Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 321
Filtrar
1.
J Infect Chemother ; 28(1): 41-46, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34635449

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In response to global outbreaks of infectious diseases, the need for support from organizations such as the World Health Organization Global Outbreak Alert and Response Network (GOARN) is increasing. Identifying the obstacles and support needs for applicants could increase GOARN deployments from Japan. METHODS: This cross-sectional study involved a web-based, self-administered questionnaire survey targeting Japanese participants in the GOARN Tier 1.5 training workshop, held in Tokyo in December 2019. RESULTS: All 47 Japanese participants in the workshop responded to the survey. Most responders were male and in their 30s and 40s. Participants specialized in case management (42.6%), infection prevention and control (25.6%), epidemiology and surveillance (19.1%). Only two participants (4.6%) had experienced a GOARN deployment. Their motivations for joining the GOARN training workshop were "Desire to be part of an international emerging infectious disease response team" (44.6%), "Interest in making an international contribution" (19.1%), and "Interest in working for the Japanese government in the field of international infectious diseases" (14.9%). Obstacles to GOARN deployments were "Making time for deployments" (45.7%) and "Lack of required professional skills and knowledge" (40.4%). The support needs for GOARN deployments constituted "Periodic simulation training" (51.1%), "Financial support during deployments" (44.7%), and "Technical support for deployments" (40.4%). CONCLUSIONS: Our study revealed the obstacles and support needs of Japanese candidates for GOARN deployment. Making time and upskilling for GOARN deployment were the main obstacles. More practical training (like GOARN Tier 2.0) with other supports are needed. The national framework is desirable to realize these supports.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes , Estudos Transversais , Surtos de Doenças , Saúde Global , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Recursos Humanos
2.
Microorganisms ; 9(11)2021 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34835327

RESUMO

Owing to genotype-specific neutralizing antibodies, analyzing differences in the immunogenic variation among dengue virus (DENV) genotypes is central to effective vaccine development. Herein, we characterized the viral kinetics and antibody response induced by DENV type 2 Asian I (AI) and Asian/American (AA) genotypes using marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) as models. Two groups of marmosets were inoculated with AI and AA genotypes, and serial plasma samples were collected. Viremia levels were determined using quantitative reverse transcription-PCR, plaque assays, and antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Anti-DENV immunoglobulin M and G antibodies, neutralizing antibody titer, and antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) activity were determined using ELISA, plaque reduction neutralization test, and ADE assay, respectively. The AI genotype induced viremia for a longer duration, but the AA genotype induced higher levels of viremia. After four months, the neutralizing antibody titer induced by the AA genotype remained high, but that induced by the AI genotype waned. ADE activity toward Cosmopolitan genotypes was detected in marmosets inoculated with the AI genotype. These findings indicate discrepancies between heterologous genotypes that influence neutralizing antibodies and viremia in marmosets, a critical issue in vaccine development.

3.
J Infect Chemother ; 2021 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34802888

RESUMO

Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is a hemorrhagic fever. Patients mainly develop fever, thrombocytopenia, and leukopenia. A high case fatality rate of 16.2-47% has been reported. Vaccines and antivirals that are effective against SFTS virus (SFTSV) are not yet available in clinical practice. We previously showed that o-dihydroxybenzene is the important chemical core structure for anti-SFTSV activity. In this study, we evaluated the anti-SFTSV efficacy of 3-Hydroxy-L-tyrosine (L-DOPA), a treatment for Parkinson's disease and its enantiomer, 3-hydroxy-D-tyrosine (D-DOPA), both of which have an o-dihydroxybenzene backbone. SFTSV was preincubated with L- or D-DOPA and then inhibition of viral infection as well as viral attachment to host cells were evaluated by viral quantification. Both L- and D-DOPA inhibited SFTSV infection in a dose-dependent manner, mainly by blocking viral attachment to host cells. The half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of L-DOPA was 4.46-5.09 µM. IC50 of D-DOPA was 4.23-6.72 µM. IC50 of L-DOPA is very close to its maximum blood concentration after oral administration as a therapy for Parkinson's disease. D-DOPA, which IC50 was almost the same as that of L-DOPA, might not cause side effect. Thus, our present study demonstrated that L- and D-DOPA are potentially useful candidates for anti-SFTSV drugs.

