Relevance: In Stargardt disease, autofluorescence imaging may serve as a monitoring tool and definitely decreased autofluorescence and total area as outcome measures for interventional clinical trials that aim to slow disease progression. Rates of progression depended mainly on initial lesion size.

3.
Am J Ophthalmol ; 2019 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31465755

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To describe outer retinal structure in Best vitelliform macular dystrophy (BVMD) patients using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and correlate these RESULTS with best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and patient age. DESIGN: Retrospective cross-sectional study. METHODS: Patients with molecularly confirmed BVMD were compared to normal control subjects (NC). Complete clinical evaluation was performed including BCVA, fundus photography, SD-OCT and fundus auto-fluorescence. SD-OCT images were analyzed to determine the stage of the lesion, the central macular thickness (CMT), the foveal outer nuclear layer (ONL) thickness, and tomographic structural changes. RESULTS: Forty-two BVMD patients (42 eyes) with a molecular diagnosis and 42 NC (42 eyes) were included. Clinical stages (Gass clinical classification) were distributed as follow: 4.8% for stage 1, 23.8% for stage 2, 16.6% for stage 3, 45.2% for stage 4 and 9.5% for stage 5. The presence of subretinal fluid and vitelliform material was noted in 76% and 79% of the BVMD eyes examined, and was not associated with BCVA modification (P=0.758 and P=0.968, respectively). The median ONL thickness was significantly lower compared to the control group (P<0.001). BCVA was significantly correlated with stage (R=0.710; P<0.01), age (R=0.448; P<0.01), CMT (R=-0.411; P<0.01) and ONL thickness (R=-0.620; P<0.01). The disruption of the external limiting membrane and the ellipsoid zone was associated with a decreased BCVA (P<0.001 for both). Among the 32 eyes with subretinal detachment, the photoreceptor outer segment (PROS) length was significantly correlated with BCVA (R=-0.467; P<0.01) and ONL thickness (R=0.444; P= P<0.01). CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates the correlation between BCVA, age and SD-OCT features in BVMD patients. The ONL thickness as well as PROS length are relevant functional correlates and outcome measures to follow photoreceptor impairments and disease progression.

4.
Doc Ophthalmol ; 2019 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31267413

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Usher syndrome (USH) is a multisensory deficiency involving vision, hearing and the vestibular system. The purpose of this study is to report on the functional data (i.e. electroretinography, visual fields, visual acuity) of patients with retinitis pigmentosa (RP) due to Usher syndrome that were collected in a multicentre European study (TREATRUSH). METHODS: A total of 268 genetically confirmed USH patients underwent electrophysiological examinations in the context of multimodal ophthalmological examination in the study (75 USH1, 189 USH2 and four USH3). Full-field electroretinography (ERG) was performed according to ISCEV standards, visual field determination was carried out with either the Octopus or Goldmann perimeters and visual acuity was examined with either ETDRS or Snellen charts. The data were compared between USH subtypes (USH1/USH2/USH3) and correlated with age. RESULTS: Visual acuity decreases significantly with age for both USH1 and USH2 (p < 0.001), without a difference between the two cohorts. When corrected for age, the preserved kinetic visual field was significantly larger in USH2 than in USH1 (p = 0.04). Furthermore, the preserved kinetic visual field area showed a significant decrease with age (based on an exponential fit) in both USH1 and USH2 (p < 0.001). In USH1 patients, however, the visual field was already vastly reduced at an early age. The ERG results were abnormal in all patients. Detectable data for scotopic ERG were obtained from nine patients, and data of photopic ERG were obtained from 24 patients, without a difference between USH1 and USH2 subtypes. CONCLUSIONS: There are differences in the phenotypes of RP in USH subtypes, most visible in the progression of visual fields between USH1 and USH2. The perimetric reduction occurs earlier in USH1 than in USH2. In both subtypes, visual acuity decreases significantly with age and the ERG is not detectable already at early ages.

