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2.
BMC Oral Health ; 21(1): 25, 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33413296

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To assess the changes of implant surfaces of different roughness after instrumentation with ultrasonic-driven scaler tips of different materials. METHODS: Experiments were performed on two moderately rough surfaces (I-Inicell® and II-SLA®), one surface without pre-treatment (III) and one smooth machined surface (IV). Scaler tips made of steel (A), PEEK (B), titanium (C), carbon (D) and resin (E) were used for instrumentation with a standardized pressure of 100 g for ten seconds and under continuous automatic motion. Each combination of scaler tip and implant surface was performed three times on 8 titanium discs. After instrumentation roughness was assessed by profilometry, morphological changes were assessed by scanning electron microscopy, and element distribution on the utmost surface by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. RESULTS: The surface roughness of discs I and II were significantly reduced by instrumentation with all tips except E. For disc III and IV roughness was enhanced by tip A and C and, only for IV, by tip D. Instrumentation with tips B, D and E left extensive residuals on surface I, II and III. The element analysis of these deposits proved consistent with the elemental composition of the respective tip materials. CONCLUSION: All ultrasonic instruments led to microscopic alterations of all types of implants surfaces assessed in the present study. The least change of implant surfaces might result from resin or carbon tips on machined surfaces.

3.
Microorganisms ; 8(5)2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32369987

RESUMO

This review aimed to systematically compare microbial profiles of peri-implantitis to those of periodontitis and healthy implants. Therefore, an electronic search in five databases was conducted. For inclusion, studies assessing the microbiome of peri-implantitis in otherwise healthy patients were considered. Literature was assessed for consistent evidence of exclusive or predominant peri-implantitis microbiota. Of 158 potentially eligible articles, data of 64 studies on 3730 samples from peri-implant sites were included in this study. Different assessment methods were described in the studies, namely bacterial culture, PCR-based assessment, hybridization techniques, pyrosequencing, and transcriptomic analyses. After analysis of 13 selected culture-dependent studies, no microbial species were found to be specific for peri-implantitis. After assessment of 28 studies using PCR-based methods and a meta-analysis on 19 studies, a higher prevalence of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and Prevotella intermedia (log-odds ratio 4.04 and 2.28, respectively) was detected in peri-implantitis biofilms compared with healthy implants. Actinomyces spp., Porphyromonas spp. and Rothia spp. were found in all five pyrosequencing studies in healthy-, periodontitis-, and peri-implantitis samples. In conclusion, the body of evidence does not show a consistent specific profile. Future studies should focus on the assessment of sites with different diagnosis for the same patient, and investigate the complex host-biofilm interaction.

4.
Clin Oral Implants Res ; 31(5): 488-494, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32003872

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To follow-up the radiographic changes in peri-implant bone of short (6 mm, test group) and long (10 mm, control group) single-unit implants five years after loading. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-three implants of the test and 44 implants of the control group could be reassessed from 96 originally included implants. Standardized areas of interest (AOI) were defined in the peri-implant bone at pre-defined locations at mid-length on both sides of the implants, and at the apex. An arbitrary mean grey scale value (GSV) was calculated for the AOI after brightness calibration of the radiographs. Changes for GSV were calculated and tested for possible inter- and intra-group differences using the Mann-Whitney and Wilcoxon tests. RESULTS: The calculated intra-group differences between baseline and 5 years in the test group accounted for 2.4 ± 19.6 (i.e. slight brightening) and -6.2 ± 20.2 for the control group (i.e. slight shading), which resulted in a statistically significant difference in GSV change (p < .05). Crown-to-implant ratio was the only parameter showing an effect on GSV change (p = .001). CONCLUSIONS: Assessing conventional radiographs, longer implants showed a slightly stronger change of radiopacity of the peri-implant bone (slight loss of density) than short ones (slightly enhanced density) after five years of loading.


