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1.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol ; 20(2): 680-691, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31383063

RESUMO

BN has important roles in several physiological events, including bone growth and immune system. New infection-free cranioplasty and has an osteogenic activities material that are compatible with tissue are being developed. We aimed in our study to examine whether different combinations of Boron-nitride/Hydroxyapatite are embedded into the scaffold in the treatment of calvarial defects. 200 adult female Sprague-Dawley rats divided into 10 equal groups. Osteotomy was made by trepan drill in 8 mm diameter. The scaffolds were placed in the rats and were left to recovery for 2 months. During the experiment, CT scans were taken from the calvarial areas of the rats in the 2nd, 4th and 8th weeks. Significant healing was observed in defect diameters in 2.5% BN+10% HA, 2.5% BN and 5% BN+10% HA, respectively. After 8 weeks, it was seen that the amounts of OPN, BMP-2, RunX2 and ALP mRNA expression significantly decreased in 2.5% BN+10% HA, 2.5% BN, 5% BN+10% HA and 5% BN groups. It was shown that bone recovery was at the best grade in the groups, which contained 2.5% BN and 2.5% BN+10% HA when compared to the other groups. BN is a very promising agent that will be used in reconstructive surgery for the treatment of calvarial bone defects.

2.
Mol Biol Rep ; 2019 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31368021

RESUMO

Diabetes mellitus is worldwide disease. The life of diabetic patients are dependent on exogenous insulin. Pancreas or particularly islet transplantations are performed for reducing external insulin dependency. External substances are also used to protect the ß-cells from the death or increase insulin secretion. In the current study, two different boron containing compounds (sodium pentaborate pentahydrate-NaB and boric acid-BA) were investigated for their effect on pancreatic cells in terms of pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic markers, genes related to insulin production mechanism, pancreatic development and glucose metabolism, some antioxidant enzymes, and genes for the initiation of diabetes, insulin secretion and antioxidant enzyme activities in vitro. The results revealed that boron containing compounds did not lead to apoptosis. On the contrary, they increased cell viability, antioxidant enzyme activities and the level of genes related to insulin production. Overall evaluation, data in the current study showed that boron containing compounds might be promising therapeutic agents for type 1 diabetes. However, additional investigations are strictly needed to elucidate molecular mechanisms of boron containing compounds.

3.
Chem Biol Drug Des ; 2019 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31148379

RESUMO

Novel thiourea (5a, 5b) and thiazolidinone derivatives (6a, 6b) were synthesized by hybridizing molecules starting from the compound 6-(4-phenylpiperazin-1-yl)pyridin-3-amine (4) which is known to show anticancer activity. The synthesis of the leading compound was carried out by using 1-(5-nitropyridin-2-yl)-4-phenylpiperazine (3) which was obtained by a novel method of the reaction of 2-chloro-5-nitropyridine (1) and N-phenylpiperazine (2). The structures of the compounds were confirmed using FTIR, 1 H NMR, 13 C NMR, HRMS spectroscopic methods and elemental analysis. The organic molecules were tested for their anticancer activities against prostate cancer (PC) cell lines: DU 145, PC-3 and LNCaP. As the compound 5a exerted the highest cytotoxic activity, IC50 concentrations of compound 5a were further investigated in terms of morphology, colony-forming ability, RNA expression, fragmented DNA and cell cycle distributions of PC cell lines. Overall data revealed that compound 5a treatment induces apoptosis and DNA fragmentation in PC cell lines and inhibits cell cycle progression resulting in the accumulation of cells in either the G1 or the S phases.

