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1.
J Am Coll Surg ; 235(3): 468-480, 2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35972167

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Using a large national database, we evaluated the relationship between RBC transfusion volume, RBC transfusion rate, and in-hospital mortality to explore the presence of a futility threshold in trauma patients receiving ultramassive blood transfusion. STUDY DESIGN: The ACS-TQIP 2013 to 2018 database was analyzed. Adult patients who received ultramassive blood transfusion (≥20 units of RBC/24 hours) were included. RBC transfusion volume and rate were captured at the only 2 time points available in TQIP (4 hours and 24 hours), or time of death, whichever came first. RESULTS: Among 5,135 patients analyzed, in-hospital mortality rate was 62.1% (n = 3,190), and 4-hour and 24-hour mortality rates were 17.53% (n = 900) and 42.41% (n = 2,178), respectively. RBC transfusion volumes at 4 hours (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve [AUROC] 0.59 [95% CI 0.57 to 0.60]) and 24 hours (AUROC 0.59 [95% CI 0.57 to 0.60]) had low discriminatory ability for mortality and were inconclusive for futility. Mean RBC transfusion rates calculated within 4 hours (AUROC 0.65 [95% CI 0.63 to 0.66]) and 24 hours (AUROC 0.85 [95% CI 0.84 to 0.86]) had higher discriminatory ability than RBC transfusion volume. A futility threshold was not found for the mean RBC transfusion rate calculated within 4 hours. All patients with a final mean RBC transfusion rate of ≥7 U/h calculated within 24 hours of arrival experienced in-hospital death (n = 1,326); the observed maximum length of survival for these patients during the first 24 hours ranged from 24 hours for a rate of 7 U/h to 4.5 hours for rates ≥21 U/h. CONCLUSION: RBC transfusion volume within 4 or 24 hours and mean RBC transfusion rate within 4 hours were not markers of futility. The observed maximum length of survival per mean RBC transfusion rate could inform resuscitation efforts in trauma patients receiving ongoing transfusion between 4 and 24 hours.


Assuntos
Futilidade Médica , Ferimentos e Lesões , Adulto , Transfusão de Sangue , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Curva ROC , Ressuscitação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ferimentos e Lesões/complicações , Ferimentos e Lesões/terapia
2.
J Surg Res ; 280: 85-93, 2022 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35964486

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Preperitoneal pelvic packing (PPP) is an important intervention for control of severe pelvic hemorrhage in blunt trauma patients. We hypothesized that PPP is associated with an increased incidence of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE). METHODS: A retrospective cohort analysis of blunt trauma patients with severe pelvic fractures (AIS ≥4) using the 2015-2017 American College of Surgeons-Trauma Quality Improvement Program database was performed. Patients who underwent PPP within four hours of admission were matched to patients who did not using propensity score matching. Matching was performed based on demographics, comorbidities, injury- and resuscitation-related parameters, vital signs at presentation, and initiation and type of prophylactic anticoagulation. The rates of DVT and PE were compared between the matched groups. RESULTS: Out of 5129 patients with severe pelvic fractures, 157 (3.1%) underwent PPP within four h of presentation and were matched with 157 who did not. No significant differences were detected between the two matched groups in any of the examined baseline variables. Similarly, mortality and end-organ failure rates were not different. However, PPP patients were significantly more likely to develop DVT (12.7% versus 5.1%, P = 0.028) and PE (5.7% versus 0.0%, P = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS: PPP in severe pelvic fractures secondary to blunt trauma is associated with an increased risk of DVT and PE. A high index of suspicion and a low threshold for screening for these conditions should be maintained in patients who undergo PPP.

3.
Surgery ; 2022 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35970609

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Initially used in trauma management, delayed abdominal closure endeavors to decrease operative time during the index operation while still being lifesaving. Its use in emergency general surgery is increasing, but the data evaluating its outcome are sparse. We aimed to study the association between delayed abdominal closure, mortality, morbidity, and length of stay in an emergency surgery cohort. METHODS: The 2013 to 2017 American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database was examined for patients undergoing emergency laparotomy. The patients were classified by the timing of abdominal wall closure: delayed fascial closure versus immediate fascial closure. Propensity score matching was performed based on preoperative covariates, wound classification, and performance of bowel resection. The outcomes were then compared by univariable analysis. RESULTS: After matching, both the delayed fascial closure and immediate fascial closure groups consisted of 3,354 patients each. Median age was 65 years, and 52.6% were female. The delayed fascial closure group had a higher in-hospital mortality (35.3% vs 25.0%, P < .001), a higher 30-day mortality (38.6% vs 29.0%, P < .001), a higher proportion of acute kidney injury (9.5% vs 6.6%, P < .001), a lower proportion of postoperative sepsis (11.8% vs 15.6%, P < .001), and a lower proportion of surgical site infection (3.4% vs 7.0%, P < .001). CONCLUSION: Compared with immediate fascial closure, delayed fascial closure is associated with an increased mortality in the patients matched based on comorbidities and surgical site contamination. In emergency general surgery, delaying abdominal closure may not have the presumed overarching benefits, and its indications must be further defined in this population.