4.
Ticks Tick Borne Dis ; 13(1): 101834, 2021 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34656945

RESUMO

The species Keterah orthonairovirus is a member of the genus Orthonairovirus. Few studies have focused on this species, and there remains no treatment for Issyk-Kul fever, an infectious disease caused by a Keterah orthonairovirus. This study was performed to characterize this species using two viruses, Issyk-Kul virus (ISKV) and Soft tick bunyavirus (STBV), in cell culture and type I interferon receptor knockout (IFNAR-/-) mice and to evaluate the efficacy of serum transfusion using a mouse model of ISKV infection. The two viruses replicated in many kinds of mammal- and tick-derived cell lines but showed few different characteristics in tropism and antigenicity against anti-viral sera in cell culture. Neither virus caused clinical signs in wild-type mice, but both caused lethal infection in IFNAR-/- mice. ISKV caused more acute death than STBV in IFNAR-/- mice. In both viral infections in IFNAR-/- mice, macroscopic abnormalities were prominent in the liver. Similar levels of viral genome between ISKV- and STBV-infected IFNAR-/- mice were observed in blood, liver, lymphoid tissues and adrenal gland at moribund stages. Hematologic abnormalities in IFNAR-/- mice infected with these viruses, including leukopenia and thrombocytopenia, and biochemical abnormalities indicating liver damage were prominent. In addition, blood levels of many kinds of cytokines and chemokines such as granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, interferon gamma-induced protein 10 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 were elevated. ISKV-immunized serum transfusion after infection delayed the time to death of IFNAR-/- mice. Thus, the present study showed that the species Keterah orthonairovirus could proliferate in most mammal-derived cell lines and cause severe liver lesions and death in IFNAR-/- mice and that serum transfusion might be effective in treatment against Issyk-Kul fever.

5.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 19635, 2021 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34608212

RESUMO

Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that causes febrile illness. The recent spread of ZIKV from Asia to the Americas via the Pacific region has revealed unprecedented features of ZIKV, including transplacental congenital infection causing microcephaly. Amino acid changes have been hypothesized to underlie the spread and novel features of American ZIKV strains; however, the relationship between genetic changes and the epidemic remains controversial. A comparison of the characteristics of a Southeast Asian strain (NIID123) and an American strain (PRVABC59) revealed that the latter had a higher replication ability in cultured cells and higher virulence in mice. In this study, we aimed to identify the genetic region of ZIKV responsible for these different characteristics using reverse genetics. A chimeric NIID123 strain in which the E protein was replaced with that of PRVABC59 showed a lower growth ability than the recombinant wild-type strain. Adaptation of the chimeric NIID123 to Vero cells induced a Phe-to-Leu amino acid substitution at position 146 of the prM protein; PRVABC59 also has Leu at this position. Leu at this position was found to be responsible for the viral replication ability and partially, for the pathogenicity in mouse testes.

6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(19)2021 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639103

RESUMO

Various pathogens, such as Ebola virus, Marburg virus, Nipah virus, Hendra virus, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV), Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV), and SARS-CoV-2, are threatening human health worldwide. The natural hosts of these pathogens are thought to be bats. The rousette bat, a megabat, is thought to be a natural reservoir of filoviruses, including Ebola and Marburg viruses. Additionally, the rousette bat showed a transient infection in the experimental inoculation of SARS-CoV-2. In the current study, we established and characterized intestinal organoids from Leschenault's rousette, Rousettus leschenaultii. The established organoids successfully recapitulated the characteristics of intestinal epithelial structure and morphology, and the appropriate supplements necessary for long-term stable culture were identified. The organoid showed susceptibility to Pteropine orthoreovirus (PRV) but not to SARS-CoV-2 in experimental inoculation. This is the first report of the establishment of an expandable organoid culture system of the rousette bat intestinal organoid and its sensitivity to bat-associated viruses, PRV and SARS-CoV-2. This organoid is a useful tool for the elucidation of tolerance mechanisms of the emerging rousette bat-associated viruses such as Ebola and Marburg virus.