4.
Cell Oncol (Dordr) ; 2019 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31175552

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Chordomas are highly therapy-resistant primary bone tumors that exhibit high relapse rates and may induce local destruction. Here, we evaluated the effects of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) on chordoma progression and clinical outcome. METHODS: Chordoma cells were treated with TNF-α after which its short- and long-term effects were evaluated. Functional assays, qRT-PCR and microarray-based expression analyses were carried out to assess the effect of TNF-α on chemo-resistance, epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), migration, invasion and cancer stem cell-like properties. Finally, relationships between TNF-α expression and clinicopathological features were assessed in a chordoma patient cohort. RESULTS: We found that TNF-α treatment increased the migration and invasion of chordoma cells. Also, NF-κB activation was observed along with increased EMT marker expression. In addition, enhanced tumor sphere formation and soft agar colony formation were observed, concomitantly with increased chemo-resistance and CD338 marker expression. The TNF-α and TNFR1 expression levels were found to be significantly correlated with LIF, PD-L1 and Ki67 expression levels, tumor volume and a short survival time in patients. In addition, a high neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio was found to be associated with recurrence and a decreased overall survival. CONCLUSIONS: From our data we conclude that TNF-α may serve as a prognostic marker for chordoma progression and that tumor-promoting inflammation may be a major factor in chordoma tumor progression.

5.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 2019 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31119640

RESUMO

Obesity is a major public health problem worldwide and a risk factor for certain diseases, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer, and depression. Unfortunately, currently available anti-obesity drugs have failed in the long-term maintenance of weight control. It has been a challenge to design novel drugs that could potentially treat obesity or prevent uncontrolled weight-gain which lies underneath the pathology of obesity. Since obesity in a way is a consequence of the accumulating new mature adipocytes from undifferentiated precursors which is a process also termed as adipogenesis, drugs that might control adipogenesis could be beneficial for the treatment of obesity. In the current study, combined effect of sodium pentaborate pentahydrate (NaB) and pluronic F68 on adipogenic differentiation was examined by administering various combinations of the two agents to human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs) in in vitro. Immunocytochemistry and quantitative RT-PCR were performed to evaluate the levels of adipogenesis-promoting genes such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ), fatty acid binding protein (FABP4), and adiponectin. Results indicated that expressions of all these three genes were restrained. Furthermore, Oil Red O staining revealed that lipid vesicle formation was reduced in hADSCs treated with differentiation medium containing NaB/F68 combination. Finally, expression levels of Hippo pathway kinases Lats2, MST1, and scaffold protein Sav1 were reduced in these cells, suggesting a possible link between Hippo pathway-dependent downregulation of PPARγ and the NaB/F68 treatment. Herein, we showed that combination of NaB and F68 curtails adipocyte differentiation by inhibiting the adipogenic transcriptional program leading to a decrease in lipid accumulation in adipocytes even at very low doses, thereby uncovered a striking opportunity to use this combination in obesity treatment.

6.
Pak J Pharm Sci ; 32(2): 477-481, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31081755

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to determine efficiency of a new molecule that was obtained by linking boric acid with ampicillin in treating intra-abdominal infection.Following intraperitoneal E. coli injection totwenty-one female Wistar albino rats, group 1 was administered boron-linked ampicillin, group 2 was administered only ampicillin and group 3 was injected intraperitoneally with physiological serum. IL-6, and a white blood cell analysis was performed from the blood before and on the seventh day of treatment.No statistically significant difference in blood WBC levels after treatment was found among the groups. There was no statistically significant difference in the IL-6 values of group 2 and group 3 before and after the treatment (p=0.195 and 0.193, respectively); however, the reduction in the serum IL-6 values of group 1 was statistically significant (p=0.003).Boric acid-linked ampicillin is a more effective intra-abdominal infection treatment compared with ampicillin alone.

