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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32071052

RESUMO

SettingThis study was conducted in treatment-naïve adults with drug-susceptible pulmonary tuberculosis in Port-au-Prince, Haiti.ObjectiveTo assess the safety, bactericidal activity and pharmacokinetics of nitazoxanide (NTZ).DesignThis was a prospective phase II clinical trial in 30 adults with pulmonary tuberculosis. Twenty participants received NTZ 1 gram orally twice daily for 14 days. A control group of ten participants received standard therapy over 14 days. The primary outcome was the change in time to culture positivity in an automated liquid culture system.ResultsThe most common adverse events seen in the NTZ group were gastrointestinal complaints and headache. The mean change in TTP in sputum over 14 days in the NTZ group was 3.2 hours ± 22.6 and was not statistically significant (p=0.56). The mean change in TTP in the standard therapy group was significantly increased, at 134 hours ± 45.2 (p<0.0001). The mean NTZ minimum inhibitory concentration for M. tuberculosis isolates was 12.3 µg/mL; the mean NTZ plasma Cmax was 10.2 µg/mL. Negligible NTZ levels were measured in sputum.ConclusionAt the doses used, NTZ did not show bactericidal activity against M. tuberculosis Plasma concentrations of NTZ were below the MIC and its negligible accumulation in pulmonary sites may explain the lack of bactericidal activity.

2.
Radiat Prot Dosimetry ; 184(3-4): 500-503, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31330022

RESUMO

Absorbed dose rates in air were measured for the whole area of the Kanto region in 2015, 2016 and 2017 (n = 31 147). The mean absorbed dose rates in air for each prefecture measured by car-borne surveys were from 44 to 67 nGy h-1 (13-289 nGy h-1). The absorbed dose rate in air from artificial radionuclides (134Cs + 137Cs) measured by fixed-point observation (n = 507) was from 1 to 14 nGy h-1 (0-105 nGy h-1), and meaning that the contribution ratios of 134Cs and 137Cs were 3-22%. The deposited location of artificial radionuclides was less than 1000 m from ground level and depended on the topography, wind direction and precipitation field.

3.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2780, 2019 06 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31239441

RESUMO

In the developing central nervous system, cell departure from the apical surface is the initial and fundamental step to form the 3D, organized architecture. Both delamination of differentiating cells and repositioning of progenitors to generate outer radial glial cells (oRGs) contribute to mammalian neocortical expansion; however, a comprehensive understanding of their mechanisms is lacking. Here, we demonstrate that Lzts1, a molecule associated with microtubule components, promotes both cell departure events. In neuronally committed cells, Lzts1 functions in apical delamination by altering apical junctional organization. In apical RGs (aRGs), Lzts1 expression is variable, depending on Hes1 expression levels. According to its differential levels, Lzts1 induces diverse RG behaviors: planar division, oblique divisions of aRGs that generate oRGs, and their mitotic somal translocation. Loss-of-function of lzts1 impairs all these cell departure processes. Thus, Lzts1 functions as a master modulator of cellular dynamics, contributing to increasing complexity of the cerebral architecture during evolution.


Assuntos
Cérebro/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cérebro/metabolismo , Células Ependimogliais/metabolismo , Neurogênese , Neurônios/metabolismo , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/metabolismo , Animais , Movimento Celular , Cérebro/citologia , Células Ependimogliais/citologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Neurônios/citologia , Fatores de Transcrição HES-1/genética , Fatores de Transcrição HES-1/metabolismo , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética
5.
Transplant Proc ; 51(3): 774-778, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30979463