Assuntos
COVID-19/virologia , Quirópteros/virologia , Organoides/virologia , Orthoreovirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Reoviridae/virologia , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Animais , COVID-19/veterinária , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Células Cultivadas , Quirópteros/fisiologia , Humanos , Intestinos/citologia , Intestinos/virologia , Organoides/citologia , Infecções por Reoviridae/veterinária
7.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(10)2021 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34696184

RESUMO

Genotype V (GV) Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) has emerged in Korea and China since 2009. Recent findings suggest that current Japanese encephalitis (JE) vaccines may reduce the ability to induce neutralizing antibodies against GV JEV compared to other genotypes. This study sought to produce a novel live attenuated JE vaccine with a high efficacy against GV JEV. Genotype I (GI)-GV intertypic recombinant strain rJEV-EXZ0934-M41 (EXZ0934), in which the E region of the GI Mie/41/2002 strain was replaced with that of GV strain XZ0934, was introduced with the same 10 attenuation substitutions in the E region found in the live attenuated JE vaccine strain SA 14-14-2 to produce a novel mutant virus rJEV-EXZ/SA14142m-M41 (EXZ/SA14142m). In addition, another mutant rJEV-EM41/SA14142m-M41 (EM41/SA14142m), which has the same substitutions in the Mie/41/2002, was also produced. The neuroinvasiveness and neurovirulence of the two mutant viruses were significantly reduced in mice. The mutant viruses induced neutralizing antibodies against GV JEV in mice. The growth of EXZ/SA14142m was lower than that of EM41/SA14142m. In mouse challenge tests, a single inoculation with a high dose of the mutants blocked lethal GV JEV infections; however, the protective efficacy of EXZ/SA14142m was weaker than that of EM41/SA14142m in low-dose inoculations. The lower protection potency of EXZ/SA14142m may be ascribed to the reduced growth ability caused by the attenuation mutations.

8.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(9): e0009768, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492038

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pteropine orthoreovirus (PRV) is an emerging bat-borne zoonotic virus that causes severe respiratory illness in humans. Although PRVs have been identified in fruit bats and humans in Australia and Asia, little is known about the prevalence of PRV infection in Africa. Therefore, this study performed an PRV surveillance in fruit bats in Zambia. METHODS: Egyptian fruit bats (Rousettus aegyptiacus, n = 47) and straw-colored fruit bats (Eidolon helvum, n = 33) captured in Zambia in 2017-2018 were screened for PRV infection using RT-PCR and serum neutralization tests. The complete genome sequence of an isolated PRV strain was determined by next generation sequencing and subjected to BLAST and phylogenetic analyses. Replication capacity and pathogenicity of the strain were investigated using Vero E6 cell cultures and BALB/c mice, respectively. RESULTS: An PRV strain, tentatively named Nachunsulwe-57, was isolated from one Egyptian fruit bat. Serological assays demonstrated that 98% of sera (69/70) collected from Egyptian fruit bats (n = 37) and straw-colored fruit bats (n = 33) had neutralizing antibodies against PRV. Genetic analyses revealed that all 10 genome segments of Nachunsulwe-57 were closely related to a bat-derived Kasama strain found in Uganda. Nachunsulwe-57 showed less efficiency in viral growth and lower pathogenicity in mice than another PRV strain, Miyazaki-Bali/2007, isolated from a patient. CONCLUSIONS: A high proportion of Egyptian fruit bats and straw-colored fruit bats were found to be seropositive to PRV in Zambia. Importantly, a new PRV strain (Nachunsulwe-57) was isolated from an Egyptian fruit bat in Zambia, which had relatively weak pathogenicity in mice. Taken together, our findings provide new epidemiological insights about PRV infection in bats and indicate the first isolation of an PRV strain that may have low pathogenicity to humans.

9.
Viruses ; 13(9)2021 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34578389

RESUMO

Zika virus (ZIKV) infection during pregnancy causes a wide spectrum of congenital abnormalities and postnatal developmental sequelae such as fetal loss, intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), microcephaly, or motor and neurodevelopmental disorders. Here, we investigated whether a mouse pregnancy model recapitulated a wide range of symptoms after congenital ZIKV infection, and whether the embryonic age of congenital infection changed the fetal or postnatal outcomes. Infection with ZIKV strain PRVABC59 from embryonic day 6.5 (E6.5) to E8.5, corresponding to the mid-first trimester in humans, caused fetal death, fetal resorption, or severe IUGR, whereas infection from E9.5 to E14.5, corresponding to the late-first to second trimester in humans, caused stillbirth, neonatal death, microcephaly, and postnatal growth deficiency. Furthermore, 4-week-old offspring born to dams infected at E12.5 showed abnormalities in neuropsychiatric state, motor behavior, autonomic function, or reflex and sensory function. Thus, our model recapitulated the multiple symptoms seen in human cases, and the embryonic age of congenital infection was one of the determinant factors of offspring outcomes in mice. Furthermore, maternal neutralizing antibodies protected the offspring from neonatal death after congenital infection at E9.5, suggesting that neonatal death in our model could serve as criteria for screening of vaccine candidates.

