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1.
J Chem Phys ; 152(1): 014302, 2020 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914771

RESUMO

Molecules ionized by intense (10-100 TW/cm2) and ultrashort (tens of femtoseconds) laser fields undergo rotation and alignment mediated through their polarizability. The expected alignment is indeed observed in the case of O2 molecules ionized by intense laser pulses of 800 nm wavelength and 25 fs duration, as observed through velocity imaging of the fragments. Strikingly, when 35 fs pulses of 400 nm wavelength of comparable intensity are employed, an anomalous hindering of this alignment is observed. In both cases, we propose dissociation pathways for the energetic ions consistent with the recorded kinetic energy distributions. Using a semiclassical model of induced rotation of the molecular ion that involves polarizabilities of the participating excited states, both behaviors are reproduced. The model suggests that the difference in the observations can be attributed to a transient negative polarizability in an intermediate state of the proposed pathway.

2.
Anim Biotechnol ; : 1-7, 2019 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31779521

RESUMO

The present study was aimed to determine the impact of thermal stress on expression dynamics of heat shock protein 60 (HSP60) mRNA in cultured cardiac fibroblast cells of the goat. The heart tissues (n = 6) from different goats were used for the culture study. The cardiac fibroblast cells were cultured and subjected to thermal stress at 42 °C for 0, 20, 60 and 100 min. The relative abundance of HSP60 mRNA was assessed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). The cardiac cells exposed to thermal stress at 42 °C for 0 min was taken as control. The relative abundance of HSP60 mRNA did not change at 20 min of thermal stress as compared to control. Thereafter, the relative abundance of HSP60 mRNA was significantly up-regulated (p < 0.05) at 60 min and 100 min of thermal stress. However, the highest mRNA expression of HSP60 was noticed at 100 min of thermal stress. The present study indicates that, thermal stress modulates the mRNA expression HSP60 in cultured caprine cardiac fibroblast cells.

3.
Int J Tuberc Lung Dis ; 23(6): 750-755, 2019 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31315709

RESUMO

BACKGROUND India has the world's largest indigenous/tribal population. Many areas with large tribal populations suffer from weak infrastructure and services. Surveys have shown a high prevalence of TB among Saharia communities, who rarely access public services. We evaluated a community-based active TB case-finding intervention. METHODS Community health workers screened people for TB symptoms in Saharia communities, made referrals, collected sputum for transport to laboratories, and initiated and supported anti-tuberculosis treatment. Microscopy testing was performed at government laboratories. The intervention tracked the people screened, referrals, the people tested, laboratory results, treatment initiation and outcomes. RESULTS Community health workers verbally screened 65 230 people, 8723 (13%) of whom had symptoms. Of these, 5600 were tested, 964 (17%) of whom were smear-positive. During the intervention, we observed a +52% increase in people tested at laboratories and an +84% increase in TB case notifications. Pre-treatment loss to follow-up decreased and treatment success increased slightly. CONCLUSIONS In India, particularly among tribal populations, many people with TB are missed by current approaches due to poor access. Community-based active case-finding can help identify more people with TB in tribal and remote rural areas by addressing barriers to health seeking as well as help reach ambitious country and global notification targets. .

4.
J Hosp Infect ; 103(3): 280-283, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31170422

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to assess antimicrobial prescribing patterns, and variation in practice, in India. A point prevalence survey (PPS) was conducted in October to December 2017 in 16 tertiary care hospitals across India. The survey included all inpatients receiving an antimicrobial on the day of PPS and collected data were analysed using a web-based application of the University of Antwerp. In all, 1750 patients were surveyed, of whom 1005 were receiving a total of 1578 antimicrobials. Among the antimicrobials prescribed, 26.87% were for community-acquired infections; 19.20% for hospital-acquired infections; 17.24% for medical prophylaxis; 28.70% for surgical prophylaxis; and 7.99% for other or undetermined reasons. Antibiotic prescribing quality indicators, such as reason in notes and post-prescription review score, were low. This PPS showed widespread antibiotic usage, underlining the need for antibiotic stewardship to promote evidence-based practice.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Uso de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Índia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Centros de Atenção Terciária
5.
Int J Tuberc Lung Dis ; 23(5): 535-546, 2019 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31097060