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Brachytherapy is one of the standard treatments for localized prostate cancer (CaP). However, the feasibility of brachytherapy for renal transplant recipients (RTRs) is still uncertain. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between August 2007 and March 2018, all patients who had undergone low-dose-rate (LDR) brachytherapy or high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy for clinically localized CaP at our institution were retrospectively identified (n = 394). Of these patients, 3 had a history of renal transplantation. We reviewed all available clinical data retrospectively. RESULTS: All of the RTRs received ABO-incompatible renal grafts from their spouses and had stable renal graft function before the diagnosis of CaP. The median age at diagnosis of CaP was 65 years (range, 60-67 years). The median time between transplantation and brachytherapy was 7 years (range, 4-10 years). In all of the patients, clinical stage was cT1cN0M0. Two patients received 125I LDR-brachytherapy (dose, 145 Gy) and 1 patient was treated by 192Ir HDR brachytherapy (dose, 19 Gy in 2 fractions) combined with external beam radiation therapy of 39 Gy in 13 fractions. The median follow-up period after brachytherapy was 44 months (range, 34-50 months). During the follow-up period, none of the patients developed disease progression including biochemical recurrence or clinically significant adverse events associated with radiation therapy. CONCLUSIONS: LDR brachytherapy and HDR brachytherapy are safe and technically feasible in RTRs with CaP, and oncological outcomes in RTRs do not appear to be inferior to those of patients who did not receive renal transplant.


Assuntos
Braquiterapia/métodos , Transplante de Rim , Neoplasias da Próstata/radioterapia , Sistema do Grupo Sanguíneo ABO , Idoso , Histocompatibilidade , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias da Próstata/complicações , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Estudos Retrospectivos , Transplantados , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
J Microsc ; 273(1): 46-52, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30252129

RESUMO

Organic materials, including carbon, exist inside the transmission electron microscope (TEM) chamber and are adsorbed onto samples under observation during TEM. When these adsorbed organic materials are irradiated by an electron beam, the adsorbed gas is decomposed. Carbon atoms remain on the sample and bond with each other forming a material with an amorphous structure. Due to the carbon deposition on the observation area of the sample, it is contaminated and the TEM image quality is decreased. Ar was introduced into environmental TEM (ETEM) to purge organic material from the sample chamber to reduce contamination growth. After Ar gas was introduced, the contamination was gradually removed. The contamination removal rate was dependent on the Ar pressure. Moreover, it was clear that Ar was ionised by electron beam irradiation and the Ar ions were produced in the ETEM during electron beam irradiation. It is proposed that the Ar ions removed the carbon contamination. LAY DESCRIPTION: Organic materials, including carbon, exist inside the transmission electron microscope (TEM) chamber and are adsorbed onto samples under observation during TEM. When these adsorbed organic materials are irradiated by an electron beam, the adsorbed gas is decomposed. Carbon atoms remain on the sample and bond with each other forming a material with an amorphous structure. Due to the carbon deposition on the observation area of the sample, it is contaminated and the TEM image quality is decreased. Ar was introduced into environmental TEM (ETEM) to purge organic material from the sample chamber to reduce contamination growth. After Ar gas was introduced, the contamination was gradually removed. The contamination removal rate was dependent on the Ar pressure. Moreover, it was clear that Ar was ionised by electron beam irradiation and the Ar ions were produced in the ETEM during electron beam irradiation. It is proposed that the Ar ions removed the carbon contamination.

8.
Pharmazie ; 74(12): 760-762, 2019 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31907119

RESUMO

Cardiovascular surgery is a highly invasive intervention that is often performed in elderly patients at risks of complications because of malnutrition and reduced immunity. This study investigated nutritional factors that affected length of hospital stay in patients undergoing cardiovascular surgery. Among 68 patients who underwent surgery at the Department of Cardiovascular Surgery of Gifu Municipal Hospital between April 2013 and March 2015, 55 with complete data were included in the analysis. Data on serum albumin (ALB), transferrin (Tf), pre-albumin (PA) and retinol binding protein (RBP) levels were collected. The median length of hospital stay was 29 days (stays of ≥30 days were considered long-term hospitalization). Multivariate analysis (multiple logistic regression) included age (≥ 65 years), sex (female), and ALB (≤ 3.0 g/dL), Tf (≤ 150.0 mg/dL), PA (≤ 10.0 mg/dL) and RBP (≤ 1.5 mg/dL) levels. ALB [odds ratio (OR) 10.37, 95% CI (confidence interval): 1.185-90.80, P = 0.035] and Tf [OR 4.743, 95% CI: 1.375-16.36, P = 0.014] were significantly associated with length of hospital stay. Nutritional management of patients and careful monitoring of ALB and Tf levels can shorten length of hospital stay in patients undergoing cardiovascular surgery.