7.
J Trace Elem Med Biol ; 54: 191-198, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31109611

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Boron is an element commonly found in nature. The main boron source for organisms is through food and drinking water. In recent years, it is suggested that the "boron-rich diet" can affect human health positively. However, more detailed studies are needed. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the effect of increased dietary boron intake on some biochemical parameters in humans. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirteen healthy women consumed diets containing 10 mg more boron than their routine diet for one month. This boron intake was provided with the increase of boron-rich foods such as dried fruits, avocado, and nuts in the diet. Some biochemical and hematologic parameters were determined in blood, urine and saliva samples taken before and after a boron-rich diet. RESULTS: Serum, salivary, and urine boron concentrations increased 1.3, 1.7, 6.0 fold, respectively. The most significant clinically change was found in the lipid profile. Serum total, LDL, VLDL cholesterol, and triglyceride levels decreased significantly. Body weight, body fat weight, and Body Mass Index also decreased. Significant changes in serum TSH and salivary buffering capacity were also found. CONCLUSION: Increasing the intake of boron through dietary means might contribute to beneficial effects on lipid metabolism, obesity, and thyroid metabolism; salivary boron may reflect serum boron; and boron may be used as a cariostatic agent in dentistry. An increased intake of other dietary factors such as fiber, potassium, iron, vitamin A, and vitamin E in the boron-rich foods might have been responsible of the effects described. To our knowledge, this study is the first clinical study in which dietary boron intake is increased via foods.

8.
Exp Cell Res ; 380(1): 9-19, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30951707

RESUMO

Chordoma is a rare, slow-growing tumor thought to arise from remnants of embryonic notochord associated with an aggressive outcome. Cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) are related to tumorigenesis, recurrence, and resistance in cancers. Therefore, chordoma CSCs are possible targets for chordoma treatment. In this study, dysregulated miRNAs were determined in chordoma CSCs and identified their role in chordoma. Dysregulated miRNAs were determined via miRNA microarray and validated through qPCR. miRNAs were transiently transfected to the chordoma cell lines and their roles in proliferation, apoptosis, migration and invasion capacities and stem-like properties were identified. Finally, a relationship between clinicopathological features and dysregulated miRNAs has been evaluated among 21 chordoma patients. CD133+CD15+ cells exhibited CSC phenotype with increased CSC- and Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT)-related gene expression, invasion, migration, tumorosphere- and colony-forming abilities. In addition, WNT5A, TGF-α, BTG2 and MYCBP genes involved in CSC-related pathways, were targets of miR-140-3p, miR-148a-3p, miR-210-5p and miR-574-5p, respectively. Transfection of CSC-related miRNAs also increased migration and invasion along with stem cell phenotype. Finally, we determined that miR-140-3p and miR-148a-3p expressions correlated with Ki67 while miR-140-3p and TGF-α expressions were correlated with p53. Moreover, MYCBP expression was positively correlated with tumor volume, and metastasis was associated with the expression of miR-210-5p and TGF-α in our patient cohort. Through these findings, we conclude that chordoma CSCs have distinctive miRNA profile, which can regulate stem-like properties of chordoma CSCs.

9.
Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther ; 26: 48-52, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30822566

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In current dental treatments, with the aim of a preventive approach,it is argued that removing only the infected layer of dentin is sufficient for cavity preparation. However it is impossible to be sure that the infected layer was completely removed. In addition, the cause of secondary caries and post operative sensitivities has been reported as residual bacteria in some studies. The aim of this study is to investigate the antibacterial and photo-active properties of Cotinus coggygria Scop., Rumex cristatus DC., Beta vulgaris L.var.cicla and Eruca sativa aqueous extracts, and to investigate their usefulness for cavity disinfection in dentistry. METHOD: The aqueous solutions of plant extracts were prepared to be at a maximum concentration and the Streptococcus mutans solutions mixed with phosphate buffered saline to give 108 cfu/mL. A 430-480 nm wavelength light source was used for the irradiation. Three different applications were made: extract + Streptococcus mutans mixture exposed to ligh; extract + Streptococcus mutans mixture that was not exposed to light and S. mutans exposed to light. RESULTS: No antibacterial effect was found for the second and third applications. In the first application, however, irradiation with extract + Streptococcus mutans mixture reduced the number of microorganisms in the beginning by 99% for only Rumex cristatus DC. extract (log 2). CONCLUSION: Rumex cristatus DC. extract can be used as an alternative in photo-active disinfection of cavities in dentistry.