5.
J Neuroinflammation ; 16(1): 157, 2019 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31351497

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To decipher the role of monocyte-derived macrophages (Mφs) in vascular remodeling of the occluded vein following experimental branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO). METHODS: The inflammation induced by laser-induced BRVO on mice retina was evaluated at different time points by RT-PCR looking at inflammatory markers mRNA level expression, Icam-1, Cd11b, F4/80, Ccl2, and Ccr2 and by quantification of Iba1-positive macrophage (Mφ) density on Iba1-stained retinal flatmount. Repeated intraperitoneal EdU injection combined with liposome clodronate-induced monocyte (Mo) depletion in wildtype mice was used to differentiate Mo-derived Mφs from resident Mφs. Liposome clodronate Mo-depleted wildtype mice and Ccr2-deficient mice were used to evaluate the role of all CCR2+ and CCR2neg Mo-derived Mφs on EC apoptosis in the occluded vein. RESULTS: cd11b, ICAM-1, F4/80, Ccl2, and Ccr2 mRNA expression were increased 1, 3, and 7 days after vein occlusion. The number of parenchymal (parMφs) and perivascular (vasMφs) macrophages was increased 3 and 7 days after BRVO. The systemic depletion of all circulating Mos decreased significantly the BRVO-induced parMφs and vasMφs macrophage accumulation, while the deletion of CCR2+-inflammatory Mo only diminished the accumulation of parMφs, but not vasMφs. Finally, apoptotic ECs of the vein were more numerous in fully depleted, liposome clodronate-treated mice, than in Ccr2-/- mice that only lack the recruitment of CCR2+ inflammatory Mos. CONCLUSIONS: BRVO triggers the recruitment of blood-derived parMφs and vasMφs. Interestingly, vasMφs accumulation was independent of CCR2. The observation that the inhibition of the recruitment of all infiltrating Mφs increases the vein EC apoptosis, while CCR2 deficiency does not, demonstrates that CCR2neg Mo-derived vasMφs protect the ECs against apoptosis in the occluded vein.

6.
Ophthalmol Ther ; 2019 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31346977

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study (Tilak Study No: TIL-001) was to evaluate the medical modules on the mobile medical application OdySight and compare them to the gold standard tests for visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, and Amsler Grid. METHODS: A total of 120 eyes were evaluated in an open-label, single-arm, prospective, single-site study during which participants performed monocular, gold standard tests for measuring visual acuity (Sloan Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study [ETDRS] letter chart at 40 cm testing distance and ETDRS letter chart at 4 m testing distance [40-cm and 4-m ETDRS, respectively), contrast sensitivity (Pelli-Robson contrast sensitivity chart [Pelli-Robson test]), and metamorphopsia/scotoma (Amsler Grid) followed by the respective modules on OdySight (also monocular). During this study, both the distance between the device and the patient's eye and room illumination were controlled by the examiner. RESULTS: A Bland-Altman analysis demonstrated that there was no disagreement between the results of the OdySight visual acuity module and both the 40-cm Sloan ETDRS and 4-m ETDRS tests, with a very low level of bias (0.53 and - 1.53 letters, respectively). The same analysis of contrast sensitivity showed a broader disagreement between the results of the OdySight module and those of the Pelli-Robson test. A McNemar test indicated that there was no significant difference between results obtained by the OdySight Amsler Grid module and those obtained by the paper version for the detection of metamorphopsia and scotoma (p = 1.0 for both). CONCLUSION: The results from the TIL-001 study demonstrate good agreement, overall, between the measurements taken by the near visual acuity module and the Amsler grid module of OdySight as compared to currently used gold standards. The contrast sensitivity module of OdySight will require additional investigation. OdySight could be used for remote monitoring of vision between clinic visits and potentially assist in follow-up planning. FUNDING: Tilak Healthcare funded the study and the Rapid Service Fees. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT03457441.

7.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0217418, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31150434

RESUMO

Carotenoid-containing oil droplets in the avian retina act as cut-off filters to enhance colour discrimination. We report a confocal resonance Raman investigation of the oil droplets of the domestic chicken, Gallus gallus domesticus. We show that all carotenoids present are in a constrained conformation, implying a locus in specific lipid binding sites. In addition, we provide proof of a recent conclusion that all carotenoid-containing droplets contain a mixture of all carotenoids present, rather than only a subset of them-a conclusion that diverges from the previously-held view. Our results have implications for the mechanism(s) giving rise to these carotenoid mixtures in the differently-coloured droplets.

9.
Sci Transl Med ; 11(494)2019 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31142676

RESUMO

Advances in preclinical research are now being translated into innovative clinical solutions for blindness.

