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3.
Science ; 371(6525): 145-153, 2021 01 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33414215

RESUMO

The ability to control autoreactive T cells without inducing systemic immune suppression is the major goal for treatment of autoimmune diseases. The key challenge is the safe and efficient delivery of pharmaceutically well-defined antigens in a noninflammatory context. Here, we show that systemic delivery of nanoparticle-formulated 1 methylpseudouridine-modified messenger RNA (m1Ψ mRNA) coding for disease-related autoantigens results in antigen presentation on splenic CD11c+ antigen-presenting cells in the absence of costimulatory signals. In several mouse models of multiple sclerosis, the disease is suppressed by treatment with such m1Ψ mRNA. The treatment effect is associated with a reduction of effector T cells and the development of regulatory T cell (Treg cell) populations. Notably, these Treg cells execute strong bystander immunosuppression and thus improve disease induced by cognate and noncognate autoantigens.

4.
N Engl J Med ; 2020 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33301246

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and the resulting coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) have afflicted tens of millions of people in a worldwide pandemic. Safe and effective vaccines are needed urgently. METHODS: In an ongoing multinational, placebo-controlled, observer-blinded, pivotal efficacy trial, we randomly assigned persons 16 years of age or older in a 1:1 ratio to receive two doses, 21 days apart, of either placebo or the BNT162b2 vaccine candidate (30 µg per dose). BNT162b2 is a lipid nanoparticle-formulated, nucleoside-modified RNA vaccine that encodes a prefusion stabilized, membrane-anchored SARS-CoV-2 full-length spike protein. The primary end points were efficacy of the vaccine against laboratory-confirmed Covid-19 and safety. RESULTS: A total of 43,548 participants underwent randomization, of whom 43,448 received injections: 21,720 with BNT162b2 and 21,728 with placebo. There were 8 cases of Covid-19 with onset at least 7 days after the second dose among participants assigned to receive BNT162b2 and 162 cases among those assigned to placebo; BNT162b2 was 95% effective in preventing Covid-19 (95% credible interval, 90.3 to 97.6). Similar vaccine efficacy (generally 90 to 100%) was observed across subgroups defined by age, sex, race, ethnicity, baseline body-mass index, and the presence of coexisting conditions. Among 10 cases of severe Covid-19 with onset after the first dose, 9 occurred in placebo recipients and 1 in a BNT162b2 recipient. The safety profile of BNT162b2 was characterized by short-term, mild-to-moderate pain at the injection site, fatigue, and headache. The incidence of serious adverse events was low and was similar in the vaccine and placebo groups. CONCLUSIONS: A two-dose regimen of BNT162b2 conferred 95% protection against Covid-19 in persons 16 years of age or older. Safety over a median of 2 months was similar to that of other viral vaccines. (Funded by BioNTech and Pfizer; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04368728.).

5.
Cell Host Microbe ; 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33306985

RESUMO

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike protein acquired a D614G mutation early in the pandemic that confers greater infectivity and is now the globally dominant form. To determine whether D614G might also mediate neutralization escape that could compromise vaccine efficacy, sera from spike-immunized mice, nonhuman primates, and humans were evaluated for neutralization of pseudoviruses bearing either D614 or G614 spike. In all cases, the G614 pseudovirus was moderately more susceptible to neutralization. The G614 pseudovirus also was more susceptible to neutralization by receptor-binding domain (RBD) monoclonal antibodies and convalescent sera from people infected with either form of the virus. Negative stain electron microscopy revealed a higher percentage of the 1-RBD "up" conformation in the G614 spike, suggesting increased epitope exposure as a mechanism of enhanced vulnerability to neutralization. Based on these findings, the D614G mutation is not expected to be an obstacle for current vaccine development.

6.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 16(11): e1008397, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33226985

RESUMO

Genetic diseases are driven by aberrations of the human genome. Identification of such aberrations including structural variations (SVs) is key to our understanding. Conventional short-reads whole genome sequencing (cWGS) can identify SVs to base-pair resolution, but utilizes only short-range information and suffers from high false discovery rate (FDR). Linked-reads sequencing (10XWGS) utilizes long-range information by linkage of short-reads originating from the same large DNA molecule. This can mitigate alignment-based artefacts especially in repetitive regions and should enable better prediction of SVs. However, an unbiased evaluation of this technology is not available. In this study, we performed a comprehensive analysis of different types and sizes of SVs predicted by both the technologies and validated with an independent PCR based approach. The SVs commonly identified by both the technologies were highly specific, while validation rate dropped for uncommon events. A particularly high FDR was observed for SVs only found by 10XWGS. To improve FDR and sensitivity, statistical models for both the technologies were trained. Using our approach, we characterized SVs from the MCF7 cell line and a primary breast cancer tumor with high precision. This approach improves SV prediction and can therefore help in understanding the underlying genetics in various diseases.

