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1.
Open Heart ; 9(1)2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34992156

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The limited availability of balloon sizes for cryoballoon leads to anatomical limitations for pulmonary vein (PV) isolation. We conducted a comprehensive systematic analysis on procedural success rate, atrial fibrillation (AF) recurrence rate and complications of cryoballoon ablation in association with the anatomy of the left atrium and PV based on preprocedural CT to gain insights into proper treatments of patients with AF using cryoballoon. METHOD: A systematic search of literature databases, including PubMed, Web of Science and Cochrane Library, from the inception of each database through February 2021 was conducted. Search keywords included 'atrial fibrillation', 'cryoballoon ablation' and 'anatomy'. RESULTS: Overall, 243 articles were identified. After screening, 16 articles comprising 1396 patients were included (3, 5 and 8 for acute success, AF recurrence and complications, respectively). Regarding acute success and AF recurrences, thinner width of the left lateral ridge, higher PV ovality, PV ostium-bifurcation distance, shorter distance from the non-coronary cusp to inferior PVs, shallower angle of right PVs against the atrial septum and larger right superior PV (RSPV) were associated with poor outcomes. Regarding complications, shorter distance between the RSPV ostium and the right phrenic nerve, larger RSPV-left atrium angle, larger RSPV area and smaller right carina width were associated with incidences of phrenic nerve injury. CONCLUSION: This study elucidated several key anatomical features of PVs possibly affecting acute success, AF recurrence and complications in patients with AF using cryoballoon ablation. CT analysis has helped to describe benefits and anatomical limitations for cryoballoon ablation.

2.
Heart Vessels ; 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34973085

RESUMO

In patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with a stent, high on-treatment platelet reactivity may be associated with an increased risk of stroke. This post hoc analysis of the PENDULUM registry compared the risk of post-PCI stroke according to on-treatment P2Y12 reaction unit (PRU) values. Patients aged ≥ 20 years who underwent PCI were stratified by baseline PRU (at 12 and 48 h post-PCI) as either high (HPR, > 208), optimal (OPR, > 85 to ≤ 208), or low on-treatment platelet reactivity (LPR, ≤ 85). The incidences of non-fatal ischemic and non-ischemic stroke through to 12 months post-PCI were recorded. Almost all enrolled patients (6102/6267 [97.4%]) had a risk factor for ischemic stroke, and most were receiving dual antiplatelet therapy. Of the 5906 patients with PRU data (HPR, n = 2227; OPR, n = 3002; LPR, n = 677), 47 had a non-fatal stroke post-PCI (cumulative incidence: 0.68%, ischemic; 0.18%, non-ischemic stroke). Patients with a non-fatal ischemic stroke event had statistically significantly higher post-PCI PRU values versus those without an event (P = 0.037). The incidence of non-fatal non-ischemic stroke was not related to PRU value. When the patients were stratified by PRU ≤ 153 versus > 153 at 12-48 h post-PCI, a significant difference was observed in the cumulative incidence of non-fatal stroke at 12 months (P = 0.044). We found that patients with ischemic stroke tended to have higher PRU values at 12-48 h after PCI versus those without ischemic stroke.Clinical trial registration: UMIN000020332.

3.
FASEB J ; 36(2): e22123, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34972242

RESUMO

GABA is a major neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system. Glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) synthesizes GABA from glutamate, and two isoforms of GAD, GAD65, and GAD67, are separately encoded by the Gad2 and Gad1 genes, respectively. The phenotypes differ in severity between GAD single isoform-deficient mice and rats. For example, GAD67 deficiency causes cleft palate and/or omphalocele in mice but not in rats. In this study, to further investigate the functional roles of GAD65 and/or GAD67 and to determine the contribution of these isoforms to GABA synthesis during development, we generated various kinds of GAD isoform(s)-deficient rats and characterized their phenotypes. The age of death was different among Gad mutant rat genotypes. In particular, all Gad1-/- ; Gad2-/- rats died at postnatal day 0 and showed little alveolar space in their lungs, suggesting that the cause of their death was respiratory failure. All Gad1-/- ; Gad2-/- rats and 18% of Gad1-/- ; Gad2+/- rats showed cleft palate. In contrast, none of the Gad mutant rats including Gad1-/- ; Gad2-/- rats, showed omphalocele. These results suggest that both rat GAD65 and GAD67 are involved in palate formation, while neither isoform is critical for abdominal wall formation. The GABA content in Gad1-/- ; Gad2-/- rat forebrains and retinas at embryonic day 20 was extremely low, indicating that almost all GABA was synthesized from glutamate by GADs in the perinatal period. The present study shows that Gad mutant rats are a good model for further defining the role of GABA during development.