10.
JAMA Ophthalmol ; 137(6): 669-679, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30998820

RESUMO

Importance: A precise phenotypic characterization of retinal dystrophies is needed for disease modeling as a basis for future therapeutic interventions. Objective: To compare genotype, phenotype, and structural changes in patients with rod-cone dystrophy (RCD) associated with mutations in PDE6A or PDE6B. Design, Setting, and Participants: In a retrospective cohort study conducted in Paris, France, from January 2007 to September 2017, 54 patients from a cohort of 1095 index patients with RCD underwent clinical examination, including personal and familial history, best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), color vision, slitlamp examination, full-field electroretinography, kinetic visual fields (VFs), retinophotography, optical coherence tomography, near-infrared fundus autofluorescence, and short-wavelength fundus autofluorescence imaging. Genotyping was performed using microarray analysis, targeted next-generation sequencing, and Sanger sequencing validation with familial segregation when possible. Data were analyzed from September 1, 2017, to February 1, 2018. Clinical variables were subsequently analyzed in 2018. Main Outcomes and Measures: Phenotype and genotype comparison of patients carrying mutations in PDE6A or PDE6B. Results: Of the 54 patients included in the study, 19 patients of 17 families (11 women [58%]; mean [SD] age at diagnosis, 14.83 [10.63] years) carried pathogenic mutations in PDE6A, and 35 patients of 26 families (17 women [49%]; mean [SD] age at diagnosis, 21.10 [11.56] years) had mutations in PDE6B, accounting for prevalences of 1.6% and 2.4%, respectively. Among 49 identified genetic variants, 14 in PDE6A and 15 in PDE6B were novel. Overall, phenotypic analysis revealed no substantial differences between the 2 groups except for night blindness as a presenting symptom that was noted to be more prevalent in the PDE6A than PDE6B group (80% vs 37%, respectively; P = .005). The mean binocular BCVA and VF decrease over time (measured as mean individual slopes coefficients) was comparable between patients with PDE6A and PDE6B mutations: 0.04 (0.12) vs 0.02 (0.05) for BCVA (P = .89) and 14.33 (7.12) vs 13.27 (6.77) for VF (P = .48). Conclusions and Relevance: Mutations in PDE6A and PDE6B accounted for 1.6% and 2.4%, respectively, in a cohort of French patients with RCD. The functional and structural findings reported may constitute the basis of disease modeling that might be used for better prognostic estimation and candidate selection for photoreceptor therapeutic rescue.

11.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 4162, 2019 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30858444

RESUMO

Patients affected by retinitis pigmentosa, an inherited retinal disease, experience a decline in vision due to photoreceptor degeneration leading to irreversible blindness. Rod-derived cone viability factor (RdCVF) is the most promising mutation-independent treatment today. To identify pathologic processes leading to secondary cone photoreceptor dysfunction triggering central vision loss of these patients, we model the stimulation by RdCVF of glucose uptake in cones and glucose metabolism by aerobic glycolysis. We develop a nonlinear system of enzymatic functions and differential equations to mathematically model molecular and cellular interactions in a cone. We use uncertainty and sensitivity analysis to identify processes that have the largest effect on the system and their timeframes. We consider the case of a healthy cone, a cone with low levels of glucose, and a cone with low and no RdCVF. The three key processes identified are metabolism of fructose-1,6-bisphosphate, production of glycerol-3-phosphate and competition that rods exert on cone resources. The first two processes are proportional to the partition of the carbon flux between glycolysis and the pentose phosphate pathway or the Kennedy pathway, respectively. The last process is the rods' competition for glucose, which may explain why rods also provide the RdCVF signal to compensate.

12.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1400, 2019 03 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30923310

RESUMO

Neuroimaging modalities such as MRI and EEG are able to record from the whole brain, but this comes at the price of either limited spatiotemporal resolution or limited sensitivity. Here, we show that functional ultrasound imaging (fUS) of the brain is able to assess local changes in cerebral blood volume during cognitive tasks, with sufficient temporal resolution to measure the directional propagation of signals. In two macaques, we observed an abrupt transient change in supplementary eye field (SEF) activity when animals were required to modify their behaviour associated with a change of saccade tasks. SEF activation could be observed in a single trial, without averaging. Simultaneous imaging of anterior cingulate cortex and SEF revealed a time delay in the directional functional connectivity of 0.27 ± 0.07 s and 0.9 ± 0.2 s for both animals. Cerebral hemodynamics of large brain areas can be measured at high spatiotemporal resolution using fUS.


Assuntos
Circulação Cerebrovascular , Cognição/fisiologia , Lobo Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Giro do Cíngulo/diagnóstico por imagem , Movimentos Sacádicos/fisiologia , Animais , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Ecoencefalografia , Movimentos Oculares/fisiologia , Lobo Frontal/fisiologia , Neuroimagem Funcional , Giro do Cíngulo/fisiologia , Macaca , Vias Neurais/diagnóstico por imagem , Vias Neurais/fisiologia , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Ultrassonografia Doppler Transcraniana
14.
JAMA Ophthalmol ; 137(4): 399-406, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30730541