7.
Blood Adv ; 4(22): 5702-5715, 2020 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33216892

RESUMO

Genetic modification of T lymphocytes is a key issue in research and therapy. Conventional lentiviral vectors (LVs) are neither selective for T cells nor do they modify resting or minimally stimulated cells, which is crucial for applications, such as efficient in vivo modification of T lymphocytes. Here, we introduce novel CD3-targeted LVs (CD3-LVs) capable of genetically modifying human T lymphocytes without prior activation. For CD3 attachment, agonistic CD3-specific single-chain variable fragments were chosen. Activation, proliferation, and expansion mediated by CD3-LVs were less rapid compared with conventional antibody-mediated activation owing to lack of T-cell receptor costimulation. CD3-LVs delivered genes not only selectively into T cells but also under nonactivating conditions, clearly outperforming the benchmark vector vesicular stomatitis-LV glycoproteins under these conditions. Remarkably, CD3-LVs were properly active in gene delivery even when added to whole human blood in absence of any further stimuli. Upon administration of CD3-LV into NSG mice transplanted with human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, efficient and exclusive transduction of CD3+ T cells in all analyzed organs was achieved. Finally, the most promising CD3-LV successfully delivered a CD19-specific chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) into T lymphocytes in vivo in humanized NSG mice. Generation of CAR T cells was accompanied by elimination of human CD19+ cells from blood. Taken together, the data strongly support implementation of T-cell-activating properties within T-cell-targeted vector particles. These particles may be ideally suited for T-cell-specific in vivo gene delivery.

8.
Langmuir ; 36(44): 13331-13341, 2020 11 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33108188

RESUMO

Messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA)-based nanomedicines have shown to be a promising new lead in a broad field of potential applications such as tumor immunotherapy. Of these nanomedicines, lipid-based mRNA nanoparticles comprising ionizable lipids are gaining increasing attention as versatile technologies for fine-tuning toward a given application, with proven potential for successful development up to clinical practice. Still, several hurdles have to be overcome to obtain a drug product that shows adequate mRNA delivery and clinical efficacy. In this study, pH-induced changes in internal molecular organization and overall physicochemical characteristics of lipoplexes comprising ionizable lipids were investigated using small-angle X-ray scattering and supplementary techniques. These changes were determined for different types of ionizable lipids, present at various molar fractions and N/P ratios inside the phospholipid membranes. The investigated systems showed a lamellar organization, allowing an accurate determination of pH-dependent structural changes. The differences in the pH responsiveness of the systems comprising different ionizable lipids and mRNA fractions could be clearly revealed from their structural evolution. Measurements of the degree of ionization and pH-dependent mRNA loading into the systems by fluorescence assays supported the findings from the structural investigation. Our approach allows for direct in situ determination of the structural response of the lipoplex systems to changes of the environmental pH similar to that observed for endosomal uptake. These data therefore provide valuable complementary information for understanding and fine-tuning of tailored mRNA delivery systems toward improved cellular uptake and endosomal processing.