Assuntos
Glutamato Descarboxilase/deficiência , Palato/embriologia , Prosencéfalo/embriologia , Retina/embriologia , Animais , Glutamato Descarboxilase/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Mutantes
4.
Circ J ; 2021 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34880154

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The balance between thrombotic and bleeding risk is of great concern in high bleeding risk (HBR) patients. This study evaluated the relationship between perioperative antiplatelet reactivity and thrombotic and bleeding events in patients at HBR undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).Methods and Results:In this post hoc analysis of the PENDULUM (Platelet rEactivity in patieNts with DrUg eLUting stent and balancing risk of bleeding and ischeMic event) registry, patients undergoing PCI were categorized as HBR or non-HBR, and stratified as having high platelet reactivity (HPR; P2Y12reaction unit [PRU] >208) or non-HPR (PRU ≤208). Cumulative incidences of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (Journal of the American College of Cardiologyexpert definitions) and bleeding events (Bleeding Academic Research Consortium criteria) were assessed 12 months after index PCI. The incidence of ischemic and bleeding events was ~3-fold higher in HBR vs. non-HBR patients. Thrombotic/ischemic events were significantly more common in the HPR subgroup in HBR patients (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.59; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.11-2.28; P=0.012), but there was no difference in non-HBR patients. After adjustment for covariates, HPR in HBR patients remained an independent factor for thrombotic and ischemic events (HR: 1.69; 95% CI: 1.13-2.54; P=0.011), but not for bleeding events (HR: 1.56; 95% CI: 0.78-3.11; P=0.210). CONCLUSIONS: Maintaining adequate PRU levels during PCI is an important factor in improving clinical outcomes, especially for HBR patients.

6.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 78(21): 2060-2072, 2021 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34794687

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The optimal duration of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) among patients at high bleeding risk (HBR) is unknown. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this analysis was to compare 1 vs 3 months of DAPT in HBR patients undergoing drug-eluting stent implantation. METHODS: The XIENCE Short DAPT program comprised 3 prospective, multicenter, single-arm studies of HBR patients treated with a short DAPT course followed by aspirin monotherapy after PCI with a cobalt-chromium everolimus-eluting stent. In this exploratory analysis, patients who received 1-month DAPT (XIENCE 28 USA and 28 Global) were compared with those on 3-month DAPT (XIENCE 90) using propensity score stratification. Ischemic and bleeding outcomes were assessed between 1 and 12 months after index PCI. RESULTS: A total of 3,652 patients were enrolled and 1,392 patients after 1-month DAPT and 1,972 patients after 3-month DAPT were eligible for the analyses. The primary endpoint of all-cause mortality or myocardial infarction was similar between the 2 groups (7.3% vs 7.5%; difference -0.2%; 95% CI: -2.2% to 1.7%; P = 0.41). The key secondary endpoint of BARC (Bleeding Academic Research Consortium) type 2-5 bleeding was lower with 1-month DAPT compared with 3-month DAPT (7.6% vs 10.0%; difference -2.5%; 95% CI: -4.6% to -0.3%; P = 0.012). Major BARC type 3-5 bleeding did not differ at 12 months (3.6% vs 4.7%; difference -1.1%; 95% CI: -2.6% to 0.4%; P = 0.082), but was lower with 1-month DAPT at 90 days (1.0% vs 2.1%; P = 0.015). CONCLUSIONS: Among HBR patients undergoing PCI, 1 month of DAPT, compared with 3 months of DAPT, was associated with similar ischemic outcomes and lower bleeding risk. (XIENCE 90 Study; NCT03218787; XIENCE 28 USA Study; NCT03815175; XIENCE 28 Global Study; NCT03355742).