4.
Am J Surg ; 2022 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35871028

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We created a Big Sibling mentorship program for medical students and studied the program effects. METHODS: Between July 2019 to December 2020, students completing their surgery clerkship were paired with a Big Sibling surgical research resident. Participation in and perceptions of the program were assessed by survey. RESULTS: 81 medical students and 25 residents participated with a 79% and 95% survey response rate, respectively. The most valuable topics discussed included ward skills, personal development and career advising. Students who interacted >2 times with their Big Sibling were more likely to perceive the operating room as a positive learning environment, view attendings as role models, and receive mentoring and feedback from residents and attendings (p = 0.03, 0.02, 0.01 respectively). 78% of residents thought the program was a positive experience and no residents found it burdensome. CONCLUSION: The Big Siblings program enhances the surgery clerkship learning environment. Students who engaged with their Big Sibling had a more positive view of the clerkship and the mentorship provided by residents and attendings.

5.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0271070, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35877687

RESUMO

Although computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen and pelvis (A/P) can provide crucial information for managing blunt trauma patients, liberal and indiscriminant imaging is expensive, can delay critical interventions, and unnecessarily exposes patients to ionizing radiation. Currently no definitive recommendations exist detailing which adult blunt trauma patients should receive A/P CT imaging and which patients may safely forego CT. Considerable benefit could be realized by identifying clinical criteria that reliably classify the risk of abdominal and pelvic injuries in blunt trauma patients. Patients identified as "very low risk" by such criteria would be free of significant injury, receive no benefit from imaging and therefore could be safely spared the expense and radiation exposure associated with A/P CT. The goal of this two-phase nationwide multicenter observational study is to derive and validate the use of clinical criteria to stratify the risk of injuries to the abdomen and pelvis among adult blunt trauma patients. We estimate that nation-wide implementation of a rigorously developed decision instrument could safely reduce CT imaging of adult blunt trauma patients by more than 20%, and reduce annual radiographic charges by $180 million, while simultaneously expediting trauma care and decreasing radiation exposure with its attendant risk of radiation-induced malignancy. Prior to enrollment we convened an expert panel of trauma surgeons, radiologists and emergency medicine physicians to develop a consensus definition for clinically significant abdominal and pelvic injury. In the first derivation phase of the study, we will document the presence or absence of preselected candidate criteria, as well as the presence or absence of significant abdominal or pelvic injuries in a cohort of blunt trauma victims. Using recursive partitioning, we will examine combinations of these criteria to identify an optimal "very low risk" subset that identifies injuries with a sensitivity exceeding 98%, excludes injury with a negative predictive value (NPV) greater than 98%, and retains the highest possible specificity and potential to decrease imaging. In Phase 2 of the study we will validate the performance of a decision rule based on these criteria among a new cohort of patients to ensure that the criteria retain high sensitivity, NPV and optimal specificity. Validating the sensitivity of the decision instrument with high statistical precision requires evaluations on 317 blunt trauma patients who have significant abdominal-pelvic injuries, which will in turn require evaluations on approximately 6,340 blunt trauma patients. We will estimate potential reductions in CT imaging by counting the number of abdominal-pelvic CT scans performed on "very low risk" patients. Reductions in charges and radiation exposure will be determined by respectively summing radiographic charges and lifetime decreases in radiation morbidity and mortality for all "very low risk" cases. Trial registration: Clinicaltrials.gov trial registration number: NCT04937868.