RESUMO

Drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) is challenging to diagnose, treat, and prevent, but this situation is slowly changing. If the world is to drastically reduce the incidence of DR-TB, we must stop creating new DR-TB as an essential first step. The DR-TB epidemic that is ongoing should also be directly addressed. First-line drug resistance must be rapidly detected using universal molecular testing for resistance to at least rifampin and, preferably, other key drugs at initial TB diagnosis. DR-TB treatment outcomes must also improve dramatically. Effective use of currently available, new, and repurposed drugs, combined with patient-centered treatment that aids adherence and reduces catastrophic costs, are essential. Innovations within sight, such as short, highly effective, broadly indicated regimens, paired with point-of-care drug susceptibility testing, could accelerate progress in treatment outcomes. Preventing or containing resistance to second-line and novel drugs is also critical and will require high-quality systems for diagnosis, regimen selection, and treatment monitoring. Finally, earlier detection and/or prevention of DR-TB is necessary, with particular attention to airborne infection control, case finding, and preventive therapy for contacts of patients with DR-TB. Implementing these strategies can overcome the barrier that DR-TB represents for global TB elimination efforts, and could ultimately make global elimination of DR-TB (fewer than one annual case per million population worldwide) attainable. There is a strong cost-effectiveness case to support pursuing DR-TB elimination; however, achieving this goal will require substantial global investment plus political and societal commitment at national and local levels.

7.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 140: 262-273, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30803642

RESUMO

The occurrence of microplastic particles were evaluated on beaches along the Indian coast from three different locations Girgaon Mumbai (Arabian sea coast), Tuticorin, and Dhanushkodi (Bay of Bengal coast). Density separation method was adopted for isolation of microplastics from sand. Isolated microplastics were characterized using three different analytical techniques e.g. fluorescence microscopy (after staining with Nile Red), FTIR and SEM-EDS techniques. Microplastic concentrations in beach sands were from 45 ±â€¯12 # MP kg-1 to 220 ±â€¯50 # MP kg-1 of dry sand. The order of abundance of plastic type was polyethylene (43%) > polyethylene terephthalate (17.3%) ≈ polystyrene (17%) > polypropylene (12.3%) > Others (11%) > polyvinylchloride (1.33%), and very similar profile was observed for all monitored locations. SEM images show microplastics surfaces with characteristic cracks, suggests their polymer aging, mechanical and oxidative weathering, which was found highest for the microplastics collected from Mumbai.


Assuntos
Praias , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Plásticos/análise , Quartzo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Índia , Oceanos e Mares , Plásticos/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química
8.
Theriogenology ; 128: 1-7, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30711643

RESUMO

Buffaloes have tendency to show seasonal reproduction and remain in anestrus due to limited ovarian activity during summer. The seasonal reproductive behavior is ascribed the effect of melatonin related to photoperiod. Treating animals with melatonin could be a possible strategy to overcome the problem. The role of MTNR1A gene has not been fully explained in the buffalo. Therefore, we conducted a study on 114 buffalo heifers to detect the polymorphic site in MTNR1A gene and further treated them with melatonin implants to investigate the role of most frequent genotype following melatonin treatment on pregnancy. The present investigation is the first to investigate the association between melatonin treated different MTNR1A genotype buffalo and pregnancy. We confirmed SNP at position 72 in 812 bp fragment exon II of MTNR1A gene. RFLP of PCR products with Hpa I enzyme resulted in three genotypes: TT (812bp), CT (812, 743, 69bp) and CC (743, 69bp). Next, buffaloes of each genotype (TT, CC, CT; n = 28 for each) were treated with melatonin implants to compare the conception rate with their corresponding untreated control (n = 10 for each genotype). Melatonin concentrations were higher (P < 0.05) for the treatment groups of all genotypes compared to their respective untreated control from day 1-28. The pregnancy rate was significantly associated with the MTNR1A genotype. The conception rate was higher (P < 0.05) for TT genotype than for the other genotypes of buffaloes treated with melatonin. Furthermore, buffaloes of TT genotype treated with melatonin started exhibiting estrus activity soon from second week of melatonin treatment (14.1 ±â€¯2.1; range: 10-17 days) and were found to be 7.8 times more likely to become pregnant compared to other genotypes following melatonin treatment. In conclusion, TT genotype of MTNR1A gene is more sensitive to melatonin treatment that favours pregnancy in buffaloes during summer.