Assuntos
Perda do Osso Alveolar , Implantes Dentários , Coroas , Implantação Dentária Endo-Óssea , Planejamento de Prótese Dentária , Prótese Dentária Fixada por Implante , Falha de Restauração Dentária , Seguimentos , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
BMC Oral Health ; 19(1): 274, 2019 12 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31805922

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dentin hypersensitivity is a frequent finding especially in periodontitis patients. Conventional treatment aims for obstruction of dentin tubules by disabling liquid and osmotic fluctuation to and from the pulpal chamber. A novel bioglass-based desensitizer was shown to obstruct tubules and to resist periodic exposure to lactic acid. Whether this obstruction is resistant to brushing had not been tested so far. Accordingly, the present study aimed to assess dentin tubule obstruction after repeated acid exposure and brushing. METHODS: Sixty dentin discs were cleaned with 17% EDTA, mounted into a pulp fluid simulator and randomly divided into 3 groups: No surface treatment in Group A, Seal&Protect® in group B and DentinoCer in group C. Discs were exposed to 0.1 M non-saturated lactic acid thrice and standardized brushing twice a day for 12 days. At baseline and after 2, 4 and 12 d samples were removed from the setting and prepared for top-view SEM analysis to assess tubule obstruction using the Olley score. Discs were then vertically cut and the section surface morphologically assessed using backscatter imaging. For both vertical and sectional surfaces EDX analysis was used to characterize the surface composition in the tubular and inter-tubular area. RESULTS: Group A showed clean tubular lumina at all time points. From day 2 onwards dentin showed exposed collagen fibers. Group 2 initially showed a complete surface coverage that flattened out during treatment without ever exposing tubules. At baseline, samples of Group C displayed a complete homogeneous coverage. From day 2 on tubules entrances with obstructed lumen became visible. While on day 4 and 12 the dentin surface exposed collagen fibers the lumina remained closed. EDX analysis of the vertical and horizontal views showed that P and Ca were predominant elements in both the inter- and tubular dentin while Si peaks were found in the tubule plugs. CONCLUSION: While group B displayed a packed layer on the surface during the whole investigation time group C samples lost their superficial layer within 48 h. Tubule plugs containing considerable Si proportions indicated previous presence of DentinoCer, while high Ca and P proportions suggest obturation by dentin-like material.


Assuntos
Cerâmica/farmacologia , Dessensibilizantes Dentinários/farmacologia , Permeabilidade da Dentina/efeitos dos fármacos , Sensibilidade da Dentina/terapia , Dentina/efeitos dos fármacos , Materiais Biocompatíveis/farmacologia , Dentina/metabolismo , Sensibilidade da Dentina/metabolismo , Humanos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura
6.
Dent J (Basel) ; 7(4)2019 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31835899

RESUMO

Background: To assess the effect of chlorhexidine (CHX) chip application in patients with peri-implant mucositis as compared to CHX gel application. Methods: In peri-implant sites with mucositis, CHX gel was applied in the control group (GC) and CHX chips in the test group (CC) at baseline and after three months. At baseline and after six months, peri-implant pocket depths (PPD), bleeding-on-probing (BOP) and activated matrix metalloproteinase-8 (aMMP8) were assessed. Longitudinal changes were tested for inter-group differences. Results: Thirty-two patients were treated. BOP was more reduced (p = 0.006) in CC than in GC, with means and standard deviations of 46 ± 28% and 17 ± 27%, respectively. PPD was more reduced (p = 0.002) in CC than in GC with 0.65 ± 0.40 mm and 0.18 ± 0.32 mm, respectively. Regarding BOP, the percentages of improved, unchanged and worsened sites accounted for 32%, 61% and 7% in GC and 46%, 53% and 1% in CC, respectively. For probing pocket depth, the according values were 26%, 66% and 8% (GC) versus 57%, 38% and 5% (CC). Conclusions: During supportive therapy, repeated CHX chip application might resolve marginal peri-implant inflammation in terms of bleeding better than CHX gel.