Assuntos
Traumatismos Abdominais , Ferimentos não Penetrantes , Abdome , Traumatismos Abdominais/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Humanos , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Pelve/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Prospectivos , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/diagnóstico por imagem
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35538361

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The education of civilians and first responders in prehospital tourniquet (PT) utilization has spread rapidly. We aimed to describe trends in emergency medical services (EMS) and non-EMS PT utilization, and their ability to identify proper clinical indications and to appropriately apply tourniquets in the field. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted to evaluate all adult patients with PTs who presented at two Level I trauma centers between January 2015 and December 2019. Data were collected via an electronic patient query tool and cross-referenced with institutional Trauma Registries. Medically trained abstractors determined if PTs were clinically indicated (limb amputation, vascular hard signs, injury requiring hemostasis procedure, or significant documented blood loss). PTs were further designated as appropriately or inappropriately applied (based on tourniquet location, venous tourniquet, greater than 2-h ischemic time). Descriptive statistics and univariate analyses were performed. RESULTS: 146 patients met inclusion criteria. The incidence of yearly PT placements increased between 2015 and 2019, with an increase in placement by non-EMS personnel (police, firefighter, bystander, and patient). Improvised PTs were frequently utilized by bystanders and patients, whereas first responders had high rates of commercial tourniquet use. A high proportion of tourniquets were placed without indication (72/146, 49%); however, the proportion of PTs placed without a proper indication across applier groups was not statistically different (p = 0.99). Rates of inappropriately applied PTs ranged from 21 to 46% across all groups applying PTs. CONCLUSIONS: PT placement was increasingly performed by non-EMS personnel. Present data indicate that non-EMS persons applied PTs at a similar performance level of those applied by EMS. Study LevelLevel III.

7.
J Intensive Care Med ; : 8850666221094506, 2022 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35437045

RESUMO

Objective: To determine whether the outcomes of postoperative patients admitted directly to an intensive care unit (ICU) differ based on the academic status of the institution and the total operative volume of the unit. Methods: This was a retrospective analysis using the eICU Collaborative Research Database v2.0, a national database from participating ICUs in the United States. All patients admitted directly to the ICU from the operating room were included. Transfer patients and patients readmitted to the ICU were excluded. Patients were stratified based on admission to an ICU in an academic medical center (AMC) versus non-AMC, and to ICUs with different operative volume experience, after stratification in quartiles (high, medium-high, medium-low, and low volume). Primary outcomes were ICU and hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes included the need for continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) during ICU stay, ICU length of stay (LOS), and 30-day ventilator free days. Results: Our analysis included 22,180 unique patients; the majority of which (15,085[68%]) were admitted to ICUs in non-AMCs. Cardiac and vascular procedures were the most common types of procedures performed. Patients admitted to AMCs were more likely to be younger and less likely to be Hispanic or Asian. Multivariable logistic regression indicated no meaningful association between academic status and ICU mortality, hospital mortality, initiation of CRRT, duration of ICU LOS, or 30-day ventilator-free-days. Contrarily, medium-high operative volume units had higher ICU mortality (OR = 1.45, 95%CI = 1.10-1.91, p-value = 0.040), higher hospital mortality (OR = 1.33, 95%CI = 1.07-1.66, p-value = 0.033), longer ICU LOS (Coefficient = 0.23, 95%CI = 0.07-0.39, p-value = 0.038), and fewer 30-day ventilator-free-days (Coefficient = -0.30, 95%CI = -0.48 - -0.13, p-value = 0.015) compared to their high operative volume counterparts. Conclusions: This study found that a volume-outcome association in the management of postoperative patients requiring ICU level of care immediately after a surgical procedure may exist. The academic status of the institution did not affect the outcomes of these patients.

8.
Am Surg ; 88(6): 1054-1058, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35465697

RESUMO

As hospital systems plan for health care utilization surges and stress, understanding the necessary resources of a trauma system is essential for planning capacity. We aimed to describe trends in high-intensity resource utilization (operating room [OR] usage and intensive care unit [ICU] admissions) for trauma care during the initial months of the COVID-19 pandemic. Trauma registry data (2019 pre-COVID-19 and 2020 COVID-19) were collected retrospectively from 4 level I trauma centers. Direct emergency department (ED) disposition to the OR or ICU was used as a proxy for high-intensity resource utilization. No change in the incidence of direct ED to ICU or ED to OR utilization was observed (2019: 24%, 2020 23%; P = .62 and 2019: 11%, 2020 10%; P = .71, respectively). These results suggest the need for continued access to ICU space and OR theaters for traumatic injury during national health emergencies, even when levels of trauma appear to be decreasing.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Estudos Retrospectivos , Centros de Traumatologia
9.
J Surg Res ; 276: 31-36, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35334381