9.
Gastroenterology ; 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33010248

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis causes loss of hepatic CD4+ T cells and promotes tumor growth. The liver is the most common site of distant metastases from a variety of malignancies, many of which respond to immunotherapy. We investigated the effects of steatohepatitis on the efficacy of immunotherapeutic agents against liver tumors in mice. METHODS: Steatohepatitis was induced by feeding C57BL/6NCrl or BALB/c AnNCr mice a methionine and choline-deficient diet or a choline-deficient l-amino acid-defined diet. Mice were given intrahepatic or subcutaneous injections of B16 melanoma and CT26 colon cancer cells, followed by intravenous injections of M30-RNA vaccine (M30) or intraperitoneal injections of an antibody against OX40 (aOX40) on days 3, 7, and 10 after injection of the tumor cells. We measured tumor growth and analyzed immune cells in tumor tissues by flow cytometry. Mice were given N-acetylcysteine to prevent loss of CD4+ T cells from liver. RESULTS: Administration of M30 and aOX40 inhibited growth of tumors from intrahepatic injections of B16 or CT26 cells in mice on regular diet. However, M30 and/or aOX40 did not slow growth of liver tumors from B16 or CT26 cells in mice with diet-induced steatohepatitis (methionine and choline-deficient diet or choline-deficient l-amino acid-defined diet). Steatohepatitis did not affect the ability of M30 to slow growth of subcutaneous B16 tumors. In mice with steatohepatitis given N-acetylcysteine, which prevents loss of CD4+ T cells, M30 and aOX40 were able slow growth of hepatic tumors. Flow cytometry analysis of liver tumors revealed reduced CD4+ T cells and effector memory cells in mice with vs without steatohepatitis. CONCLUSIONS: Steatohepatitis reduces the abilities of immunotherapeutic agents, such as M30 and aOX40, to inhibit tumor liver growth by reducing tumor infiltration by CD4+ T cells and effector memory cells. N-acetylcysteine restores T-cell numbers in tumors and increases the ability of M30 and aOX40 to slow tumor growth in mice.

10.
N Engl J Med ; 2020 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33053279

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections and the resulting disease, coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19), have spread to millions of persons worldwide. Multiple vaccine candidates are under development, but no vaccine is currently available. Interim safety and immunogenicity data about the vaccine candidate BNT162b1 in younger adults have been reported previously from trials in Germany and the United States. METHODS: In an ongoing, placebo-controlled, observer-blinded, dose-escalation, phase 1 trial conducted in the United States, we randomly assigned healthy adults 18 to 55 years of age and those 65 to 85 years of age to receive either placebo or one of two lipid nanoparticle-formulated, nucleoside-modified RNA vaccine candidates: BNT162b1, which encodes a secreted trimerized SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain; or BNT162b2, which encodes a membrane-anchored SARS-CoV-2 full-length spike, stabilized in the prefusion conformation. The primary outcome was safety (e.g., local and systemic reactions and adverse events); immunogenicity was a secondary outcome. Trial groups were defined according to vaccine candidate, age of the participants, and vaccine dose level (10 µg, 20 µg, 30 µg, and 100 µg). In all groups but one, participants received two doses, with a 21-day interval between doses; in one group (100 µg of BNT162b1), participants received one dose. RESULTS: A total of 195 participants underwent randomization. In each of 13 groups of 15 participants, 12 participants received vaccine and 3 received placebo. BNT162b2 was associated with a lower incidence and severity of systemic reactions than BNT162b1, particularly in older adults. In both younger and older adults, the two vaccine candidates elicited similar dose-dependent SARS-CoV-2-neutralizing geometric mean titers, which were similar to or higher than the geometric mean titer of a panel of SARS-CoV-2 convalescent serum samples. CONCLUSIONS: The safety and immunogenicity data from this U.S. phase 1 trial of two vaccine candidates in younger and older adults, added to earlier interim safety and immunogenicity data regarding BNT162b1 in younger adults from trials in Germany and the United States, support the selection of BNT162b2 for advancement to a pivotal phase 2-3 safety and efficacy evaluation. (Funded by BioNTech and Pfizer; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04368728.).

11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(19)2020 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33003293

RESUMO

Interferons are crucial for adaptive immunity and play an important role in the immune landscape of breast cancer. Using microarray-based gene expression analysis, we examined the subtype-specific prognostic significance of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) as a single gene as well as an IFN-γ signature covering the signaling pathway in 461 breast cancer patients. Prognostic significance of IFN-γ, as well as the IFN-γ signature for metastasis-free survival (MFS), were examined using Kaplan-Meier as well as univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses in the whole cohort and in different molecular subtypes. The independent prognostic significance of IFN-γ as a single gene was limited to basal-like breast cancer (hazard ratio (HR) 2.779, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.117-6.919, p = 0.028). In contrast, the IFN-γ-associated gene signature was an independent prognostic factor in the whole cohort (HR 2.287, 95% CI 1.410-3.633, p < 0.001) as well as in the basal-like (HR 3.458, 95% CI 1.154-10.359, p = 0.027) and luminal B (HR 2.690, 95% CI 1.416-5.112, p = 0.003) molecular subtypes. These results underline the subtype-dependent prognostic influence of the immune system in early breast cancer.