7.
Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants ; 34(6): 1299-1305, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31711072

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess surface characteristics and implant stability after implantoplasty performed by two different instrument sequences regarding material loss, surface roughness, and fracture load resistance. Additionally, operators' subjective experience during instrumentation and the damage to neighboring teeth were evaluated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Titanium implants were placed in the position of both first maxillary molars in models exposing 6 mm of their surface. Implantoplasty was performed in phantom heads: Exposed surfaces were instrumented with diamonds and Arkansas stones or abrasive stones and silicone polishers. Operators reported on abrasion, gloss, effectiveness, and tactility using a visual analog scale (VAS). Residual wall thickness of implants was measured on radiographs, material abrasion using three-dimensional (3D) scans, and surface roughness by contact profilometry. Maximum bending moments were measured. RESULTS: Residual thickness and weight loss were comparable after both treatments (0.3 ± 0.1 and 0.25 ± 0.07 mm and 0.22 ± 0.01 g, and 0.03 ± 0.01 mm and 0.02 ± 0.01 g, respectively, P > .05). Mean surface roughness was lower (P = .0001) for the group with the silicone polishers (0.4 ± 0.2 µm) compared with the group employing diamonds (0.8 ± 0.1 µm). Maximum bending moments showed neither intergroup differences nor stability loss compared with untreated implants. The stone-and-silicone polisher group showed less abrasion (4.6 ± 2.2) and higher gloss values (8.1 ± 1.4) than the diamond-and-Arkansas group (3.1 ± 1.3 and 4.1 ± 2.1, respectively). Superficial tooth injuries at proximal neighbor teeth were common (73% and 80%). CONCLUSION: Implantoplasty did not weaken implant stability. The use of silicone polishers revealed lower surface roughness. Regarding surface smoothness, the instrumentation sequence employing silicon carbide and Arkansas stones followed by silicone polishers seems to be superior to the combination of diamond and Arkansas stones.


Assuntos
Implantes Dentários , Titânio , Polimento Dentário , Teste de Materiais , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Propriedades de Superfície
8.
Dent J (Basel) ; 7(3)2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31480586

RESUMO

The early wound healing score (EHS) was introduced to assess early wound healing of periodontal soft tissues after surgical incision. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the intra- and inter-examiner reliability of the EHS. Six examiners with different levels of training and clinical focus were enrolled. Each examiner was trained on the use of the EHS before starting the study. Thereafter, 63 photographs of three different types of surgical incisions taken at day 1, 3 or 7 post-operatively were independently evaluated according to the proposed assessment method. A two-way random intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were used to analyze the intra- and inter-examiner reliability for the EHS. The inter-examiner reliability for the EHS was 0.828 (95% CI: 0.767-0.881). The intra-examiner reliability ranged between 0.826 (95% CI: 0.728-0.891) and 0.915 (95% CI: 0.856-0.950). The results therefore show an "almost perfect agreement" for intra- and inter-examiner reliability. The EHS provides a system for reproducible repeated ratings for the early healing assessment of incisions of periodontal soft tissues. Even when used by examiners with different clinical experience and specialty, it shows a high correlation coefficient.

9.
BMC Oral Health ; 19(1): 160, 2019 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31340807

RESUMO

Following publication of the original article [1], the authors reported their family and given names have been mismatched. The correct names can be found below.

10.
Clin Exp Dent Res ; 5(6): 712-724, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31890309

RESUMO

Objectives: This narrative review is aiming on showing reasons for implant failure, removal techniques, and respective clinical considerations; further, the survival rate of implants in previous failed sites is examined. Materials and methods: Questions have been formulated, answered, and discussed through a literature search including studies assessing implant failure and removal up to 2018. Results: Studies describing reasons for implant failure, implant removal techniques, and the reinsertion of implants in a previous failed site (n = 12) were included. To date, peri-implantitis is the main reason for late implant failure (81.9%). Trephine burs seem to be the best-known method for implant removal. Nevertheless, the counter-torque-ratchet-technique, because of the low invasiveness, should be the first choice for the clinician. Regarding zirconia implant removal, only scarce data are available. Implantation in previously failed sites irrespective of an early or late failure results in 71% to 100% survival over 5 years. Conclusion: If removal is required, interventions should be based on considerations regarding minimally invasive access and management as well as predictable healing. (Post)Operative considerations should primarily depend on the defect type and the consecutive implantation plans.