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Necrotizing soft tissue infections (NSTIs) are surgical emergencies associated with high morbidity and mortality. Identifying risk factors for poor outcome is a critical part of preoperative decision-making and counseling. Sarcopenia, the loss of lean muscle mass, has been associated with an increased risk of mortality and can be measured using cross-sectional imaging. Our aim was to determine the impact of sarcopenia on mortality in patients with NSTI. We hypothesized that sarcopenia would be associated with an increased risk of mortality in patients with NSTI. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study of NSTI patients admitted from 1995 to 2015 to two academic institutions. Operative and pathology reports were reviewed to confirm the diagnosis in all cases. Average bilateral psoas muscle cross-sectional area at L4, normalized for height (Total Psoas Index [TPI]), was calculated using computed tomography (CT). Sarcopenia was defined as TPI in the lowest sex-specific quartile. Primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to assess the association between sarcopenia and in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: There were 115 patients with preoperative imaging, 61% male and a median age of 57 y interquartile range (IQR 46.6-67.0). Overall in-hospital mortality was 12.1%. There was no significant difference in sex, body mass index (BMI), comorbidities and American Society of Anesthesiologists classification (Table 1). After multivariate analysis, sarcopenia was independently associated with increased in-hospital mortality (Odds ratio, 3.5; 95% Confidence Interval [CI], 1.05-11.8). CONCLUSIONS: Sarcopenia is associated with increased risk of in-hospital mortality in patients with NSTIs. Sarcopenia identifies patients with higher likelihood of poor outcomes, which can possibly help surgeons in counseling their patients and families.


Assuntos
Sarcopenia , Infecções dos Tecidos Moles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Músculos Psoas/diagnóstico por imagem , Músculos Psoas/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Sarcopenia/complicações , Sarcopenia/diagnóstico por imagem , Infecções dos Tecidos Moles/complicações , Infecções dos Tecidos Moles/patologia
10.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 93(1): 21-29, 2022 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35313325

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Balanced blood component administration during massive transfusion is standard of care. Most literature focuses on the impact of red blood cell (RBC)/fresh frozen plasma (FFP) ratio, while the value of balanced RBC:platelet (PLT) administration is less established. The aim of this study was to evaluate and quantify the independent impact of RBC:PLT on 24-hour mortality in trauma patients receiving massive transfusion. METHODS: Using the 2013 to 2018 American College of Surgeons Trauma Quality Improvement Program database, adult patients who received massive transfusion (≥10 U of RBC/24 hours) and ≥1 U of RBC, FFP, and PLT within 4 hours of arrival were retrospectively included. To mitigate survival bias, only patients with consistent RBC:PLT and RBC:FFP ratios between 4 and 24 hours were analyzed. Balanced FFP or PLT transfusions were defined as having RBC:PLT and RBC:FFP of ≤2, respectively. Multivariable logistic regression was used to compare the independent relationship between RBC:FFP, RBC:PLT, balanced transfusion, and 24-hour mortality. RESULTS: A total of 9,215 massive transfusion patients were included. The number of patients who received transfusion with RBC:PLT >2 (1,942 [21.1%]) was significantly higher than those with RBC:FFP >2 (1,160 [12.6%]) (p < 0.001). Compared with an RBC:PLT ratio of 1:1, a gradual and consistent risk increase was observed for 24-hour mortality as the RBC:PLT ratio increased (p < 0.001). Patients with both FFP and PLT balanced transfusion had the lowest adjusted risk for 24-hour mortality. Mortality increased as resuscitation became more unbalanced, with higher odds of death for unbalanced PLT (odds ratio, 2.48 [2.18-2.83]) than unbalanced FFP (odds ratio, 1.66 [1.37-1.98]), while patients who received both FFP and PLT unbalanced transfusion had the highest risk of 24-hour mortality (odds ratio, 3.41 [2.74-4.24]). CONCLUSION: Trauma patients receiving massive transfusion significantly more often have unbalanced PLT rather than unbalanced FFP transfusion. The impact of unbalanced PLT transfusion on 24-hour mortality is independent and potentially more pronounced than unbalanced FFP transfusion, warranting serious system-level efforts for improvement. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic/Care Management; Level IV.