9.
Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2018: 5741-5744, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30441640

RESUMO

Currently, microbes are utilized in many fields, such as medicine, food and environment etc. For more application of microbes, we need a new culture system, which can culture target microbes in large quantities at low cost. Thereupon, we propose a culture system using cellulose tubes. Target microbes are encapsulated inside the cellulose tubes, where they acquire nutrients and oxygen through nano pores of the tubes and are protected from competitive microbes even in open environment. To further increase the amount of oxygen and nutritions available for the target microbes, we propose photocatalyst-coated glass balls (PCGB) to sterilize competing microbes outside the tubes. We experimentally verified the effectiveness of the proposed culture system by culturing Coryne gultamicum as the target microbes.


Assuntos
Técnicas Bacteriológicas/instrumentação , Celulose , Vidro , Corynebacterium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Meios de Cultura , Oxigênio
10.
J Dent Res ; 97(12): 1355-1364, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29863959

RESUMO

Tooth enamel is manufactured by the inner enamel epithelium of the multilayered enamel organ. Msx2 loss-of-function mutation in a mouse model causes an abnormal accumulation of epithelial cells in the enamel organ, but the underlying mechanism by which Msx2 regulates amelogenesis is poorly understood. We therefore performed detailed histological and molecular analyses of Msx2 null mice. Msx2 null ameloblasts and stratum intermedium (SI) cells differentiated normally in the early stages of amelogenesis. However, during subsequent developmental stages, the outer enamel epithelium (OEE) became highly proliferative and transformed into a keratinized stratified squamous epithelium that ectopically expressed stratified squamous epithelium markers, including Heat shock protein 25, Loricrin, and Keratin 10. Moreover, expression of hair follicle-specific keratin genes such as Keratin 26 and Keratin 73 was upregulated in the enamel organ of Msx2 mutants. With the accumulation of keratin in the stellate reticulum (SR) region and subsequent odontogenic cyst formation, SI cells gradually lost the ability to differentiate, and the expression of Sox2 and Notch1 was downregulated, leading to ameloblast depolarization. As a consequence, the organization of the Msx2 mutant enamel organ became disturbed and enamel failed to form in the normal location. Instead, there was ectopic mineralization that likely occurred within the SR. In summary, we show that during amelogenesis, Msx2 executes a bipartite function, repressing the transformation of OEE into a keratinized stratified squamous epithelium while simultaneously promoting the development of a properly differentiated enamel organ competent for enamel formation.


Assuntos
Órgão do Esmalte/metabolismo , Epitélio/metabolismo , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/metabolismo , Ameloblastos/metabolismo , Animais , Diferenciação Celular , Proliferação de Células , Cistos/embriologia , Cistos/metabolismo , Microanálise por Sonda Eletrônica , Órgão do Esmalte/embriologia , Epitélio/embriologia , Genótipo , Hibridização In Situ , Marcação In Situ das Extremidades Cortadas , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Microtomografia por Raio-X
13.
Field Crops Res ; 220: 3-9, 2018 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29725158

RESUMO

Iron (Fe) toxicity is recognized as one of the most widely spread soil constraints for rice production especially in West Africa. Oryza glaberrima the cultivated rice species that originated from West Africa is well-adapted to its growing ecologies. The aim of this study was to identify the promising O. glaberrima accessions tolerant to Fe toxicity from the 2106 accessions held at the AfricaRice gene bank. The screenings were conducted over a four-year period and involved evaluating the entries under Fe-toxic field conditions in West Africa, selecting good yielding accessions and repeating the testing with newly selected lines. Three accessions (TOG 7206, TOG 6218-B and TOG 7250-A) were higher yielding than O. sativa checks under stress but with similar yields under control conditions. These accessions yielded over 300 g/m2 under both Fe toxicity and control conditions. In conclusion, these materials could be used as donors in breeding programs for developing high yielding rice varieties suited to Fe toxicity affected areas in West Africa.