10.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5539, 2021 09 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34545081

RESUMO

The increasing burden of tick-borne orthonairovirus infections, such as Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, is becoming a global concern for public health. In the present study, we identify a novel orthonairovirus, designated Yezo virus (YEZV), from two patients showing acute febrile illness with thrombocytopenia and leukopenia after tick bite in Hokkaido, Japan, in 2019 and 2020, respectively. YEZV is phylogenetically grouped with Sulina virus detected in Ixodes ricinus ticks in Romania. YEZV infection has been confirmed in seven patients from 2014-2020, four of whom were co-infected with Borrelia spp. Antibodies to YEZV are found in wild deer and raccoons, and YEZV RNAs have been detected in ticks from Hokkaido. In this work, we demonstrate that YEZV is highly likely to be the causative pathogen of febrile illness, representing the first report of an endemic infection associated with an orthonairovirus potentially transmitted by ticks in Japan.


Assuntos
Febre/epidemiologia , Febre/virologia , Nairovirus/fisiologia , Adulto , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Febre/sangue , Genoma Viral , Humanos , Ixodes/virologia , Japão/epidemiologia , Contagem de Leucócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nairovirus/genética , Nairovirus/imunologia , Nairovirus/ultraestrutura , Filogenia , RNA Viral/genética , Vírion/ultraestrutura
11.
J Travel Med ; 2021 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34542626

RESUMO

A 32-year-old man, who visited Japan from the Philippines in 2020, was diagnosed with rabies. This is the first reported case in Japan since 2006. This is the fourth imported case of rabies since 1957; one case in 1970 was imported from Nepal and two in 2006 from the Philippines.

12.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(7): e0009553, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34214091

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Jamestown Canyon virus (JCV) is a mosquito-borne orthobunyavirus that causes acute febrile illness, meningitis, and meningoencephalitis, primarily in North American adults. Currently, there are no available vaccines or specific treatments against JCV infections. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The antiviral efficacy of favipiravir (FPV) against JCV infection was evaluated in vitro and in vivo in comparison with that of ribavirin (RBV) and 2'-fluoro-2'-deoxycytidine (2'-FdC). The in vitro inhibitory effect of these drugs on JCV replication was evaluated in Vero and Neuro-2a (N2A) cells. The efficacy of FPV in the treatment of JCV infection in vivo was evaluated in C57BL/6J mice inoculated intracerebrally with JCV, as per the survival, viral titers in the brain, and viral RNA load in the blood. The 90% inhibitory concentrations (IC90) of FPV, RBV, and 2'-FdC were 41.0, 61.8, and 13.6 µM in Vero cells and 20.7, 25.8, and 8.8 µM in N2A cells, respectively. All mice infected with 1.0×104 TCID50 died or were sacrificed within 10 days post-infection (dpi) without treatment. However, mice treated with FPV for 5 days [initiated either 2 days prior to infection (-2 dpi-2 dpi) or on the day of infection (0 dpi-4 dpi)] survived significantly longer than control mice, administered with PBS (p = 0.025 and 0.011, respectively). Moreover, at 1 and 3 dpi, the virus titers in the brain were significantly lower in FPV-treated mice (0 dpi-4 dpi) versus PBS-treated mice (p = 0.002 for both 1 and 3 dpi). CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Although the intracerebral inoculation route is thought to be a challenging way to evaluate drug efficacy, FPV inhibits the in vitro replication of JCV and prolongs the survival of mice intracerebrally inoculated with JCV. These results will enable the development of a specific antiviral treatment against JCV infections and establishment of an effective animal model.