Assuntos
Plaquetas , Transfusão de Eritrócitos , Adulto , Transfusão de Componentes Sanguíneos , Eritrócitos , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos
11.
Injury ; 53(6): 1979-1986, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35232568

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Results from single-region studies suggest that stay at home orders (SAHOs) had unforeseen consequences on the volume and patterns of traumatic injury during the initial months of the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The aim of this study was to describe, using a multi-regional approach, the effects of COVID-19 SAHOs on trauma volume and patterns of traumatic injury in the US. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was performed at four verified Level I trauma centers spanning three geographical regions across the United States (US). The study period spanned from April 1, 2020 - July 31, 2020 including a month-matched 2019 cohort. Patients were categorized into pre-COVID-19 (PCOV19) and first COVID-19 surge (FCOV19S) cohorts. Patient demographic, injury, and outcome data were collected via Trauma Registry queries. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. RESULTS: A total 5,616 patients presented to participating study centers during the PCOV19 (2,916) and FCOV19S (2,700) study periods.  Blunt injury volume decreased (p = 0.006) due to a significant reduction in the number of motor vehicle collisions (MVCs) (p = 0.003). Penetrating trauma experienced a significant increase, 8% (246/2916) in 2019 to 11% (285/2,700) in 2020 (p = 0.007), which was associated with study site (p = 0.002), not SAHOs. Finally, study site was significantly associated with changes in nearly all injury mechanisms, whereas SAHOs accounted for observed decreases in calculated weekly averages of blunt injuries (p < 0.02) and MVCs (p = 0.003). CONCLUSION: Results of this study suggest that COVID-19 and initial SAHOs had variable consequences on patterns of traumatic injury, and that region-specific shifts in traumatic injury ensued during initial SAHOs. These results suggest that other factors, potentially socioeconomic or cultural, confound trauma volumes and types arising from SAHOs. Future analyses must consider how regional changes may be obscured with pooled cohorts, and focus on characterizing community-level changes to aid municipal preparation for future similar events.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Ferimentos Penetrantes , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pandemias , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Centros de Traumatologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Ferimentos Penetrantes/epidemiologia
12.
Surgery ; 171(5): 1215-1223, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35078627

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The surgical clerkship is the primary surgical learning experience for medical students. This study aims to understand student perspectives on the surgery clerkship both before and after the core surgical rotation. METHODS: Medical students at 4 academic hospitals completed pre and postclerkship surveys that included open-ended questions regarding (1) student learning goals and concerns and (2) how surgical clerkship learning could be enhanced. Thematic analysis was performed, and interrater reliability was calculated. RESULTS: Ninety-one percent of students completed both a pre and postclerkship survey (n =162 of 179), generating 320 preclerkship and 270 postclerkship responses. Mean kappa coefficients were 0.83 and 0.82 for pre and postclerkship primary themes, respectively. Thematic analysis identified 5 broad themes: (1) core learning expectations, (2) understanding surgical careers, culture, and work, (3) inhabiting the role of a surgeon, (4) inclusion in the surgical team, and (5) the unique role of the medical student on clinical clerkships. Based on these themes, we propose a learner-centered model of a successful surgical clerkship that satisfies discrete student learning and goals and career objectives while ameliorating the challenges of high-stakes clinical surgical environments such as the operating room. CONCLUSION: Understanding student perspectives on the surgery clerkship, including preclerkship motivations and concerns and postclerkship reflections on surgical learning, revealed potential targets of intervention to improve the surgery clerkship. Future investigation may elucidate whether the proposed model of the elements of a successful surgery clerkship learning facilitates improvement of the surgical learning environment and enhanced surgical learning.


Assuntos
Estágio Clínico , Estudantes de Medicina , Cirurgiões , Humanos , Salas Cirúrgicas , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
14.
J Intensive Care Med ; 37(6): 728-735, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34231406

