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ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 8(50): 34706-34714, 2016 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27998136


A robust, millimeter-sized low-density Cu foam with ∼90% (v/v) porosity, ∼30 nm thick walls, and ∼1 µm diameter spherical pores is prepared by the slip-casting of metal-coated polymer core-shell particles followed by a thermal removal of the polymer. In this paper, we report our key findings that enable the development of the low-density Cu foams. First, we need to synthesize polystyrene (PS) particles coated with a very thin Cu layer (in the range of tens of nanometers). A simple reduction in the amount of Cu deposited onto the PS was not sufficient to form such a low-density Cu foams due to issues related to foam collapse and densification upon the subsequent polymer removal step. Precise control over the morphology of the Cu coating on the particles is essential for the synthesis of a lower density of foams. Second, improving the dispersion of PS-Cu particles in a suspension used for the casting as well as careful optimization of a baking condition minimize the formation of irregular large voids, leading to Cu foams with a more uniform packing and a better connectivity of neighboring Cu hollow shells. Finally, we analyzed mechanical properties of the Cu foams with a depth-sensing indentation test. The uniform Cu foams show a significant improvement in mechanical properties (∼1.5× modulus and ∼3× hardness) compared to those of uncontrolled foam samples with a similar foam density but irregular large voids. Higher surface areas and a good electric conductivity of the Cu foams present a great potential to future applications.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 5(16): 8111-9, 2013 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23895541


We report on simple and efficient routes to dope polydicyclopentadiene (PDCPD)-based aerogels and their coatings with high-Z tracer elements. Initially, direct halogenation of PDCPD wet gels and aerogels with elemental iodine or bromine was studied. Although several pathways were identified that allowed doping of PDCPD aerogels by direct addition of bromine or iodine to the unsaturated polymer backbone, they all provided limited control over the amount and uniformity of doping, especially at very low dopant concentrations. Deterministic control over the doping level in polymeric aerogels and aerogel coatings was then achieved by developing a copolymerization approach with iodine and tin containing comonomers. Our results highlight the versatility of the ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP)-based copolymerization approach in terms of functionalization and doping of low density polymeric aerogels and their coatings.

Indenos/química , Polímeros/química , Oligoelementos/química , Géis/química , Iodetos/química , Polimerização
J Nucl Med ; 44(1): 58-66, 2003 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12515877


UNLABELLED: The performance of a modular gamma camera for the task of detecting signals in random noisy backgrounds was evaluated experimentally. The results were compared with a theoretical computer simulation. METHODS: The camera uses a 10 x 10 cm thallium-doped sodium iodide crystal, a 2 x 2 array of 53 x 53 mm photomultiplier tubes, and a parallel-hole collimator (1.5-mm bore width, 23.6-mm bore length). The camera was positioned to look down into a 10-cm-deep water bath that filled its field of view (FOV). The top surface of the water was 5 cm from the front face of the camera. The camera has 3-mm intrinsic spatial resolution (SR) in the center of its FOV and 9-mm system SR for objects 5 cm below the top surface of the water. Uniform and nonuniform random background data were collected by imaging the bath containing 740 MBq (20 mCi) (99m)Tc. Nonuniformities were created by placing water-filled objects in the bath. Each signal dataset was collected by imaging a water-filled plastic sphere, injected with (99m)Tc and set at a specific depth (Z) in the bath. Data were collected for many signal diameters (D) (4, 7, 10, 13, 16, 28 mm) at 1 depth (5 cm) and for 1 signal diameter (10 mm) at several depths (1, 3, 5, 7, 9 cm). Sets of signal-present/signal-absent image pairs (380 pairs, 10(5) events per image) for known contrasts (C) were generated for use in ideal-observer studies in which the detectability (d') was calculated. Contrast-detail (log C vs. log D) plots were created. The theoretical simulation, developed for uniform backgrounds, provided data for comparison. RESULTS: The detectability increased linearly with C and decreased nonlinearly with decreasing D or increasing Z. The C required to achieve a specific d' increased sharply for D < SR. For C = 5, D = 10 mm, and d' = 1.2, the camera consistently detected signals for Z < 6 cm. Similar results were found for nonuniform backgrounds. The theoretical simulation verified the results for uniform backgrounds. CONCLUSION: The methodology presented here provides a way of evaluating gamma cameras on the basis of signal-detection performance for specified lesions, with particular application to scintimammography.

Análise de Falha de Equipamento/métodos , Câmaras gama , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Imagens de Fantasmas , Processos Estocásticos , Algoritmos , Simulação por Computador , Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Modelos Estatísticos , Distribuição de Poisson , Controle de Qualidade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Processamento de Sinais Assistido por Computador