Assuntos
Amidas/administração & dosagem , Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Vírus da Encefalite da Califórnia/efeitos dos fármacos , Encefalite da Califórnia/tratamento farmacológico , Pirazinas/administração & dosagem , Animais , Chlorocebus aethiops , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Vírus da Encefalite da Califórnia/genética , Vírus da Encefalite da Califórnia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Encefalite da Califórnia/mortalidade , Encefalite da Califórnia/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Células Vero
13.
Viruses ; 13(6)2021 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34205062

RESUMO

Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) is an emerging tick-borne bunyavirus that causes severe disease in humans with case fatality rates of approximately 30%. There are few treatment options for SFTSV infection. SFTSV RNA synthesis is conducted using a virus-encoded complex with RNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity that is required for viral propagation. This complex and its activities are, therefore, potential antiviral targets. A library of small molecule compounds was processed using a high-throughput screening (HTS) based on an SFTSV minigenome assay (MGA) in a 96-well microplate format to identify potential lead inhibitors of SFTSV RNA synthesis. The assay confirmed inhibitory activities of previously reported SFTSV inhibitors, favipiravir and ribavirin. A small-scale screening using MGA identified four candidate inhibitors that inhibited SFTSV minigenome activity by more than 80% while exhibiting less than 20% cell cytotoxicity with selectivity index (SI) values of more than 100. These included mycophenolate mofetil, methotrexate, clofarabine, and bleomycin. Overall, these data demonstrate that the SFTSV MGA is useful for anti-SFTSV drug development research.

14.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(7): e1009788, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34310650

RESUMO

Zika virus (ZIKV) strains are classified into the African and Asian genotypes. The higher virulence of the African MR766 strain, which has been used extensively in ZIKV research, in adult IFNα/ß receptor knockout (IFNAR-/-) mice is widely viewed as an artifact associated with mouse adaptation due to at least 146 passages in wild-type suckling mouse brains. To gain insights into the molecular determinants of MR766's virulence, a series of genes from MR766 were swapped with those from the Asian genotype PRVABC59 isolate, which is less virulent in IFNAR-/- mice. MR766 causes 100% lethal infection in IFNAR-/- mice, but when the prM gene of MR766 was replaced with that of PRVABC59, the chimera MR/PR(prM) showed 0% lethal infection. The reduced virulence was associated with reduced neuroinvasiveness, with MR766 brain titers ≈3 logs higher than those of MR/PR(prM) after subcutaneous infection, but was not significantly different in brain titers of MR766 and MR/PR(prM) after intracranial inoculation. MR/PR(prM) also showed reduced transcytosis when compared with MR766 in vitro. The high neuroinvasiveness of MR766 in IFNAR-/- mice could be linked to the 10 amino acids that differ between the prM proteins of MR766 and PRVABC59, with 5 of these changes affecting positive charge and hydrophobicity on the exposed surface of the prM protein. These 10 amino acids are highly conserved amongst African ZIKV isolates, irrespective of suckling mouse passage, arguing that the high virulence of MR766 in adult IFNAR-/- mice is not the result of mouse adaptation.


Assuntos
Proteínas do Envelope Viral/genética , Virulência/genética , Infecção por Zika virus/virologia , Zika virus/genética , Zika virus/patogenicidade , Animais , Barreira Hematoencefálica , Permeabilidade Capilar , Genótipo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Zika virus/metabolismo
15.
Intern Med ; 2021 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34176829

RESUMO

A 79-year-old man experienced cognitive impairment and visual field defects during ofatumumab therapy for chronic lymphocytic leukemia refractory to combination chemotherapy. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed T1-weighted low-intensity and T2-weighted high-intensity lesions with patchy gadolinium enhancement in the subcortical white matter. A diagnosis of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy was made after the detection of John Cunningham virus (JCV) DNA in his cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Following plasma exchange and the administration of mirtazapine and mefloquine, the JCV DNA levels in the CSF decreased. However, the patient died 55 days after treatment was initiated. Ofatumumab treatment appears to be associated with the development of PML.

16.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(6): e0009452, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34061841

RESUMO

Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a tick-borne zoonosis with a high case fatality rate in humans. Although the disease is widely found in Africa, Europe, and Asia, the distribution and genetic diversity of CCHF virus (CCHFV) are poorly understood in African countries. To assess the risks of CCHF in Zambia, where CCHF has never been reported, epidemiologic studies in cattle and ticks were conducted. Through an indirect immunofluorescence assay, CCHFV nucleoprotein-specific serum IgG was detected in 8.4% (88/1,047) of cattle. Among 290 Hyalomma ticks, the principal vector of CCHFV, the viral genome was detected in 11 ticks. Phylogenetic analyses of the CCHFV S and M genome segments revealed that one of the detected viruses was a genetic reassortant between African and Asian strains. This study provides compelling evidence for the presence of CCHFV in Zambia and its transmission to vertebrate hosts.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Vírus da Febre Hemorrágica da Crimeia-Congo/isolamento & purificação , Febre Hemorrágica da Crimeia/veterinária , Carrapatos/virologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/sangue , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Vírus da Febre Hemorrágica da Crimeia-Congo/genética , Febre Hemorrágica da Crimeia/sangue , Febre Hemorrágica da Crimeia/epidemiologia , Febre Hemorrágica da Crimeia/virologia , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Filogenia , Testes Sorológicos , Zâmbia/epidemiologia
17.
iScience ; 24(4): 102367, 2021 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33817567