Assuntos
Búfalos/genética , Melatonina/uso terapêutico , Receptor MT1 de Melatonina/genética , Reprodução/genética , Animais , Búfalos/fisiologia , Feminino , Fertilização/efeitos dos fármacos , Fertilização/genética , Genótipo , Polimorfismo Genético , Gravidez , Taxa de Gravidez , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos , Estações do Ano
9.
Arch Environ Contam Toxicol ; 76(1): 142-152, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30361943

RESUMO

The fate of a pollutant in the environment depends on its interaction with the surroundings. Henry's law constant (HLC) is one of the important properties useful for assessment of environmental risk and estimation of mass transfer of the pollutant between water and air. Estimation of HLC is relatively a difficult task for many of the organic pollutants due to their very low aqueous solubility. People have attempted the measurement of HLC for persistent organic pollutants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), but due to the difficulty in estimation, there is a variation of approximately 2-3 orders of magnitude in reported values of HLC for PCBs in the literature. A study was performed for estimation of HLC for PCBs using the static method with a modification that eliminates any disturbance in equilibrium due to sampling and also avoids removal or addition of material in or out of the system unlike the conventional methods. The results were consistent with the literature values. The experimental values of HLC ranged from 0.004 to 0.08 for different congeners. All of the experimental values were in agreement with the literature values. The experimental data was further used for deriving a correlation equation for theoretical estimation of the HLC from aqueous solubility and chlorination number. The equation gave a very good estimation of HLC values for all the PCBs congeners except single- and double-chlorinated congeners. The theoretically predicted values were also found to be in close agreement with the reported HLC values.


Assuntos
Ar , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Modelos Teóricos , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Água/química , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/química , Halogenação , Bifenilos Policlorados/química , Solubilidade , Volatilização
10.
Med Vet Entomol ; 33(2): 213-219, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30565276

RESUMO

Japanese encephalitis (JE) has been reported in different districts of Odisha state (east central India) since 1992. During 2016, a major outbreak of JE and acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) occurred in the Malkangiri district of Odisha, causing 103 deaths in children, of which 37 were caused by JE and 66 by AES. Information on insecticide resistance in JE vectors is important for the selection of appropriate insecticides for use in vector control. The present study was designed to determine the resistance status of three important vectors of JE, Culex vishnui, Culex tritaeniorhynchus and Culex bitaeniorhynchus (Diptera: Culicidae), against dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), malathion and deltamethrin in three districts of Odisha state affected by JE. Female adult mosquitoes were collected using mouth aspirators both indoors and outdoors in JE-affected villages and used in susceptibility bioassays following World Health Organization guidelines. Knock-downs were recorded every 10 min up to 1 h and mortality rates were recorded at 24 h post-exposure. Culex vishnui and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus showed resistance to DDT, malathion and deltamethrin, whereas Cx. bitaeniorhynchus was susceptible in all study districts. The information generated by this study will be highly useful in the planning and implementing of appropriate vector control operations for the prevention and control of JE in east central India.


Assuntos
Culex/efeitos dos fármacos , DDT/farmacologia , Resistência a Inseticidas , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Malation/farmacologia , Mosquitos Vetores/efeitos dos fármacos , Nitrilos/farmacologia , Piretrinas/farmacologia , Animais , Culex/fisiologia , Vírus da Encefalite Japonesa (Espécie)/fisiologia , Encefalite Japonesa/transmissão , Feminino , Índia , Longevidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Controle de Mosquitos , Mosquitos Vetores/fisiologia
11.
Iran J Vet Res ; 19(3): 217-224, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30349569

RESUMO

This study compared the therapeutic efficacy of levofloxacin, ornidazole and alpha tocopherol combination and prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) in longstanding cases of endometritis and evaluated their impact on Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and Interleukin-10 (IL-10) transcript level in peripheral blood leukocytes. Eighteen endometritic crossbred Jersey cows were randomly allotted to three groups (six in each) viz. Group I (levofloxacin combo treatment I/U), group II (PGF2α treatment I/M), group III (no treatment, control), and group IV (six non-endometritic healthy cyclic) was taken for comparison study. The clinical efficacy was assessed by haematological study (TLC: Total leukocyte count; DC: Differential count), polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) count in uterine cytology and relative mRNA expression of IL-6 and IL-10 in peripheral blood leukocytes before and after treatment with respect to conception rate following single and second inseminations. Group I and II registered significant increase in TLC and neutrophil count. PMN cytology was increased two and three fold in group I and II, respectively. The IL-6 transcript level was increased by 2.5 and 4.6 fold while that of IL-10 increased by 3.7 and 5.2 fold in group I and II, respectively. Conception rate across group I to IV following single insemination was found to be 66.67%, 50%, 16.67%, and 83.33% and their corresponding values following second insemination were 66.67%, 83.33%, 16.67%, and 83.33%, respectively. Thus, the administration of levofloxacin combo and PGF2α might have better conception rate following first and second insemination, respectively. Our study also reveals that PGF2α could register better clearance of bacteria through stronger PMN cell and cytokine activity in post-treatment period.