RESUMO

Importance: Intravitreal gene therapy is regarded as generally safe with limited mild adverse events, but its systemic effects remain to be investigated. Objective: To examine the association between immune response and intraocular inflammation after ocular gene therapy with recombinant adeno-associated virus 2 carrying the ND4 gene (rAAV2/2-ND4). Design, Setting, and Participants: This secondary analysis of an open-label, dose-escalation phase 1/2 randomized clinical trial of rAAV2/2-ND4 included data from February 13, 2014 (first patient visit), to March 30, 2017 (last patient visit at week 96), the first 2 years after injection. Patients older than 15 years with diagnosed ND4 Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) and visual acuity of at least counting fingers were enrolled in 1 of 5 cohorts. Four dose cohorts of 3 patients each were treated sequentially. An extension cohort of 3 patients received the dose of 9 × 1010 viral genomes per eye. Interventions: Patients received increasing doses of rAAV2/2-ND4 (9 × 109, 3 × 1010, 9 × 1010, and 1.8 × 1011 viral genomes per eye) as a single unilateral intravitreal injection. Patients were monitored for 96 weeks after injection; ocular examinations were performed regularly, and blood samples were collected for immunologic testing. Main Outcomes and Measures: A composite ocular inflammation score (OIS) was calculated based on grades of anterior chamber cells and flare, vitreous cells, and haze according to the Standardization of Uveitis Nomenclature. The systemic immune response was quantified by enzyme-linked immunospot (cellular immune response), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (IgG titers), and luciferase assay (neutralizing antibody [NAb] titers). Results: The present analysis included 15 patients (mean [SD] age, 47.9 [17.2] years; 13 men and 2 women) enrolled in the 5 cohorts of the clinical trial. Thirteen patients experienced intraocular inflammation after rAAV2/2-ND4 administration. Mild anterior chamber inflammation and vitritis were reported at all doses, and all cases were responsive to treatment. A maximum OIS of 9.5 was observed in a patient with history of idiopathic uveitis. Overall, OIS was not associated with the viral dose administered. No NAbs against AAV2 were detected in aqueous humor before treatment. Two patients tested positive for cellular immune response against AAV2 at baseline and after treatment. Humoral immune response was not apparently associated with the dose administered or with the immune status of patients at baseline. No association was found between OISs and serum NAb titers. Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, intravitreal administration of rAAV2/2-ND4 in patients with LHON was safe and well tolerated. Further investigations may shed light into the local immune response to rAAV2/2-ND4 as a potential explanation for the observed intraocular inflammation.

15.
Br J Ophthalmol ; 2019 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30705041

RESUMO

AIM: To develop a simple and easily applicable classification of disease severity in retinitis pigmentosa (RP). METHODS: This is a retrospective cross-sectional study. Visual acuity (VA), visual field width (VF) and ellipsoid zone width (EZ) were obtained from medical records of patients with RP. A scoring criterion was developed wherein each variable was assigned a score from 0 to 5 depending on its distribution. The cumulative score (from 0 to 15) was used to classify disease severity from grade 0 to 5. The scores were correlated with each other and the final grade. The grades were then correlated with age and disease duration. RESULTS: The median age (range) of patients (n=93) was 55 (12-87) years, 51% were female, 70% had been diagnosed within 10 years, and 50% had autosomal recessive disease. Most eyes (n=181) at least had a VA of 20/40 (67%), a VF of 20° (75%) and an EZ of 5° (76%). All scores were correlated with each other (r=0.509-0.613; p<0.001 for all) and with the final grade (r=0.790-0.869; p<0.001 for all). Except for grade 0 (5%), all grades were evenly distributed: 21% for grade 1, 23% for grade 2, 22% for grade 3, 17% for grade 4 and 12% for grade 5. Grades were correlated with both age (r=0.252; p<0.001) and disease duration (r=0.383; p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: We present a simple, objective and easy to use disease severity classification for RP which can be used to categorise and compare patients.

16.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 2085, 2019 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30765782

RESUMO

Emerging evidence suggests that white matter plasticity in the adult brain is preserved after sensory and behavioral modifications. However, little is known about the progression of structural changes during the process of decline in visual input. Here we studied two groups of patients suffering from advanced retinitis pigmentosa with specific deterioration of the visual field: patients who had lost their peripheral visual field, retaining only central ("tunnel") vision, and blind patients with complete visual field loss. Testing of these homogeneous groups made it possible to assess the extent to which the white matter is affected by loss of partial visual input and whether partially preserved visual input suffices to sustain stability in tracts beyond the primary visual system. Our results showed gradual changes in diffusivity that are indicative of degenerative processes in the primary visual pathway comprising the optic tract and the optic radiation. Interestingly, changes were also found in tracts of the ventral stream and the corticospinal fasciculus, depicting a gradual reorganisation of these tracts consequentially to the gradual loss of visual field coverage (from intact perception to partial vision to complete blindness). This reorganisation may point to microstructural plasticity underlying adaptive behavior and cross-modal integration after partial visual deprivation.