12.
Turk J Haematol ; 2020 10 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33112099

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The optimal timing of measurable residual disease (MRD) evaluation in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients has not been well-defined yet. We aimed to investigate the impact of MRD in pre and post allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (AHSCT) periods on prognostic parameters. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy-seven AML patients who underwent AHSCT in complete morphological remission were included. MRD analyses were performed by 10 color multiparameter flow cytometer and 10-4 was defined as positive. Relapse risk and survival outcomes were assessed based on pre- and post-AHSCT MRD positivity. RESULTS: The median age of the patients was 46 (18-71) years, of whom 41 (%53.2) were male and 36 (%46.8) were female. The median follow-up after AHSCT was 12.2 months (range 0.2-73.0). The 2-year overall survival (OS) in the entire cohort was 37.0%, with a significant difference between patients who were MRD-negative and MRD-positive before AHSCT, estimated as 63.0% vs. 16.0%, respectively (p=0.005). MRD positivity on +28 days post-AHSCT was also associated with a significantly inferior 2-year OS, when compared to MRD negatives (p=0.03). The risk of relapse at 1-year was 2.4 times [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.1-5.6; p=0.04] higher in the pre-SCT MRD-positive group when compared to the MRD-negative, regardless of other transplant related factors, including pre-AHSCT disease status [i.e.; complete remission 1 (CR1) and CR2]. Event free survival (EFS) was significantly shorter in patients who were pre-AHSCT MRD-positive (p=0.016). Post-AHSCT MRD positivity was also related to an increased relapse risk. OS and EFS were significantly inferior among patients MRD-positive on +28 days post-AHSCT (p=0.03 & p=0.019). CONCLUSION: Our results indicate the importance of MRD before and after AHSCT independent of the other factors.

13.
Oncoimmunology ; 9(1): 1758004, 2020 05 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32923115

RESUMO

Glucocorticosteroids (GCS) have an established role in oncology and are administered to cancer patients in routine clinical care and in drug development trials as co-medication. Given their strong immune-suppressive activity, GCS may interfere with immune-oncology drugs. We are developing a therapeutic cancer vaccine, which is based on a liposomal formulation of tumor-antigen encoding RNA (RNA-LPX) and induces a strong T-cell response both in mice as well as in humans. In this study, we investigated in vivo in mice and in human PBMCs the effect of the commonly used long-acting GCS Dexamethasone (Dexa) on the efficacy of this vaccine format, with a particular focus on antigen-specific T-cell immune responses. We show that Dexa, when used as premedication, substantially blunts RNA-LPX vaccine-mediated immune effects. Premedication with Dexa inhibits vaccine-dependent induction of serum cytokines and chemokines and reduces both the number and activation of splenic conventional dendritic cells (cDC) expressing vaccine-encoded antigens. Consequently, priming of functional effector T cells and therapeutic activity is significantly impaired. Interestingly, responses are less impacted when Dexa is administered post-vaccination. Consistent with this observation, although many inflammatory cytokines are reduced, IFNα, a key cytokine in T-cell priming, is less impacted and antigen expression by cDCs is intact. These findings warrant special caution when combining GCS with immune therapies relying on priming and activation of antigen-specific T cells and suggest that careful sequencing of these treatments may preserve T-cell induction.

14.
Oncoimmunology ; 9(1): 1771925, 2020 06 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32923128

RESUMO

Antigen-encoding, lipoplex-formulated RNA (RNA-LPX) enables systemic delivery to lymphoid compartments and selective expression in resident antigen-presenting cells. We report here that the rejection of CT26 tumors, mediated by local radiotherapy (LRT), is further augmented in a CD8+ T cell-dependent manner by an RNA-LPX vaccine that encodes CD4+ T cell-recognized neoantigens (CD4 neoantigen vaccine). Whereas CD8+ T cells induced by LRT alone were primarily directed against the immunodominant gp70 antigen, mice treated with LRT plus the CD4 neoantigen vaccine rejected gp70-negative tumors and were protected from rechallenge with these tumors, indicating a potent poly-antigenic CD8+ T cell response and T cell memory. In the spleens of CD4 neoantigen-vaccinated mice, we found a high number of activated, poly-functional, Th1-like CD4+ T cells against ME1, the immunodominant CD4 neoantigen within the poly-neoantigen vaccine. LRT itself strongly increased CD8+ T cell numbers and clonal expansion. However, tumor infiltrates of mice treated with CD4 neoantigen vaccine/LRT, as compared to LRT alone, displayed a higher fraction of activated gp70-specific CD8+ T cells, lower PD-1/LAG-3 expression and contained ME1-specific IFNγ+ CD4+ T cells capable of providing cognate help. CD4 neoantigen vaccine/LRT treatment followed by anti-CTLA-4 antibody therapy further enhanced the efficacy with complete remission of gp70-negative CT26 tumors and survival of all mice. Our data highlight the power of combining synergistic modes of action and warrants further exploration of the presented treatment schema.