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is little research evaluating outcomes from sepsis in intensive care units (ICUs) with lower sepsis patient volumes as compared to ICUs with higher sepsis patient volumes. Our objective was to compare the outcomes of septic patients admitted to ICUs with different sepsis patient volumes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We included all patients from the eICU-CRD database admitted for the management of sepsis with blood lactate ≥ 2mmol/L within 24 hours of admission. Our primary outcome was ICU mortality. Secondary outcomes included hospital mortality, 30-day ventilator free days, and initiation of renal replacement therapy (RRT). ICUs were grouped in quartiles based on the number of septic patients treated at each unit. RESULTS: 10,716 patients were included in our analysis; 272 (2.5%) in low sepsis volume ICUs, 1,078 (10.1%) in medium-low sepsis volume ICUs, 2,608 (24.3%) in medium-high sepsis volume ICUs, and 6,758 (63.1%) in high sepsis volume ICUs. On multivariable analyses, no significant differences were documented regarding ICU and hospital mortality, and ventilator days in patients treated in lower versus higher sepsis volume ICUs. Patients treated at lower sepsis volume ICUs had lower rates of RRT initiation as compared to high volume units (medium-high vs. high: OR = 0.78, 95%CI = 0.66-0.91, P-value = 0.002 and medium-low vs. high: OR = 0.57, 95%CI = 0.44-0.73, P-value < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The previously described volume-outcome association in septic patients was not identified in an intensive care setting.


Assuntos
Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Sepse , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Terapia de Substituição Renal , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sepse/terapia
15.
J Surg Educ ; 79(2): 370-382, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34876370

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: While the operating room (OR) is a keystone experience, medical students often report negative experiences and intimidation in the OR. The purpose of this study is to describe the perceived role of medical students in the OR by registered nurses and certified surgical technologists to improve medical student education. DESIGN: A cross-sectional survey of select Massachusetts General Hospital perioperative staff in surgery was conducted through an anonymous survey in March 2021. Statistical analysis included inductive thematic analysis, descriptive statistics, and Mann-Whitney U tests, with a p-value of <0.05. The survey instrument characterized the perception of medical student preparedness for OR-related tasks and free-text responses on the role of medical students in the OR and opportunities for improvement. SETTING: The study was conducted at the Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA. PARTICIPANTS: Participants included Massachusetts General Hospital perioperative staff in the Department of Surgery, with 262 registered nurses and 90 certified surgical technologists receiving the survey. RESULTS: There were 86 completed responses (24.4% response rate). A total of 71.23% of respondents believe medical students should be observational learners in the OR. Areas for improvement include OR etiquette (37.5%), awareness of the surgical field (26.79%), and scrubbing skills (26.79%). A total of 48.8% of staff agreed they enjoy working with medical students, followed by 20.9% who somewhat agree. A total of 27.91% of respondents somewhat agreed that medical students were knowledgeable about OR sterility and scrubbing procedures, followed by 25.58% who somewhat disagreed. CONCLUSIONS: Operating room staff enjoy working with medical students. The majority of staff believe medical students' role in the OR is that of observational learning. Areas of improvement for medical students include OR etiquette, awareness of the surgical field, scrubbing and gowning skills, and assisting staff whenever needed. Possible solutions include incorporating nursing staff as surgery clerkship stakeholders to optimize medical student experiences in the OR.


Assuntos
Estudantes de Medicina , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Salas Cirúrgicas , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
Am Surg ; 88(7): 1631-1637, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33710916

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Optimal use of interventional procedures and diagnostic tests for patients with suspected choledocholithiasis depends on accurate pretest risk estimation. We sought to define sensitivity/specificity of transaminases in identifying choledocholithiasis and to incorporate them into a biochemical marker composite score that could accurately predict choledocholithiasis. METHODS: All adult patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy by our Emergency Surgery Service between 2010 and 2018 were reviewed. Admission total bilirubin (TB), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) was captured. Choledocholithiasis was confirmed via intraoperative cholangiogram, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, or magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography. Area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) or C-statistic for AST, ALT, ALP, and TB as a measure of detecting choledocholithiasis was calculated. For score development, our database was randomly dichotomized to derivation and validation cohort and a score was derived. The score was validated by calculating its C-statistic. RESULTS: 1089 patients were included; 210 (20.3%) had confirmed choledocholithiasis. The AUC was .78 for TB, .77 for ALP and AST, and .76 for ALT. 545 and 544 patients were included in the derivation and the validation cohort, respectively. The elements of the derived score were TB, AST, and ALP. The score ranged from 0 to 4. The AUC was .82 in the derivation and .77 in the validation cohort. The probability of choledocholithiasis increased from 8% to 89% at scores 0 to 4, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Aspartate aminotransferase predicted choledocholithiasis adequately and should be featured in choledocholithiasis screening algorithms. We developed a biochemical composite score, shown to be accurate in preoperative choledocholithiasis risk assessment in an emergency surgery setting.