10.
Metab Brain Dis ; 34(3): 865-874, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30758707

RESUMO

Melatonin, a neuro-differentiation factor, may play a role in the neurodevelopmental origins of schizophrenia. Cognitive impairment and decreased melatonin are reported in schizophrenia; however, the relationship between them remains unclear. We hypothesised that patients with schizophrenia would have lower concentrations of circulating melatonin than healthy controls and that melatonin levels would be associated with cognitive impairment. This study included 47 patients with schizophrenia and 40 healthy controls (HC). Serum melatonin concentrations were measured using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Positive and Negative Syndrome Scales (PANSS), The Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), the Stroop and Oktem verbal memory processes (VMPT) tests were applied. Patients with schizophrenia had lower levels of melatonin compared to the HC group (p = 0.016), also after controlling for age, sex, and body mass index (BMI) (p = 0.024). In patients with schizophrenia, melatonin concentrations were associated with higher BMI (rho = 0.34, p = 0.01) and lower MEQ score (rho = -0.29, p = 0.035). The patient sample was split into low and high melatonin categories by using the median melatonin concentration in HC as the cut-off. Patients in the low melatonin group had poorer performance in VMPT-Recognition (p = 0.026) and Stroop-Colour Error (p = 0.032). Notwithstanding its limitations, the findings of this exploratory study suggest that decreased serum melatonin concentrations observed in schizophrenia might also be associated with cognitive impairment and circadian preferences. Future studies are required to investigate the role of melatonergic pathways in patients with schizophrenia.

11.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1144: 133-146, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30729448

RESUMO

In the past decade a number of different stem cell types have entered the clinical applications increasingly as a therapeutic option, due to their tissue maintenance capacity at the site where they localize. Although it was initially thought that conferral of resilience to damaged tissue largely depends on the stem cells themselves through orchestration of signaling among the local epithelial and immune systems at the injury site, recent findings point out that the remarkable regenerative capacity of stem cells is rather due to their nanovesicular products that emerge as the new active players of tissue repair processes. Among these extracellular vesicles exosomes generated particularly by stem cells have been receiving a substantial interest both in the fields of stem cell biology and extracellular vesicles. In this chapter fundamental facts about stem cell biology, biogenesis of extracellular vesicles and exosomes, their structure, and function are summarized. Moreover, properties of both tumor-derived exosomes as well as those derived from stem cells are discussed relatively in-depth in terms of their influence on proximal and distal tissue physiology. Last but not the least, among countless studies in an exploding field, we summarize those that attempt to unravel the complex signaling networks through which stem cell-derived exosomes alter the fate of differentiating stem cells as well as the molecular make-up of exosomes released from differentiating stem cells by conducting thorough proteomic and genomic analyses with the ultimate goal of identifying effector gene products mediating exosomal cues in stem cell biology.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular , Exossomos , Pesquisa com Células-Tronco , Humanos , Proteômica , Células-Tronco
12.
Appl Biochem Biotechnol ; 188(4): 942-951, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30740625

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of medium harvested from septal cartilage cells on chondrogenic differentiation of adipose stem cells (hASCs) and to compare/contrast its properties to those of a commonly used standard medium formulation in terms of induction and maintenance of chondrogenic hASCs. Differentiation was carried out under three different conditions: septal cartilage medium-SCM, chondrogenic differentiation medium-CM, and 50:50 mixture of CM/SCM. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) markers were determined by flow cytometry. The cytotoxic and apoptotic effects were determined by MTS and Annexin V assay, respectively. The differentiation status of the cells was confirmed by Alcian blue staining, and quantitative real-time flow cytometry showed that hASCs were positive for MSCs, negative for hematopoietic stem cells and endothelial cell surface markers. According to MTS analysis, the first condition was not toxic at any concentration tested. Annexin V assay revealed that the application of different concentrations of SCM did not result in any cell death. The Alcian blue and gene expression analyses showed that the cells in the SCM group underwent the highest cartilage cell formation. The observed increase in chondrogenesis may offer better treatment options for the cartilage defects seen in nasal septum perforation.