Assuntos
Implantação Dentária/efeitos adversos , Implantes Dentários/efeitos adversos , Falha de Restauração Dentária , Remoção de Dispositivo/normas , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Implantação Dentária/instrumentação , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
11.
Clin Oral Investig ; 23(3): 1133-1141, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29961138

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this randomized controlled clinical trial was to evaluate the possible advantages of adjunctive hyaluronic acid (HA) application in the coronally advanced flap (CAF) procedure in single Miller class I/recession type 1 (RT1) gingival recession treatment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty patients with one recession were enrolled; 15 were randomly assigned CAF + HA and 15 to CAF alone. The recession reduction (RecRed), clinical attachment level gain (CAL-gain), changes in probing pocket depth (PPD) and in the width of keratinized tissue (KT), complete root coverage (CRC), and mean root coverage (MRC) were calculated after 18 months. Post-operative morbidity (pain intensity, discomfort, and swelling) was recorded 7 days after treatment using visual analogue scale (VAS). RESULTS: After 18 months, RecRed was statistically significantly higher in the test group (2.7 mm [1.0]) than in the control group (1.9 mm [1.0]; p = 0.007). PPD were found to be slightly but statistically significantly increased in both groups. No statistically significant difference was found for KT gain between treatments. CRC was 80% for test and 33.3% for control sites (p < 0.05). A MRC of 93.8 ± 13.0% for test and 73.1 ± 20.8% for control sites was calculated (p < 0.05). The test group reported lower swelling and discomfort values 7-days post-surgery (p < 0.05). Statistically significant difference was not found for pain intensity. CONCLUSIONS: The adjunctive use of HA was effective in obtaining CRC for single Miller class I/RT1 gingival recession sites. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Adjunctive application of HA in the coronally advanced flap procedure may improve the reduction of the recessions and increase the probability of CRC in Miller class I recessions.


Assuntos
Retração Gengival , Tecido Conjuntivo , Seguimentos , Gengiva , Humanos , Ácido Hialurônico , Perda da Inserção Periodontal , Raiz Dentária , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
J Periodontal Implant Sci ; 48(5): 274-283, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30405935

RESUMO

Purpose: Numerous indices have been proposed to analyse wound healing in oral soft tissues, but each has specific shortcomings. A new method of analysis, the Early Wound Healing Score (EHS), was evaluated in the present study. The aim was to assess more accurately early healing by primary intention of surgical incisions in periodontal soft tissues. Methods: Twenty-one patients were treated with different surgical procedures comprising 1 or 2 vertical releasing incisions as part of a surgical access flap. Twenty-four hours after surgery, early wound healing at the vertical releasing incisions was assessed using the EHS. This score assessed clinical signs of re-epithelialization (CSR), clinical signs of haemostasis (CSH), and clinical signs of inflammation (CSI). Since complete wound epithelialization was the main outcome, the CSR score was weighted to be 60% of the total final score. Accordingly, a score of 0, 3, or 6 points was possible for the assessment of CSR, whereas scores of 0, 1, or 2 points were possible for CSH and CSI. Higher values indicated better healing. Accordingly, the score for ideal early wound healing was 10. Results: Thirty vertical releasing incisions were assessed in 21 patients. At 24 hours after incision, 16 vertical releasing incisions (53.33%) received the maximum score of CSR, while 6 cases (20%) received an EHS of 10. None of the cases received 0 points. Conclusion: The EHS system may be a useful tool for assessing early wound healing in periodontal soft tissue by primary intention after surgery.