14.
Transplant Proc ; 50(3): 869-872, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29661455

RESUMO

Biologic agents are a beneficial therapy for juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). However, there is a lack of evidence with regard to management of these agents for JIA patients who undergo kidney transplantation (KTx). A 36-year-old woman with JIA who was treated with tocilizumab targeting interleukin-6 (IL-6) receptor underwent ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation (ABOi KTx). To prevent over-immunosuppression, tocilizumab was discontinued before ABOi KTx. Rituximab, tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, everolimus, and methylprednisolone were used for immunosuppression. Clinical remission of joint pain was maintained for over 3 years despite complete discontinuation of tocilizumab. Both serum IL-6 and soluble IL-6 receptor levels were markedly decreased, suggesting that multitargeted immunosuppression for ABOi KTx induced long-term clinical remission of JIA through inhibition of the IL-6 pathway. However, levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3) gradually increased thereafter and abatacept was initiated to prevent joint deterioration. These levels decreased without any adverse events. The patient's renal graft function was well maintained.


Assuntos
Artrite Juvenil/imunologia , Incompatibilidade de Grupos Sanguíneos/imunologia , Imunossupressão/métodos , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Transplante de Rim/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/imunologia , Sistema do Grupo Sanguíneo ABO , Abatacepte/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Artrite Juvenil/tratamento farmacológico , Everolimo/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/tratamento farmacológico , Rituximab/uso terapêutico , Tacrolimo/uso terapêutico , Transplantes
15.
Transplant Proc ; 50(3): 884-886, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29661458

RESUMO

A 74-year-old Japanese man with a history of chronic hepatitis C and kidney transplant (KT) was administered pegylated-interferon plus ribavirin therapy. However, this therapy was ineffective. The patient was then hospitalized to receive ombitasvir (OBV) plus paritaprevir (PTV) plus ritonavir (r) antiviral combination therapy. He tested negative for the virus after 4 weeks, and completed 12 weeks of treatment. The patient ultimately achieved a sustained virological response after the 12 weeks of treatment. Cyclosporine (CyA) trough levels, during the OBV-PTV-r therapy, reached a peak within 5 days of initiating therapy, and increases in serum creatinine and total bilirubin were also observed. However, onset of irreversible nephropathy and hepatopathy were avoided by reducing the CyA dosage. The OBV-PTV-r therapy demonstrated a sufficient antiviral effect and could be safely administered postoperatively to patients having undergone KT. When a combination therapy with interferon-free, direct-acting antivirals is used in patients post-transplantation, consideration of drug-drug interactions with and monitoring CyA are of vital importance.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Ciclosporina/administração & dosagem , Hepatite C Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Transplante de Rim , Idoso , Anilidas/administração & dosagem , Carbamatos/administração & dosagem , Ciclosporina/sangue , Interações de Medicamentos , Quimioterapia Combinada/métodos , Feminino , Genótipo , Hepacivirus/genética , Humanos , Interferons/uso terapêutico , Compostos Macrocíclicos/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Ribavirina/uso terapêutico , Ritonavir/administração & dosagem
16.
Lupus ; 27(7): 1202-1206, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29523055

RESUMO

It has been reported that T helper 17 cells are involved in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus, but there is no report on interleukin-17-targeted therapy. We report a case of a 62-year-old female who presented with psoriasis vulgaris and refractory lupus nephritis. Because her conditions were resistant to conventional treatment, and flow cytometry confirmed the proliferation of activated T helper 17 cells in peripheral blood, and examination of a renal biopsy tissue sample confirmed infiltration of numerous interleukin-17-positive lymphocytes to the renal interstitium, administration of the anti-interleukin-17A antibody secukinumab was initiated. After starting secukinumab the clinical and biological features were improved.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Interleucina-17/antagonistas & inibidores , Nefrite Lúpica/complicações , Psoríase/tratamento farmacológico , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados , Feminino , Humanos , Interleucina-17/sangue , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
17.
J Hosp Infect ; 100(2): 211-213, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29452243

RESUMO

Removal of bacteria by handwashing with ozonated water was evaluated using the ASTM E1174 standard test method. Thirty healthy volunteers were assigned randomly to three groups: ozonated water, antimicrobial soap and water, and non-antimicrobial soap and water. A 3 log10 cfu reduction was achieved by washing hands with ozonated water or antimicrobial soap and water. However, ozonated water was not significantly superior to non-antimicrobial soap and water. Ozonated water may remove bacteria from the hands to at least a similar extent as that by non-antimicrobial soap and water in the absence of visible dirt or body fluid contamination.