15.
Nature ; 586(7830): 594-599, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32998157

RESUMO

An effective vaccine is needed to halt the spread of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic. Recently, we reported safety, tolerability and antibody response data from an ongoing placebo-controlled, observer-blinded phase I/II coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine trial with BNT162b1, a lipid nanoparticle-formulated nucleoside-modified mRNA that encodes the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein1. Here we present antibody and T cell responses after vaccination with BNT162b1 from a second, non-randomized open-label phase I/II trial in healthy adults, 18-55 years of age. Two doses of 1-50 µg of BNT162b1 elicited robust CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses and strong antibody responses, with RBD-binding IgG concentrations clearly above those seen in serum from a cohort of individuals who had recovered from COVID-19. Geometric mean titres of SARS-CoV-2 serum-neutralizing antibodies on day 43 were 0.7-fold (1-µg dose) to 3.5-fold (50-µg dose) those of the recovered individuals. Immune sera broadly neutralized pseudoviruses with diverse SARS-CoV-2 spike variants. Most participants had T helper type 1 (TH1)-skewed T cell immune responses with RBD-specific CD8+ and CD4+ T cell expansion. Interferon-γ was produced by a large fraction of RBD-specific CD8+ and CD4+ T cells. The robust RBD-specific antibody, T cell and favourable cytokine responses induced by the BNT162b1 mRNA vaccine suggest that it has the potential to protect against COVID-19 through multiple beneficial mechanisms.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Células Th1/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Adulto , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/citologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Citocinas/imunologia , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Células Th1/citologia , Vacinas Virais/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Virais/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem
16.
Cells ; 9(9)2020 09 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32899484

RESUMO

Hybrid nanoparticles from lipidic and polymeric components were assembled to serve as vehicles for the transfection of messenger RNA (mRNA) using different portions of the cationic lipid DOTAP (1,2-Dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium-propane) and the cationic biopolymer protamine as model systems. Two different sequential assembly approaches in comparison with a direct single-step protocol were applied, and molecular organization in correlation with biological activity of the resulting nanoparticle systems was investigated. Differences in the structure of the nanoparticles were revealed by thorough physicochemical characterization including small angle neutron scattering (SANS), small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), and cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM). All hybrid systems, combining lipid and polymer, displayed significantly increased transfection in comparison to lipid/mRNA and polymer/mRNA particles alone. For the hybrid nanoparticles, characteristic differences regarding the internal organization, release characteristics, and activity were determined depending on the assembly route. The systems with the highest transfection efficacy were characterized by a heterogenous internal organization, accompanied by facilitated release. Such a system could be best obtained by the single step protocol, starting with a lipid and polymer mixture for nanoparticle formation.


Assuntos
Biopolímeros/química , Lipídeos/química , Nanopartículas/química , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Transfecção/métodos , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Ácidos Graxos Monoinsaturados/química , Feminino , Heparina/química , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Imagem Óptica , Tamanho da Partícula , Compostos de Amônio Quaternário/química , RNA Mensageiro/química
17.
medRxiv ; 2020 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32839784