13.
Clin Oral Implants Res ; 29(12): 1195-1201, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30387207

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To test the accuracy of measurement of interproximal peri-implant bone defects at titanium (Ti) and zirconium dioxide (ZrO2 ) implants by digital periapical radiography (PR) and cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 18 models, each containing one Ti and one ZrO2 implant, were cast in dental stone. Six models each were allocated to following defect groups: A-no peri-implant defect, B-1 mm width defect, C-1.5 mm width defect. The defect width was measured with a digital sliding caliper. Subsequently, the models were scanned by means of PR and CBCT. Three examiners assessed the defect width on PR and CBCT. Wilcoxon signed-rank test and Wilcoxon rank sum test were applied to detect differences between imaging techniques and implant types. RESULTS: For PR, the deviation of the defect width measurement (mm) for groups A, B, and C amounted to 0.01 ± 0.03, -0.02 ± 0.06, and -0.00 ± 0.04 at Ti and 0.05 ± 0.02, 0.01 ± 0.03, and 0.09 ± 0.03 at ZrO2 implants. The corresponding values (mm) for CBCT reached 0.10 ± 0.11, 0.26 ± 0.05, and 0.24 ± 0.08 at Ti and 1.07 ± 0.06, 0.64 ± 0.37, and 0.54 ± 0.17 at ZrO2 implants. Except for Ti with defect A, measurements in PR were significantly more accurate in comparison to CBCT (p ≤ 0.05). Both methods generally yielded more accurate measurements for Ti than for ZrO2 . CONCLUSIONS: The assessment of interproximal peri-implant defect width at Ti and ZrO2 implants was more accurate in PR in comparison to CBCT. Measurements in CBCT always led to an overestimation of the defect width, reaching clinical relevance for ZrO2 implants.


Assuntos
Tomografia Computadorizada de Feixe Cônico , Implantes Dentários/efeitos adversos , Peri-Implantite/diagnóstico por imagem , Radiografia Dentária Digital , Titânio , Zircônio , Processo Alveolar/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Peri-Implantite/etiologia , Estatísticas não Paramétricas
14.
Clin Oral Investig ; 22(8): 2961-2962, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30027355

RESUMO

The figure 2 of the original version of this article was incorrect. Correct figure is presented below.

15.
Swiss Dent J ; 128(6): 490-496, 2018 06 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29764099

RESUMO

Aim: Intensive application of highly concentrated antimicrobials during scaling and root planing may be hazardous if swallowed in quantity. This study evaluates two dental isolation systems for fluid leakage in conjunction with a sham treatment of scaling and root planing. Materials and methods: Eight volunteers were randomly assigned to wear a conventional rubber dam (RD) and a combined suction and isolation device (IsoLite® system [IL]) alternatively on contralateral maxillary and mandibular quadrants. RD was cut between the canine and the first molar and was fixed on the first molar with a rubber dam clamp and with a tissue adhesive (Histoacryl) on the gingiva. IL was applied as recommended by the manufacturer. Ultrasonic instrumentation with corresponding irrigation water was used for 5 min as sham treatment, i.e. no actual therapy. The irrigation liquid was collected and the difference between the amount of liquid applied and that collected during treatment was determined. The volunteers then reported on their comfort during treatment. Results: Neither of the devices offered complete isolation. Mean leakage with both systems was generally low, i.e. approximately 10% (of the applied irrigant). More leakage was recorded in the maxilla than in the mandible, for both systems. Both devices were deemed moderately comfortable to wear. Conclusion: RD and IL isolated the working field to a similar degree. Since RD represents the highest isolation standard currently available, the use of IL must also be considered sufficient to prevent noxious amounts of antiseptic rinses from leaking into the mouth.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Locais , Raspagem Dentária , Gengiva , Humanos , Dente Molar , Aplainamento Radicular
16.
BMC Oral Health ; 17(1): 137, 2017 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29183313