Assuntos
Colecistectomia Laparoscópica , Coledocolitíase , Adulto , Fosfatase Alcalina , Aspartato Aminotransferases , Bilirrubina , Colangiopancreatografia Retrógrada Endoscópica/métodos , Colecistectomia Laparoscópica/métodos , Coledocolitíase/diagnóstico por imagem , Coledocolitíase/cirurgia , Humanos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos
18.
Am J Surg ; 223(2): 417-422, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33752875

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Peri-operative blood transfusion (BT) may lead to transfusion-induced immunomodulation. We aimed to investigate the association between peri-operative BT and infectious complications in patients undergoing intestinal-cutaneous fistulas (ICF) repair. METHODS: We queried the ACS-NSQIP 2006-2017 database to include patients who underwent ICF repair. The main outcome was 30-day infectious complications. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the predictors of post-operative infections. RESULTS: Of 4,197 patients included, 846 (20.2%) received peri-operative BT. Transfused patients were generally older, sicker and had higher ASA (III-V). After adjusting for relevant covariates, patients who received intra and/or post-operative (and not pre-operative) BT had higher odds of infectious complications compared (OR = 1.22, 95% CI 1.01-1.48). Specifically, they had higher odds of organ-space surgical site infection (OR = 1.61, 95% CI 1.21-2.13), but not other infectious complications. CONCLUSIONS: Intra and/or post-operative (and not pre-operative) BT is an independent predictor of infectious complications in ICF repair.


Assuntos
Fístula Cutânea , Fístula Intestinal , Transfusão de Sangue , Fístula Cutânea/cirurgia , Humanos , Fístula Intestinal/complicações , Fístula Intestinal/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica
19.
Am Surg ; 87(12): 1893-1900, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34772281

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is a deadly multisystemic disease, and bowel ischemia, the most consequential gastrointestinal manifestation, remains poorly described. Our goal is to describe our institution's surgical experience with management of bowel ischemia due to COVID-19 infection over a one-year period. METHODS: All patients admitted to our institution between March 2020 and March 2021 for treatment of COVID-19 infection and who underwent exploratory laparotomy with intra-operative confirmation of bowel ischemia were included. Data from the medical records were analyzed. RESULTS: Twenty patients were included. Eighty percent had a new or increasing vasopressor requirement, 70% had abdominal distension, and 50% had increased gastric residuals. Intra-operatively, ischemia affected the large bowel in 80% of cases, the small bowel in 60%, and both in 40%. Sixty five percent had an initial damage control laparotomy. Most of the resected bowel specimens had a characteristic appearance at the time of surgery, with a yellow discoloration, small areas of antimesenteric necrosis, and very sharp borders. Histologically, the bowel specimens frequently have fibrin thrombi in the small submucosal and mucosal blood vessels in areas of mucosal necrosis. Overall mortality in this cohort was 33%. Forty percent of patients had a thromboembolic complication overall with 88% of these developing a thromboembolic phenomenon despite being on prophylactic pre-operative anticoagulation. CONCLUSION: Bowel ischemia is a potentially lethal complication of COVID-19 infection with typical gross and histologic characteristics. Suspicious clinical features that should trigger surgical evaluation include a new or increasing vasopressor requirement, abdominal distension, and intolerance of gastric feeds.


Assuntos
COVID-19/complicações , Enteropatias/cirurgia , Enteropatias/virologia , Isquemia/cirurgia , Isquemia/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Laparotomia , Masculino , Massachusetts , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Am J Surg ; 222(6): 1120-1125, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34635311

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: There is variation in exposure to transplantation in undergraduate medical education. We created a program pairing medical students with transplant patients for semi-structured, virtual encounters and studied the impact on both students and patients using qualitative content analysis. METHODS: Fifty medical students were paired with transplant recipients and donors for non-medical virtual encounters. Separate focus groups were conducted, deidentified, and analyzed using a constant comparative method. RESULTS: Three themes related to the student experience emerged: transplant-related relationships, a deeper understanding of the patient's journey to transplant, and alterations of their personal view of organ donation and transplantation. Three themes emerged from the patient's experiences: the benefits of conversations, the patient as a teacher, and spreading the message of organ donation and transplantation. CONCLUSIONS: This novel program demonstrates that virtual student-patient interactions are a useful approach to engage patients and a unique way to teach medical students about transplantation and donation.


Assuntos
Transplante de Órgãos/educação , Participação do Paciente/métodos , Relações Médico-Paciente , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Transplante de Órgãos/psicologia , Participação do Paciente/psicologia , Interface Usuário-Computador
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