7.
Circ J ; 85(12): 2149-2156, 2021 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34615815

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To confirm the safety and efficacy of the IN.PACT Admiral drug-coated balloon (DCB) based on the indication approved by the Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency Japan in real-world patients with femoropopliteal artery disease.Methods and Results:IN.PACT PMS Japan was a prospective, multicenter, single-arm, post-market surveillance (PMS) study conducted in Japan that enrolled 304 participants (mean age 75.3±7.9 years). The primary endpoint was primary patency at 6 months following the index procedure, defined as freedom from clinically driven target lesion revascularization (CD-TLR) and freedom from restenosis as determined by duplex ultrasound (DUS) peak systolic velocity ratio (PSVR) ≤2.4 (assessed by the independent DUS core laboratory). Secondary endpoints included acute outcomes, primary patency at 12 months post-index procedure, freedom from CD-TLR, and major adverse events at 12 months. The mean lesion length was 97.81±58.97 mm. The primary endpoint, 6-month primary patency, was 91.3% (240/263). Kaplan-Meier estimates of primary patency and freedom from CD-TLR through 12 months were 91.5% and 94.1%, respectively. The CD-TLR rate was 5.8% (14/240) with low rates of thrombosis (0.8%) and target limb amputation (0.4%) at 12 months. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this real-world PMS study were consistent with outcomes from previous IN.PACT DCB studies, confirming the safety and efficacy of the IN.PACT Admiral DCB for broader use in patients seen in everyday practice.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34607786

RESUMO

Effective treatment strategies and medical devices continue to be needed in Japan and the United States of America (US) to mitigate the growing burden of cardiovascular disease and coronary heart disease. Unfortunately, there can be a delay in gaining cardiovascular device approval in Japan after a device has already been approved and is in use in the US. The Harmonization by Doing (HBD) program; however, can eliminate this delay and reduce the cost of completing a clinical trial in Japan. The HBD proof-of-concept study, COAST, resulted in approval of the Diamondback 360® Coronary Orbital Atherectomy System Micro Crown simultaneously in Japan and the US on the same day. Subsequently, the Diamondback 360® Coronary OAS Classic Crown also received approval in Japan. The COAST study provides further evidence that global clinical trials via HBD for medical devices are practical and advantageous.

9.
Am Heart J ; 244: 19-30, 2021 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34666014

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transradial access (TRA) has become the default access method for coronary diagnostic and interventional procedures. As compared to transfemoral access, TRA has been shown to be safer, cost-effective and more patient-friendly. Radial artery occlusion (RAO) represents the most frequent complication of TRA, and precludes future coronary procedures through the radial artery, the use of the radial artery as a conduit for coronary artery bypass grafting or as arteriovenous fistula for patients on hemodialysis. Recently, distal radial access (DRA) has emerged as a promising alternative to TRA, yielding potential for minimizing the risk of RAO. However, an international multicenter randomized comparison between DRA, and conventional TRA with respect to the rate of RAO is still lacking. TRIAL DESIGN: DISCO RADIAL is a prospective, multicenter, open-label, randomized, controlled, superiority trial. A total of 1300 eligible patients will be randomly allocated to undergo coronary angiography and/or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) through DRA or TRA using the 6 Fr Glidesheath Slender sheath introducer. Extended experience with both TRA and DRA is required for operators' eligibility and optimal evidence-based best practice to reduce RAO systematically implemented by protocol. The primary endpoint is the incidence of forearm RAO assessed by vascular ultrasound at discharge. Several important secondary endpoints will also be assessed, including access-site cross-over, hemostasis time, and access-site related complications. SUMMARY: The DISCO RADIAL trial will provide the first large-scale multicenter randomized evidence comparing DRA to TRA in patients scheduled for coronary angiography or PCI with respect to the incidence of RAO at discharge.