Assuntos
Adipócitos/citologia , Cartilagem/citologia , Diferenciação Celular/fisiologia , Condrócitos/citologia , Condrogênese/fisiologia , Cartilagens Nasais/citologia , Células-Tronco/citologia , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Células Cultivadas , Condrogênese/genética , Citometria de Fluxo , Humanos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/fisiologia , Septo Nasal/citologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real
13.
Mol Biol Rep ; 46(2): 1819-1824, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30701459

RESUMO

Insect repellent is a substance directly applied to skin or clothing in order to repel flies, mosquitoes, ticks etc. IR3535 or Ethyl butylacetylaminopropionate (EBAAP) is a relatively new repellent which is classified as a biopesticide due to exceptional skin tolerance and overall safety. The repellency against various insect and ticks, and the low toxicity of IR3535 are well acknowledged. However, there has been no attempt to investigate the effects on microorganisms or viruses up to now. In the present study, antimicrobial activity was investigated based on disc diffusion and micro-well dilution assays. Disc diffusion assays revealed IR3535 displayed remarkable antimicrobial activity on the microorganisms tested. MIC results showed that the antifungal efficiency of IR3535 is higher with respect to its antibacterial and anticandidal efficiency. Moreover, antiviral test results revealed that IR3535 showed antiviral effects against Poliovirus and Adenovirus. This is the first study that reveals IR3535's antimicrobial and antiviral properties against a broad range of microorganisms and viruses. In consideration of the antimicrobial and antiviral properties, IR3535 is a promising agent that could be used to develop novel therapeutic approaches, new application areas and formulations in the future.


Assuntos
Propionatos/química , Propionatos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos , Anti-Infecciosos , Antivirais , Repelentes de Insetos/química , Repelentes de Insetos/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/métodos , Fatores de Tempo
14.
J Vis Exp ; (143)2019 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30663693

RESUMO

Cancer as a multistep process and complicated disease is not only regulated by individual cell proliferation and growth but also controlled by tumor environment and cell-cell interactions. Identification of cancer and stem cell interactions, including changes in extracellular environment, physical interactions, and secreted factors, might enable the discovery of new therapy options. We combine known co-culture techniques to create a model system for mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and cancer cell interactions. In the current study, dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) and PC-3 prostate cancer cell interactions were examined by direct and indirect co-culture techniques. Condition medium (CM) obtained from DPSCs and 0.4 µm pore sized trans-well membranes were used to study paracrine activity. Co-culture of different cell types together was performed to study direct cell-cell interaction. The results revealed that CM increased cell proliferation and decreased apoptosis in prostate cancer cell cultures. Both CM and trans-well system increased cell migration capacity of PC-3 cells. Cells stained with different membrane dyes were seeded into the same culture vessels, and DPSCs participated in a self-organized structure with PC-3 cells under this direct co-culture condition. Overall, the results indicated that co-culture techniques could be useful for cancer and MSC interactions as a model system.

15.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1144: 123-132, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30635857