RESUMO

Antiviral treatments targeting the coronavirus disease 2019 are urgently required. We screened a panel of already approved drugs in a cell culture model of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and identified two new agents having higher antiviral potentials than the drug candidates such as remdesivir and chroloquine in VeroE6/TMPRSS2 cells: the anti-inflammatory drug cepharanthine and human immunodeficiency virus protease inhibitor nelfinavir. Cepharanthine inhibited SARS-CoV-2 entry through the blocking of viral binding to target cells, while nelfinavir suppressed viral replication partly by protease inhibition. Consistent with their different modes of action, synergistic effect of this combined treatment to limit SARS-CoV-2 proliferation was highlighted. Mathematical modeling in vitro antiviral activity coupled with the calculated total drug concentrations in the lung predicts that nelfinavir will shorten the period until viral clearance by 4.9 days and the combining cepharanthine/nelfinavir enhanced their predicted efficacy. These results warrant further evaluation of the potential anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity of cepharanthine and nelfinavir.

18.
Viruses ; 13(4)2021 04 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33923720

RESUMO

Detection of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) virus (SFTSV) during the early phase of the disease is important for appropriate treatment, infection control, and prevention of further transmission. The reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) is a nucleic acid amplification method that amplifies the target sequence under isothermal conditions. Here, we developed an RT-LAMP with a novel primer/probe set targeting a conserved region of the SFTSV L segment after extraction of viral RNA (standard RT-LAMP). Both the Chinese and Japanese SFTSV strains, including various genotypes, were detected by the standard RT-LAMP. We also performed RT-LAMP using the same primer/probe set but without the viral RNA extraction step (called simplified RT-LAMP) and evaluated the diagnostic efficacy. The sensitivity and specificity of the simplified RT-LAMP were 84.9% (45/53) and 89.5% (2/19), respectively. The simplified RT-LAMP can detect SFTSV in human sera containing >103.5 copies/mL viral RNA. The two RT-LAMP positive but quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) negative samples were positive in the conventional RT-PCR, suggesting that there was no false positive reaction in the RT-LAMP. Both the standard and simplified RT-LAMP are useful for detecting the SFTSV genome in patients during the early phase of the disease.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/métodos , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/métodos , Phlebovirus/isolamento & purificação , RNA Viral , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Febre Grave com Síndrome de Trombocitopenia/diagnóstico , Humanos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
19.
Viruses ; 13(4)2021 04 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33920248

RESUMO

Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging tick-borne infectious disease caused by Dabie bandavirus (formerly SFTS virus, SFTSV). Its manifestations during the convalescent phase have not been widely described. We report a patient presenting with hematospermia, fatigue, myalgia, alopecia, insomnia, and depression during the recovery phase of SFTS. Since these symptoms are widely observed in patients with viral hemorrhagic fevers, there might be common mechanisms between SFTS and other viral hemorrhagic fevers. Close monitoring may be required during the recovery phase of SFTS.


Assuntos
Infecções por Bunyaviridae/complicações , Convalescença , Transtornos de Início Tardio , Febre Grave com Síndrome de Trombocitopenia/complicações , Infecções por Bunyaviridae/diagnóstico , Febre , Febres Hemorrágicas Virais/complicações , Febres Hemorrágicas Virais/diagnóstico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , RNA Viral/sangue , RNA Viral/urina , Febre Grave com Síndrome de Trombocitopenia/diagnóstico , Tóquio
20.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(4): 1247-1249, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33755004

RESUMO

Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome was diagnosed in a febrile woman in Japan after a tick bite. However, Rickettsia japonica DNA was retrospectively detected in the eschar specimen, suggesting co-infection from the bite. Establishment of the severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus infection might have overpowered the R. japonica infection.


Assuntos
Coinfecção , Infecções por Rickettsia , Rickettsia , Febre Grave com Síndrome de Trombocitopenia , Picadas de Carrapatos , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Estudos Retrospectivos
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...