Assuntos
Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Desinfetantes/farmacologia , Desinfecção das Mãos/métodos , Mãos/microbiologia , Ozônio/farmacologia , Água/farmacologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
18.
Transplant Proc ; 50(1): 250-258, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29407319

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hydrogen (H2) and carbon monoxide (CO) gas are both reported to reduce reactive oxygen species and alleviate tissue ischemia-reperfusion (I-R) injury. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of a mixture of H2 gas and CO gas (dual gas) in comparison with hydrogen gas (H2: 2%) alone on I-R renal injury (composition of dual gas; N2: 77.8%; O2: 20.9%; H2: 1.30%; CO: 250 parts per million). METHODS: Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (body weight 250-280 g) were divided into 5 groups: (1) sham operation control, (2) dual gas inhalation (dual treatment) without I-R treatment, (3) I-R renal injury, (4) H2 gas alone inhalation (H2 treatment) with I-R renal injury, and (5) dual treatment with I-R renal injury. I-R renal injury was induced by clamping the left renal artery and vein for 45 minutes followed by reperfusion, and then contralateral nephrectomy was performed 2 weeks later. Renal function was markedly decreased at 24 hours after reperfusion, and thereafter the effects of dual gas were assessed by histologic examination and determination of the superoxide radical, together with functional and molecular analyses. RESULTS: Pathologic examination of the kidney of I-R rats revealed severe renal damage. Importantly, cytoprotective effects of the dual treatment in comparison with H2 treatment and I-R renal injury were observed in terms of superoxide radical scavenging activity and histochemical features. Rats given dual treatment and I-R renal injury showed significant decreases in blood urea nitrogen. Increased expression of several inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, intracellular adhesion molecule-1, nuclear factor-κB, hypoxia inducible factor-1α, and heme oxygenase-1) was attenuated by the dual treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Dual gas inhalation decreases oxidative stress and markedly improves I-R-induced renal injury.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Monóxido de Carbono/farmacologia , Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Nefrectomia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/tratamento farmacológico , Administração por Inalação , Animais , Nitrogênio da Ureia Sanguínea , Citocinas/metabolismo , Quimioterapia Combinada , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/cirurgia , Testes de Função Renal , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Artéria Renal/cirurgia , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/etiologia
19.
Lupus ; 27(5): 802-811, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29308726

RESUMO

Objective We examined the efficacy and safety of rituximab in patients with refractory systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Methods The study enrolled 63 SLE patients who were treated with rituximab between 2002 and 2015. The participants underwent a battery of tests before treatment and at one year. Treatment ranged from two to four times at 500 or 1000 mg. Results Baseline characteristics were males:females = 6:57, age 33.9 years, and disease duration 87.2 months. The primary endpoint: The rate of major clinical response (MCR) was 60% while the partial clinical response (PCR) was 25%. Thirty of 36 (83%) patients with lupus nephritis (WHO II: 2, III: 5, IV: 22, V: 4, IV+V: 2, not assessed: 1) and 22 of 24 patients (92%) with neuropsychiatric SLE, who could be followed at one year, showed changes from BILAG A or B score to C or D score at one year. Multivariate analysis identified high anti-dsDNA antibody and shorter disease duration as significant determinants of MCR at one year. Repeat examination was conducted at five years. Primary failure was recorded in 8.8% and secondary failure in 32.4% (time to relapse: 24.4 months). Rituximab was well tolerated although 65 adverse events, mostly infections, were recorded within one year. Conclusion Rituximab is potentially efficacious for the treatment of patients with refractory SLE.


Assuntos
Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/tratamento farmacológico , Nefrite Lúpica/tratamento farmacológico , Vasculite Associada ao Lúpus do Sistema Nervoso Central/tratamento farmacológico , Rituximab/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Feminino , Humanos , Imunossupressores/efeitos adversos , Japão , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/diagnóstico , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/imunologia , Nefrite Lúpica/diagnóstico , Nefrite Lúpica/imunologia , Vasculite Associada ao Lúpus do Sistema Nervoso Central/diagnóstico , Vasculite Associada ao Lúpus do Sistema Nervoso Central/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Recidiva , Indução de Remissão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Rituximab/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
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