17.
Science ; 362(6415): 621, 2018 11 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30409862
18.
Front Neurosci ; 12: 789, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30450028

RESUMO

Optogenetic technologies paved the way to dissect complex neural circuits and monitor neural activity using light in animals. In retinal disease, optogenetics has been used as a therapeutic modality to reanimate the retina after the loss of photoreceptor outer segments. However, it is not clear today which ones of the great diversity of microbial opsins are best suited for therapeutic applications in human retinas as cell lines, primary cell cultures and animal models do not predict expression patterns of microbial opsins in human retinal cells. Therefore, we sought to generate retinal organoids derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) as a screening tool to explore the membrane trafficking efficacy of some recently described microbial opsins. We tested both depolarizing and hyperpolarizing microbial opsins including CatCh, ChrimsonR, ReaChR, eNpHR 3.0, and Jaws. The membrane localization of eNpHR 3.0, ReaChR, and Jaws was the highest, likely due to their additional endoplasmic reticulum (ER) release and membrane trafficking signals. In the case of opsins that were not engineered to improve trafficking efficiency in mammalian cells such as CatCh and ChrimsonR, membrane localization was less efficient. Protein accumulation in organelles such as ER and Golgi was observed at high doses with CatCh and ER retention lead to an unfolded protein response. Also, cytoplasmic localization was observed at high doses of ChrimsonR. Our results collectively suggest that retinal organoids derived from hiPSCs can be used to predict the subcellular fate of optogenetic proteins in a human retinal context. Such organoids are also versatile tools to validate other gene therapy products and drug molecules.

19.
Eur J Pain ; 2018 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30370980

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ocular surface diseases are among the most frequent ocular pathologies. Ocular pain following corneal injury is frequently observed in clinic. Corneal sensory innervation is supplied by ciliary nerves derived from ophthalmic division of the trigeminal ganglion. METHODS & RESULTS: Extracellular activity of the mouse ciliary nerve was first used to investigate the corneal responsiveness to chemical, mechanical and thermal stimulations in order to specifically study the responses of polymodal nociceptors, mechano-nociceptors and cold thermoreceptor in a control cornea. Then, in two models of corneal injury (repeated instillations of 0.02% benzalkonium chloride and corneal scraping), we first measured the corneal sensitivity to chemical (eye-wiping test) and mechanical (von Frey filaments) stimulation. Thereafter, we evaluated whether these corneal injuries modified the spontaneous and chemical stimulation-evoked activity of the ciliary nerve. Both models of injury induced a significant corneal chemical hypersensitivity correlated with an increase of the spontaneous activity of the ciliary nerve and a faster response of the ciliary nerve after a chemical stimulation. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, this study provides new insights into the functional aspects of corneal nerve fibre activity in mice after corneal injury. The increase in ciliary nerve activity may thus contribute to the development of ocular pain after corneal damage. SIGNIFICANCE: This study highlights the parallel increase in ciliary nerve activity and corneal sensitivity after corneal injury in mice. The strategy of combining ex vivo electrophysiological recordings of the ciliary nerve in mice and corneal sensitivity measurements therefore helps to uncover the functional aspects of corneal pain.

20.
J Vis Exp ; (139)2018 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30247478

RESUMO

The production of specialized cells from pluripotent stem cells provides a powerful tool to develop new approaches for regenerative medicine. The use of human-induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) is particularly attractive for neurodegenerative disease studies, including retinal dystrophies, where iPSC-derived retinal cell models mark a major step forward to understand and fight blindness. In this paper, we describe a simple and scalable protocol to generate, mature, and cryopreserve retinal organoids. Based on medium changing, the main advantage of this method is to avoid multiple and time-consuming steps commonly required in a guided differentiation of iPSCs. Mimicking the early phases of retinal development by successive changes of defined media on adherent human iPSC cultures, this protocol allows the simultaneous generation of self-forming neuroretinal structures and retinal pigmented epithelial (RPE) cells in a reproducible and efficient manner in 4 weeks. These structures containing retinal progenitor cells (RPCs) can be easily isolated for further maturation in a floating culture condition enabling the differentiation of RPCs into the seven retinal cell types present in the adult human retina. Additionally, we describe quick methods for the cryopreservation of retinal organoids and RPE cells for long-term storage. Combined together, the methods described here will be useful to produce and bank human iPSC-derived retinal cells or tissues for both basic and clinical research.

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