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An in vitro model for peri-implantitis treatment was used to identify areas that are clinically difficult to clean by analyzing the pattern of residual stain after debridement with commonly employed instruments. METHODS: Original data from two previous publications, which simulated surgical (SA) and non-surgical (NSA) implant debridement on two different implant systems respectively, were reanalyzed regarding the localization pattern of residual stains after instrumentation. Two blinded examiners evaluated standardized photographs of 360 initially ink-stained dental implants, which were cleaned at variable defect angulations (30, 60, or 90°), using different instrument types (Gracey curette, ultrasonic scaler or air powder abrasive device) and treatment approaches (SA or NSA). Predefined implant surface areas were graded for residual stain using scores ranging from one (stain-covered) to six (clean). Score differences between respective implant areas were tested for significance by pairwise comparisons using Wilcoxon-rank-sum-tests with a significance level α = 5%. RESULTS: Best scores were found at the machined surface areas (SA: 5.58 ± 0.43, NSA: 4.76 ± 1.09), followed by the tips of the threads (SA: 4.29 ± 0.44, NSA: 4.43 ± 0.61), and areas between threads (SA: 3.79 ± 0.89, NSA: 2.42 ± 1.11). Apically facing threads were most difficult to clean (SA: 1.70 ± 0.92, NSA: 2.42 ± 1.11). Here, air powder abrasives provided the best results. CONCLUSION: Machined surfaces at the implant shoulder were well accessible and showed least amounts of residual stain. Apically facing thread surfaces constituted the area with most residual stain regardless of treatment approach.


Assuntos
Abrasão Dental por Ar , Raspagem Dentária/instrumentação , Raspagem Dentária/métodos , Peri-Implantite/terapia , Desbridamento , Implantação Dentária/métodos , Implantes Dentários , Humanos , Fotografia Dentária , Terapia por Ultrassom
17.
J Clin Periodontol ; 44(7): 762-768, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28453221

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Short dental implants are frequently placed, however, little is known about the effect of the loading force regarding an enhanced crown-to-implant ratio. The aim of this study was therefore to assess bone density changes after a 3-year period, on radiographs acquired from a randomized, controlled two-centre clinical study comparing implants of 6 and 10 mm of length. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three predefined areas were chosen on standardized X-rays in order to assess grey-scale values of the peri-implant bone: One at the tip of the apex and two at half-length on the mesial and distal sides of the implant. Radiographs at all follow-up appointments had previously been calibrated using control fields in areas of constant density. RESULTS: Around short implants, peri-implant bone displayed significantly higher differences in grey-scale values (p = .031) after 3 years, indicating a higher degree of mineralization. This phenomenon was not observed around long implants. CONCLUSIONS: A higher degree of mineralization around short implants was recorded. Whether this finding goes along with hampered bone adaptability, and accordingly, higher failure rates of short implants must be studied further in long-term clinical trials.


Assuntos
Processo Alveolar/diagnóstico por imagem , Densidade Óssea/fisiologia , Implantes Dentários para Um Único Dente , Implantação Dentária Endo-Óssea , Planejamento de Prótese Dentária , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Osseointegração/fisiologia , Estudos Prospectivos
18.
Clin Oral Implants Res ; 28(2): 151-155, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26799360

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the cleaning potential of commonly used implant debridement methods, simulating non-surgical peri-implantitis therapy in vitro. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One-hundred-and-eighty dental implants were ink-stained and mounted in combined soft and hard tissue models, representing peri-implantitis defects with angulations of 30, 60, and 90° covered by a custom-made artificial mucosa. Implants were treated by a dental school graduate and a board-certified periodontist for 120 s with following instruments: Gracey curette, ultrasonic scaler, and an air powder abrasive device with a nozzle for sub-mucosal use utilizing glycine powder. All procedures were repeated 10 times for each instrumentation and defect morphology respectively. Images of the implant surface were taken. Areas with color remnants were planimetrically determined and their cumulative surface area was calculated. Results were tested for statistical differences using two-way anova and Bonferroni correction. Micro-morphologic surface changes were analyzed on scanning electron microscope (SEM) images. RESULTS: The areas of uncleaned surfaces (%, mean ± standard deviations) for curettes, ultrasonic tips, and air abrasion accounted for 74.70 ± 4.89%, 66.95 ± 8.69% and 33.87 ± 12.59% respectively. The air powder abrasive device showed significantly better results for all defect angulations (P < 0.0001). SEM evaluation displayed considerable surface alterations after instrumentation with Gracey curettes and ultrasonic devices, whereas glycine powder did not result in any surface alterations. CONCLUSION: A complete surface cleaning could not be achieved regardless of the instrumentation method applied. The air powder abrasive device showed a superior cleaning potential for all defect angulations with better results at wide defects.