12.
Rev Sci Instrum ; 89(8): 086107, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30184670

RESUMO

A three-dimensional ion imaging spectrometer has been designed and calibrated by ion trajectories simulations. We present a recipe for the verification of the calibration by obtaining kinetic energy (KE) distribution from the recorded flight times alone and consequently correlating the two KE spectra.

13.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 131(Pt A): 453-459, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29886971

RESUMO

The sedimentation rates in Arctic fjords are influenced by the changes in the glacial inputs. The recent studies have indicated the retreat of glaciers due to climate change and subsequent increase in melt water outflow with high content of debris. The debris may contain natural and anthropogenically originated contaminants. The present study analysed the sedimentation rate in inner Kongsfjorden, Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard using 210Pb/210Po dating technique. The sedimentation rate ranged between 0.22 and 0.37 cm/year during the last 112 years. The average sedimentation rate obtained was 0.28 cm/y. The rate has been increased during the last 20 years and it might be due to the increased influx of glacial melt water containing debris. Metals and other elements showed an increasing trend towards the surface and observed high deposition rate since 1970s, indicating influence of industrial emissions and it can be a potential threat to Arctic biota.


Assuntos
Sedimentos Geológicos/análise , Metais/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Regiões Árticas , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Estuários , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Camada de Gelo , Radioisótopos de Chumbo/análise , Polônio/análise , Svalbard
14.
Br J Dermatol ; 179(3): 669-678, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29494763

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Interleukin (IL)-31 is implicated in pruritus associated with pruritic skin diseases like atopic dermatitis. Although pruritus is a prominent feature in dermatomyositis (DM), few studies have evaluated the pathogenesis of DM-associated itch. OBJECTIVES: To establish the prevalence of itch in DM, and to investigate the role of IL-31 in DM-related itch. METHODS: Pruritus and disease activity of DM were evaluated by a visual analogue scale (VAS) and the Cutaneous Disease and Activity Severity Index (CDASI), respectively. Expression of IL-31 and IL-31 receptor alpha (IL-31RA) in lesional DM, nonlesional DM and healthy control skin was evaluated by quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and immunofluorescence. Flow cytometry was performed on skin cells isolated from lesional DM skin to identify cellular sources of IL-31 in DM. RESULTS: Among 191 patients with DM, 50·8% had moderate-to-severe itch, and itch was correlated with increased cutaneous severity (r = 0·34). In patients with itchy DM, gene expression of IL31 and IL31RA in lesional skin was upregulated compared with nonlesional skin and healthy control skin. IL31 mRNA expression positively correlated with VAS itch score (r = 0·67). On immunofluorescence, immunoreactivity for IL-31 and IL-31RA was stronger in lesional skin. Flow cytometry showed that lesional DM skin contained significantly more IL-31-producing cells, and CD4+ cells were the most common cell type. Lenabasum, an emerging treatment for DM, significantly downregulated IL-31 from CpG-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells. CONCLUSIONS: Increased skin IL-31 may play a role in DM-associated itch, and ongoing trials will evaluate the effects of systemic treatment on IL-31 and itch in DM.