RESUMO

Stem cells are undifferentiated cells located in different parts of the body. The major role of stem cells is to restore of injured tissues. Since the discover of stem cells, they gained a big attention due to their differentiation and regeneration capacity. The main source of stem cells was known as bone marrow. However, different sources for obtaining stem cells were discovered. Dental tissues, a new source for stem cells, provide cells having mesenchymal stem cell characteristics such as fibroblast-like structure, expression of surface antigens specific for mesenchymal stem cells, regeneration ability, multilineage differentiation capacity and immunomodulatory features. Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs), dental follicle progenitor cells (DFPCs), stem cells from apical papilla (SCAP), tooth germ stem cells (TGSCs) and periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) are stem cells derived from dental tissues as well as stem cells from exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED). Dental stem cells express mesenchymal stem cell markers like Stro-1, CD146, CD106, CD90, CD73 CD29 and CD13. However, they do not express hematopoietic stem cell markers such as CD11b, CD45 and CD34. Dental stem cells are able to undergo myogenic, chondrogenic, adipogenic, neurogenic, osteogenic and odontogenic differentiation. Thanks to these differentiation ability of dental stem cells, they can easily be manipulated in regenerative medicine. Dental stem cells, that can effortlessly be transfected, can also be used in cell therapy application. Immunomodulatory features of dental stem cells make them suitable candidates for the therapy of immune-related disorders. Dental stem cells with high potentials such as ability of self-renewal, mesenchymal stem cell characteristics, multilineage differentiation and immunomodulation are promising tool for in vitro and in vivo differentiation studies as well as the therapy of immune-related diseases.


Assuntos
Polpa Dentária/citologia , Saco Dentário/citologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Ligamento Periodontal/citologia , Germe de Dente/citologia , Diferenciação Celular , Proliferação de Células , Células Cultivadas , Humanos
16.
Anticancer Drugs ; 30(4): 383-393, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30557204

RESUMO

A deeper understanding of the molecular basis of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) paved the way for the rational design and development of targeted therapies, which yielded promising preclinical results. However, translation of these potentially promising agents into clinics has usually failed, partly because of tumor heterogeneity. In this study, anticancer activities of the Bcl-2 inhibitor ABT-737 and the Akt-inhibitor erufosine (ErPC3) alone and in combination were compared between CRPC (PC-3 and DU-145) and healthy (PNT-1A) cell lines. The combination of ABT-737 and ErPC3 showed synergistic antiproliferative, antimigratory, and apoptotic effects in PC-3 cells. In DU-145 cells, ErPC3 showed a resistant profile, with half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values more than two-fold of PC-3, and combining ErPC3 with ABT-737 yielded no added benefit for all the incubation periods compared with ErPC3 alone. In PNT-1A cells, ABT-737 and ErPC3 alone and in combination reduced cell survival slightly and only at the highest concentrations. Apoptosis analysis showed that ABT-737 induced increased Akt expression and ErPC3 induced increased Mcl-1 expression in DU-145 cells. In conclusion, the ABT-737 and ErPC3 combination seems to be promising against CRPC, with a favorable safety profile in healthy cells. However, CRPC cell-type-specific resistance may be induced by enhancement of antiapoptotic signaling.

17.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1144: 147-166, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30542804

RESUMO

Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) are adult stem cells; isolated from various body parts including bone marrow, adipose tissue and dental tissue, have been characterized well and used in regenerative medicine applications. The promising potential of MSCs makes them great candidates in many disorders. It has been well known in the literature that MSCs interact with cancer cells and regulate the carcinogenesis process at different stages. The dual role of MSCs in cancer progression should be clearly identified at the physiological and molecular level to identify clinical potential in cancer treatment. The promoting or suppressive role of MSCs in cancer is controlled by various growth factors, cytokines and chemokines which affect the cell proliferation, angiogenesis and metastasis. Although many studies have been conducted to explore MSC-cancer cell interactions, it is still unclear how MSCs communicate with cancer cells and tumor microenvironment. Further studies are required to investigate secreted factors and paracrine effects, tumor stroma environment, molecular regulators and downstream pathways that are involved in MSC-cancer interaction loop. MSC type, cancer type and stage specific phenotypic and transcriptomic profile changes should be identified in detail to improve clinical use of MSCs in cancer either as a target or as a tool.In the current book chapter, we review the literature to summarize current information about the MSC-cancer cell interactions in terms of soluble factors, angiogenesis, metastasis and drug resistance. The role of MSCs in tumor progression or suppression was discussed based on the current literature.