Assuntos
Desbridamento/instrumentação , Implantes Dentários , Abrasão Dental por Ar/métodos , Raspagem Dentária/instrumentação , Técnicas In Vitro , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Pós , Propriedades de Superfície
19.
BMC Oral Health ; 16(1): 90, 2016 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27590050

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity and periodontitis are important chronic health problems. Obesity is associated with an increased prevalence of periodontitis. Whether obesity also affects the outcome of non-surgical periodontal therapy is to date still unclear. METHODS: A systematic review of studies referenced in SCOPUS, MEDLINE, PubMed, Cochrane, CINAHL, Biosis and Web of Science was performed. Titles, abstracts and finally full texts were scrutinized for possible inclusion by two independent investigators. Quality and heterogeneity of the studies were assessed and the study designs were examined. Probing pocket depth reduction was analyzed as primary surrogate parameter for therapeutic success after non-surgical periodontal therapy. RESULTS: One-hundred-and-fifty-nine potentially qualifying studies were screened. Eight studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were analyzed. Three of eight studies failed to show an influence of obesity on pocket depth reduction after non-surgical therapy. The remaining five studies documented a clear negative effect on the outcome of non-surgical periodontal therapy. The finally included studies did not correspond to the highest level of quality (RCTs). Due to the heterogeneity of the data a meta-analysis was not possible. CONCLUSION: The literature on the effect of obesity on the treatment outcome of non-surgical periodontal therapy remains controversial. The data, however, support that obesity is not only a factor associated with poorer periodontal health but might also result in inferior response to non-surgical treatment of periodontitis.


Assuntos
Obesidade , Periodontite/terapia , Humanos , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
BMC Oral Health ; 17(1): 19, 2016 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27431672

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To selectively review the existing literature on post-interventional maintenance protocols in patients with periodontal disease receiving either non-surgical or surgical periodontal treatment. METHODS: Three systematic reviews with different periodontal interventions, i.e. scaling and root planing (SRP), SRP with adjunctive antibiotics or regenerative periodontal surgery were evaluated focusing on their post-interventional maintenance care. Due to the early publication of one review an additional literature search update was undertaken. The search was executed for studies published from January 2001 till March 2015 through an electronic database to ensure the inclusion of resent studies on SRP. Two reviewers guided the study selection and assessed the validity of the three reviews found. RESULTS: Within the group of scaling and root planing alone there have been nine studies with more than three appointments for maintenance care and five studies with more than two appointments in the first 2 months after the intervention. Chlorhexidine was the most frequently used antiseptic agent used for 2 weeks after non-surgical intervention. Scaling and root planing with adjunctive antibiotics showed a similar number of visits with professional biofilm debridement, whereas regenerative studies displayed more studies with more than three visits in the intervention group. In addition, the use of antiseptics was longer and lasted 4 to 8 weeks after the regenerative intervention. The latter studies also showed more stringent maintenance protocols. CONCLUSIONS: With increased interventional effort there was a greater tendency to increase frequency and duration of the maintenance care program and antiseptic agents.


Assuntos
Raspagem Dentária , Doenças Periodontais/terapia , Aplainamento Radicular , Anti-Infecciosos Locais , Clorexidina , Humanos
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