Assuntos
Dermatomiosite/imunologia , Interleucinas/imunologia , Prurido/imunologia , Biópsia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/metabolismo , Agonistas de Receptores de Canabinoides/farmacologia , Agonistas de Receptores de Canabinoides/uso terapêutico , Separação Celular , Dermatomiosite/complicações , Dermatomiosite/diagnóstico , Dermatomiosite/tratamento farmacológico , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Baixo/imunologia , Drogas em Investigação/farmacologia , Drogas em Investigação/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Citometria de Fluxo , Humanos , Interleucinas/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Prurido/diagnóstico , Prurido/tratamento farmacológico , Prurido/epidemiologia , Receptores de Interleucina/metabolismo , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Pele/citologia , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Pele/imunologia , Pele/patologia , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Cima/imunologia
15.
Appl Radiat Isot ; 135: 57-60, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29396212

RESUMO

A method was optimized for detecting trace elements in sea water using Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) technique. Sea water samples were pre-concentrated using ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate (APDC) as chelating agent and methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) as organic phase. The preconcentrated samples were dried to form thin films on mylar substrate and analysed using EDXRF spectrometer. The multi-element standard samples prepared in synthetic sea water were used for EDXRF instrument calibration. The instrument was calibrated for 11 elements namely As, Cd, Co, Cr, Fe, Ga, Pb, Se, Sc, V and Zn using linear regression method for concentration up to 200 ppb. The detection limits achieved for As, Cd, Co, Cr, Fe, Ga, Pb, Se, Sc, V and Zn were 13, 70, 5.1, 36, 15, 36, 23, 11, 20, 13 and 40 ppb respectively. The optimized method was used for determination of elements in sea water collected from the Thane creek, Mumbai, India. The results were checked for accuracy by comparing it with inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP AES) technique. The comparison showed the discrepancy of results to be insignificant at 95% confidence level.

16.
Int J Tuberc Lung Dis ; 21(11): 2-3, 2017 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29025478
17.
Indian Heart J ; 69(5): 607-612, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29054184

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Chronic symptomatic sinus node dysfunction (SND), the most common bradyarrhythmia, can be effectively managed by permanent cardiac pacing. Yet the care pathway and barriers to adoption of pacing therapy are not well understood - particularly in low volume implanting countries. The IMPROVE Brady study is a quality improvement initiative being conducted at centers in South Asia, Latin America, and Russia. We assessed the rates of SND diagnosis and pacemaker treatment for SND in the South Asia cohort. METHODS: The prospective study enrolled patients with heart rate of ≤50 beats per minute presenting with symptoms including syncope, dizziness, and/or dyspnea from ten centers in India and Bangladesh. Patients were followed to identify the proportion diagnosed with SND and subsequently treated with pacemaker therapy. RESULTS: A total of 508 patients meeting criteria were enrolled and followed on average for 8.3±8.0months. Patients were on average 58 years of age, 77% were male, and 91% had completed at least primary education. An SND diagnosis was made in 368 (72%) of patients, with the majority (80%) of diagnoses occurring within 1 month of enrollment. Of the patients with an SND diagnosis, 63 (17%) were treated with a pacemaker. Reasons for not receiving treatment were: subject refusal or deferred decision (45%), unaffordability (34%), physician determined - not-indicated (20%), and other (1%). Older age, female gender, history of hypertension, lower resting heart rate, and syncopal or pre-syncopal symptoms were associated with a higher probability of implant. CONCLUSIONS: In a care pathway assessment for the diagnosis and treatment of symptomatic SND in South Asia only 1 in 6 patients received pacemaker indicated therapy, largely due to patient refusal and physician decision. Phase II of the study will be aimed to improve this treatment rate.


Assuntos
Estimulação Cardíaca Artificial/estatística & dados numéricos , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Marca-Passo Artificial/estatística & dados numéricos , Vigilância de Produtos Comercializados/métodos , Síndrome do Nó Sinusal/terapia , Ásia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Síndrome do Nó Sinusal/epidemiologia , Síndrome do Nó Sinusal/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Tempo
18.
Public Health Action ; 7(1): 15-20, 2017 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28775938