Assuntos
Carcinogênese , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Microambiente Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Humanos
18.
Mol Biol Rep ; 2018 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30506511

RESUMO

Bisphosphonate-induced osteonecrosis of the jaw (BIONJ) is a commonly encountered side effect of Bisphosphonates (BPs). Although certain aspects of BIONJ have been studied, the effects of BPs on the proliferation, differentiation, and maintenance of dental stem cells (DSC) in way that might account for development of BIONJ have not been evaluated. In the current study, Dental Pulp Stem Cells (DPSCs), Periodontal Stem Cells (PDLSCs), and human Tooth Germ Stem Cells (hTGSCs) were characterized and then each stem cell type were treated with selected BPs: Zoledronate (ZOL), Alendronate (ALE), and Risedronate (RIS). Negative effect on osteogenesis capacity of DSCs has not been observed after differentiation experiments in vitro. BPs exerted inhibitory effect on the migratory capacities of stem cells confirmed by in vitro scratch assay analysis. Angiogenesis of endothelial cells was blocked by BPs treatment in tube formation analysis. In conclusion, inhibitory effects of BPs on migration capacity of DSCs localized in close proximity to the jaw bone might be the primary reason for the side effects of BPs in the development of BIONJ process. Therefore, further in vivo evidence is required to investigate DSC properties in BP treated animals which might elucidate the importance of DSCs in BIONJ formation.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30474796

RESUMO

Triticum aestivum plant extracts are often used as a natural healer in traditional medicine but which particles mainly have role in these processes are not scientifically proven. In other words, no attempts have been made to investigate the effects of wheat exosomes in regenerative medicine applications or drug development up to now. The current study was first time performed to demonstrate the activity of wheat exosomes in wound healing process using in vitro approaches. Although its fundamental wound healing process remains a mystery, in the current study, the efficiency of wheat grass juice-derived exosomes on cell viability and migration was examined. Increasing concentrations up to 200 µg/mL of the wheat exosome have yielded astonishing proliferative and migratory effects on endothelial, epithelial, and dermal fibroblast cells. RT-PCR analysis also showed collagen type I; mRNA levels were approximately twofold higher in expression after treating with 200 µg/mL wheat exosome. Additionally, Annexin V staining of apoptotic cells accompanied with the cell cycle analysis resulted with the reduction of the apoptotic cell number with no dispersion to the cell cycle analysis while plant exosomes have also increased tube-like structure formation of the endothelial cells. All in all, this research suggests a brand-new opening for skin wound healing therapy strategy by using wheat-derived exosomes due to its proliferative and migratory characteristics. Plant exosomes require a further research both clinically and in in vivo for wound healing drug development. Moreover, plant exosome therapy strategies would be safer and economical alternative for clinical wound healing.

20.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1089: 97-113, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30255300

RESUMO

Tumors consists of subpopulation of cells in which each subtype has contributes to tumor progression. Specifically one subtype known as cancer stem cells are associated with the initiation, progression, resistance to conventional therapies and metastasis. Metastasis is leading cause of cancer related deaths. Overall it is important to consider cancer as a whole in which a mutated cell proliferating indefinitely and forming its hierarchy consisting of subgroups with different molecular signatures. To be able to target this disease we need to evaluate every step including initiation, progression, survival, angiogenesis and finally migration and repopulation. Cancer stem cells do play vital roles in each step however when metastasis can be stopped or eliminated we talk about saving a life or improving its quality. Considering how deeply these cancer stem like cells affect the tumor life and metastasis it is crucial to develop effective strategies against them. Metastatic cascade can also be directed by membrane derived vesicles specifically exosomes. Several studies show the role of exosomes in mediating cellular migration and pre-metastatic niche formation. During this chapter we wanted to explain in detail how the metastasis occur in tumor and how cancer stem cells contribute into the development of metastatic cascade and possibly suggest therapeutic approaches against cancer stem cells.

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