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J Food Sci Technol ; 51(3): 467-75, 2014 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24587521


This study was conducted to evaluate the kinetic characteristics of proteolytic activity of proteases on Channa striatus protein fractions. Degree of hydrolysis (DH), amino acid composition and kinetic parameters of sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar proteins were investigated when incubated with proteinase K and thermolysin, separately. After 30 min incubation with proteases, a decrease in DH of sarcoplasmic protein was observed whereas, hydrolysis of myofibrillar protein with proteases took 2 h with an increase in DH. The major amino acids were glutamic acid (16.6%) in thermolysin- myofibrillar hydrolysate followed by aspartic acid (11.1%) in sarcoplasmic protein fraction with no enzyme treatment and lysine (10%) in thermolysin-myofibrillar hydrolysate. The apparent Michaelis constant of proteinase K was lower than thermolysin for both sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar proteins. However, rate of turnover and enzyme efficiency suggested that sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar proteins are suitable substrates for proteinase K and thermolysin hydrolytic reaction, respectively.

Nat Prod Commun ; 7(7): 927-30, 2012 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22908584


Patchouli essential oil can be obtained from fresh, dried and fermented plant material. It is a highly valuable product in the fragrance industry and its quality changes depending upon raw material age and oil storage. In this work, patchouli essential oils derived from different treatments have been subjected to GC-FID quantitative analysis using an internal standard (ISTD) method with response factors (RF). Samples were obtained from i) fresh plants; ii) hydrodistillation of one year mature and fermented plants; iii) hydrodistillation of one year mature plants; iv) commercial products from Indonesia and Malaysia. Linear Retention Indices (LRI) for both polar and non-polar GC-MS analyses were also measured as a tool for qualitative analysis towards a homologous series of C7-C30 n-alkanes. The results obtained confirmed that, in all samples, patchouli alcohol was the main volatile constituent, with higher amount in lab-scale produced oils, compared with commercial samples. Other major compounds, in lab oils and commercial samples respectively, were: delta-guaiene, alpha-guaiene, pogostol, seychellene and alpha-patchoulene. Another 36 compounds were also found.

Lamiaceae/química , Óleos Voláteis/análise , Azulenos/análise , Folhas de Planta/química , Sesquiterpenos de Guaiano/análise , Terpenos/análise
Biosci Biotechnol Biochem ; 76(8): 1438-44, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22878182


Protease is one of the most important industrial enzymes with a multitude of applications in both food and non-food sectors. Although most commercial proteases are microbial proteases, the potential of non-conventional protease sources, especially plants, should not be overlooked. In this study, horse mango (Mangifera foetida Lour) fruit, known to produce latex with a blistering effect upon contact with human skin, was chosen as a source of protease, and the effect of the extraction process on its protease activity evaluated. The crude enzyme was extracted from the kernels and extraction was optimized by a response surface methodology (RSM) using a central composite rotatable design (CCRD). The variables studied were pH (x(1)), CaCl(2) (x(2)), Triton X-100 (x(3)), and 1,4-dithryeitol (x(4)). The results obtained indicate that the quadratic model is significant for all the variables tested. Based on the RSM model generated, optimal extraction conditions were obtained at pH 6.0, 8.16 mM CaCl(2), 5.0% Triton X-100, and 10.0 mM DTT, and the estimated response was 95.5% (w/w). Verification test results showed that the difference between the calculated and the experimental protease activity value was only 2%. Based on the t-value, the effects of the variables arranged in ascending order of strength were CaCl(2) < pH < DTT < Triton X-100.

Extração Líquido-Líquido/métodos , Mangifera/química , Peptídeo Hidrolases/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas de Plantas/isolamento & purificação , Sementes/química , Algoritmos , Cloreto de Cálcio , Ditiotreitol , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Octoxinol , Extratos Vegetais/química
J Environ Sci (China) ; 23(6): 918-22, 2011.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22066214


The Cr(III) sorption experiments onto Kappaphycus alvarezii waste biomass were conducted at different pH values (2-6) under the conditions of initial metal concentration of 10-50 mg/L and the chemical compositions of Cr-Cu and Cr-Cd. The Cr(III) sorption capacities were slightly dependent on pH, and the maximum sorption capacity was 0.86 mg/g at pH 3. The sorption capacities increased with increase in the initial metal concentration, whereas it was suppressed by the presence of Cu(II) and Cd(III) in the solution. The Cr(III) sorption equilibrium was evaluated using Langmuir, Freundlich and BET isotherms. The sorption mechanisms were characterised using scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The main mechanisms were ion exchange coupled with a complexation mechanism. Kappaphycus alvarezii waste biomass represents a potential for Cr(III) ion removal from aqueous solution.

Biomassa , Cromo/química , Íons/química , Rodófitas/química , Adsorção , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Rodófitas/ultraestrutura , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
Biotechnol Appl Biochem ; 41(Pt 2): 117-25, 2005 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15202937


Results from the present study have shown that the ionic species of buffers, pH values and reaction temperature can affect the enzyme unit activities and product specificity of Toruzyme (Novo Nordisk A/S Bagsvaerd, Denmark) CGTase (cyclodextrin glucanotransferase). Applying a similar reaction environment (acetate buffer, pH 6.0; temperature, 60 degrees C), the CGTase was found to be capable of producing pre dominantly beta-cyclodextrin from either raw or gelatinized sago (Cycas revoluta) starch. Changing the buffer from acetate to phosphate reduced the yield of beta-cyclodextrin from 2.48 to 1.42 mg/ml and also affected the product specificity, where production of both alpha- and beta-cyclodextrins were more pronounced. The decrease in the production of cyclodextrins in phosphate buffer was significant at both pH 6.0 and 7.0. However, changing the buffer to Tris/HCl (pH 7.0) showed a significant increase in beta-cyclodextrin production. Increasing the ionic strength of sodium acetate and Tris/HCl buffers at pH 6.0 and 7.0 to equivalent ionic strength of phosphate buffers showed no significant effects on cyclodextrin production. Higher yield of cyclodextrins at pH 7.0 when Tris/HCl was used might be due to the binding of chloride ions at the calcium-binding sites of the CGTase, resulting in the shift of the optimum pH close to physiological environment, leading to an increase in the activities and specificity.

Cycas/química , Ciclodextrinas/biossíntese , Glucosiltransferases/metabolismo , Amido/metabolismo , Soluções Tampão , Glucosiltransferases/química , Temperatura Alta , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Íons , Soluções , Amido/química