RESUMO

Setting: The public-private mix (PPM) tuberculosis (TB) project implemented by the Myanmar Medical Association (MMA) in 105 townships in Myanmar. Objectives: 1) To assess the contribution of the MMA-PPM-TB project to total TB patient notification in the project townships; 2) to evaluate the outcomes of patients treated at the MMA-PPM clinics; and 3) to identify factors associated with unfavourable treatment outcomes, from January to December 2013. Design: A retrospective cohort study. Results: The MMA-PPM-TB project contributed 7501 (12%) of 60 905 TB patient notifications to the National Tuberculosis Programme (NTP) in 105 study townships. Of 2975 TB patients diagnosed and treated at private MMA-PPM clinics, 92% had a favourable outcome (32% cured, 60% completed treatment) and 8% had an unfavourable outcome (2.9% died, 2.5% lost to follow-up, 1.9% failure, 0.6% transfer out). Patient characteristics significantly associated with an unfavourable treatment outcome were age ⩾65 years (adjusted risk ratio [aRR] 5.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] 4.20-7.68), retreatment (aRR 2.44, 95%CI 1.79-3.33) and female sex (aRR 1.44, 95%CI 1.14-1.82). Conclusion: This study supports the continuation and expansion of the MMA-PPM-TB model and/or similar PPM approaches in Myanmar that engage all health providers in the ambitious goals of achieving universal health coverage in this country in transition and ending its TB epidemic by 2035.

19.
Aust Vet J ; 95(8): 281-288, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28749022

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this research was to study the roles of the day 0 energy balance and gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and progesterone levels on dominant follicle (DF) and corpus luteum (CL) development during the first 7 days of a gonadotrophin-prostaglandin-gonadotrophin (GPG) + progesterone (P4) program in anoestrous dairy cows. METHODS: Cows (n = 81) were allocated to one of the three treatments: (1) GPG + P4 (days 0 and 9, 100 µg GnRH; day 0-7, intravaginal P4 device; day 7, 500 µg PGF2α ); (2) GPG (as for treatment 1 but excluding the P4 device) and (3) prostaglandin + GnRH + P4 (as for treatment 1, but excluding day 0 GnRH). DF and CL size, plasma concentrations of insulin, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) were measured on days 0 and 7. RESULTS: The proportion of cows with a CL on day 7 was significantly different between groups (GPG: 78%, GPG+P4: 69%, PGF2α + GnRH + P4: 42%, P = 0.02). The CL volume on day 7 was significantly associated with treatment, treatment by time postpartum and plasma concentrations of insulin, IGF-I and NEFA. CONCLUSION: In cows without a CL present on day 0 of an oestrus synchronisation program, removal of the day 0 GnRH treatment led to reduced CL development; however, no effect of adding progesterone was found. In contrast, in cows with a CL present on day 0 inclusion of a progesterone device led to a higher CL volume, but removal of the first GnRH injection had no effect. Response to the treatment was affected by plasma concentrations of insulin, IGF-I and NEFA.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Dinoprosta/farmacologia , Sincronização do Estro , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/farmacologia , Folículo Ovariano/efeitos dos fármacos , Folículo Ovariano/fisiologia , Anestro/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Feminino , Inseminação Artificial , Ovulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Progesterona/administração & dosagem , Progesterona/farmacologia , Distribuição Aleatória
20.
J Med Entomol ; 54(4): 821-830, 2017 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28399290

RESUMO

The southern districts of Odisha State in east-central India have been highly endemic for falciparum malaria for many decades. However, there is no adequate information on the abundance of the vector species or their bionomics in relation to space and time in these districts. Therefore, a study was carried out on the entomological aspects of malaria transmission to generate such information. Collections of mosquitoes were made once during each of the three seasons in 128 villages selected from eight districts. Villages within the foot-hill ecotype had a significantly greater abundance of Anopheles fluviatilis James s. l., whereas the abundance of Anopheles culicifacies Giles s. l. was significantly greater in the plain ecotype. The abundance of An. fluviatilis was maximum during the cold season, whereas An. culicifacies abundance was highest during summer and rainy seasons. The maximum likelihood estimation of the malaria infection rate in An. fluviatilis was 1.78%, 6.05%, and 2.6% in Ganjam, Kalahandi, and Rayagada districts, respectively. The infection rate of An. culicifacies was 1.39% only in Kandhamal district; infected females were not detected elsewhere. Concurrently, the annual malaria parasite incidence (MPI) was significantly higher in hill-top (17.6) and foot-hill (14.4) villages compared to plain villages (4.1). The districts with more villages in hill-top and foot-hill ecotypes also had a greater abundance of An. fluviatilis, the major malaria vector, and exhibited a higher incidence of malaria than villages within the plain ecotype, where An. culicifacies was the most abundant vector.


Assuntos
Anopheles/fisiologia , Insetos Vetores/fisiologia , Traços de História de Vida , Animais , Ecossistema , Feminino , Humanos , Índia , Funções Verossimilhança , Malária Falciparum/transmissão , Densidade Demográfica
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