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections and the resulting disease, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), have spread to millions of people globally. Multiple vaccine candidates are under development, but no vaccine is currently available. METHODS: Healthy adults 18-55 and 65-85 years of age were randomized in an ongoing, placebo-controlled, observer-blinded dose-escalation study to receive 2 doses at 21-day intervals of placebo or either of 2 lipid nanoparticle-formulated, nucleoside-modified RNA vaccine candidates: BNT162b1, which encodes a secreted trimerized SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain, or BNT162b2, which encodes a prefusion stabilized membrane-anchored SARS-CoV-2 full-length spike. In each of 13 groups of 15 participants, 12 received vaccine and 3 received placebo. Groups were distinguished by vaccine candidate, age of participant, and vaccine dose level. Interim safety and immunogenicity data of BNT162b1 in younger adults have been reported previously from US and German trials. We now present additional safety and immunogenicity data from the US Phase 1 trial that supported selection of the vaccine candidate advanced to a pivotal Phase 2/3 safety and efficacy evaluation. RESULTS: In both younger and older adults, the 2 vaccine candidates elicited similar dose-dependent SARS-CoV-2-neutralizing geometric mean titers (GMTs), comparable to or higher than the GMT of a panel of SARS-CoV-2 convalescent sera. BNT162b2 was associated with less systemic reactogenicity, particularly in older adults. CONCLUSION: These results support selection of the BNT162b2 vaccine candidate for Phase 2/3 large-scale safety and efficacy evaluation, currently underway.

18.
Front Oncol ; 10: 1195, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32793490

RESUMO

Background: Tumor models are critical for our understanding of cancer and the development of cancer therapeutics. The 4T1 murine mammary cancer cell line is one of the most widely used breast cancer models. Here, we present an integrated map of the genome, transcriptome, and immunome of 4T1. Results: We found Trp53 (Tp53) and Pik3g to be mutated. Other frequently mutated genes in breast cancer, including Brca1 and Brca2, are not mutated. For cancer related genes, Nav3, Cenpf, Muc5Ac, Mpp7, Gas1, MageD2, Dusp1, Ros, Polr2a, Rragd, Ros1, and Hoxa9 are mutated. Markers for cell proliferation like Top2a, Birc5, and Mki67 are highly expressed, so are markers for metastasis like Msln, Ect2, and Plk1, which are known to be overexpressed in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). TNBC markers are, compared to a mammary gland control sample, lower (Esr1), comparably low (Erbb2), or not expressed at all (Pgr). We also found testis cancer antigen Pbk as well as colon/gastrointestinal cancer antigens Gpa33 and Epcam to be highly expressed. Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I is expressed, while MHC class II is not. We identified 505 single nucleotide variations (SNVs) and 20 insertions and deletions (indels). Neoantigens derived from 22 SNVs and one deletion elicited CD8+ or CD4+ T cell responses in IFNγ-ELISpot assays. Twelve high-confidence fusion genes were observed. We did not observe significant downregulation of mismatch repair (MMR) genes or SNVs/indels impairing their function, providing evidence for 6-thioguanine resistance. Effects of the integration of the murine mammary tumor virus were observed at the genome and transcriptome level. Conclusions: 4T1 cells share substantial molecular features with human TNBC. As 4T1 is a common model for metastatic tumors, our data supports the rational design of mode-of-action studies for pre-clinical evaluation of targeted immunotherapies.

19.
Nature ; 586(7830): 589-593, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32785213

RESUMO

In March 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)1, a pandemic. With rapidly accumulating numbers of cases and deaths reported globally2, a vaccine is urgently needed. Here we report the available safety, tolerability and immunogenicity data from an ongoing placebo-controlled, observer-blinded dose-escalation study (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT04368728) among 45 healthy adults (18-55 years of age), who were randomized to receive 2 doses-separated by 21 days-of 10 µg, 30 µg or 100 µg of BNT162b1. BNT162b1 is a lipid-nanoparticle-formulated, nucleoside-modified mRNA vaccine that encodes the trimerized receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the spike glycoprotein of SARS-CoV-2. Local reactions and systemic events were dose-dependent, generally mild to moderate, and transient. A second vaccination with 100 µg was not administered because of the increased reactogenicity and a lack of meaningfully increased immunogenicity after a single dose compared with the 30-µg dose. RBD-binding IgG concentrations and SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing titres in sera increased with dose level and after a second dose. Geometric mean neutralizing titres reached 1.9-4.6-fold that of a panel of COVID-19 convalescent human sera, which were obtained at least 14 days after a positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR. These results support further evaluation of this mRNA vaccine candidate.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Adulto , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Imunização Passiva , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Fatores de Tempo , Vacinas Virais/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Virais/efeitos adversos , Vacinas Virais/genética , Adulto Jovem
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