11.
J Pain ; 2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34678470

RESUMO

Systemic administration of morphine increases serotonin (5-HT) in the spinal dorsal horn (SDH), which attenuates the analgesic effects of morphine on neuropathic pain through spinal 5-HT3 receptors. We hypothesized that dysfunction of the descending serotonergic system, including the periaqueductal gray (PAG), contributes to attenuate the efficacy of morphine on neuropathic pain through spinal 5-HT3 receptors and GABA neurons. Morphine (100 ng) injected into the PAG produced analgesic effects in normal rats, but not in spinal nerve ligation (SNL) rats. In vivo microdialysis showed that PAG morphine increased the SDH 5-HT concentration in both groups. Intrathecal injection of the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist ondansetron and the GABAA receptor antagonist bicuculline attenuated the analgesic effects of PAG morphine in normal rats, but increased the effects in SNL rats. The increased analgesic effect of PAG morphine induced by bicuculline was reversed by pretreatment with the tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB) antagonist K252a. Activation of spinal 5-HT3 receptors by 2-methyl-5-HT increased the GABA concentration in both groups. Morphine activates GABAergic interneurons in the SDH by activating descending serotonergic neurons. Functional changes in GABAA receptors from inhibitory to facilitatory through the activation of TrkB receptors may contribute to the attenuated efficacy of morphine against neuropathic pain. PERSPECTIVE: Although morphine provides strong analgesia against acute pain, it has limited efficacy against neuropathic pain. This article demonstrates that functional changes in GABAA receptors in the spinal dorsal horn after nerve injury might strongly contribute to the attenuation of opioid-induced analgesia for neuropathic pain.

12.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv ; 14(17): 1870-1883, 2021 09 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34503737

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate 2 abbreviated dual-antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) regimens in patients at high bleeding risk (HBR) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). BACKGROUND: Current-generation drug-eluting stents are preferred over bare-metal stents for HBR patients, but their optimal DAPT management remains unknown. METHODS: The XIENCE Short DAPT program included 3 prospective, multicenter, single-arm studies enrolling HBR patients who underwent successful PCI with a cobalt-chromium everolimus-eluting stent. After 1 month (XIENCE 28 USA and XIENCE 28 Global) or 3 months (XIENCE 90) of DAPT, event-free patients discontinued the P2Y12 inhibitor. The postmarketing approval XIENCE V USA study was used as historical control in a propensity score-stratified analysis. RESULTS: A total of 3,652 patients were enrolled. The propensity-adjusted rate of the primary endpoint of all-cause mortality or myocardial infarction was 5.4% among 1,693 patients on 3-month DAPT versus 5.4% in the 12-month DAPT historical control (Pnoninferiority = 0.0063) and 3.5% among 1,392 patients on 1-month DAPT versus 4.3% in the 6-month DAPT historical control (Pnoninferiority = 0.0005). Bleeding Academic Research Consortium (BARC) types 2 to 5 bleeding was not significantly lower with 3- or 1-month DAPT, while BARC types 3 to 5 bleeding was reduced in both experimental groups. The rate of definite or probable stent thrombosis was 0.2% in XIENCE 90 (P < 0.0001 for the performance goal of 1.2%) and 0.3% in XIENCE 28. CONCLUSIONS: Among HBR patients undergoing PCI with cobalt-chromium everolimus-eluting stents, DAPT for 1 or 3 months was noninferior to 6 or 12 months of DAPT for ischemic outcomes and may be associated with less major bleeding and a low incidence of stent thrombosis.


Assuntos
Stents Farmacológicos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Quimioterapia Combinada , Everolimo/efeitos adversos , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Agregação Plaquetária/efeitos adversos , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
JA Clin Rep ; 7(1): 68, 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495416

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are few cases of anaphylaxis after local application of fibrin sealant diagnosed by skin tests. CASE PRESENTATION: A 49-year-old woman underwent partial lung resection under general anesthesia. Anesthesia was induced uneventfully. Shortly after applying absorbable suture reinforcement felt that contained fibrin sealant, her systolic blood pressure fell to approximately 70 mmHg, along with facial flushing. Anaphylaxis was diagnosed based on the clinical symptoms and high serum tryptase levels. Three months after the event, skin tests were performed with all agents and were positive only for fibrin sealant vial no. 2, whose main component is aprotinin. Subsequently, basophil activation tests using fibrin sealant vial no. 2 and pure aprotinin demonstrated that the causative agent was likely aprotinin. CONCLUSIONS: We diagnosed aprotinin-induced anaphylaxis using skin tests and basophil activation tests. The occurrence of anaphylaxis should be considered when changes in vital signs are observed after the use of fibrin sealant.

14.
Anesthesiol Res Pract ; 2021: 8144794, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34512750

RESUMO

Since the first case of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was reported in Japan in January 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic has brought about a significant change in people's lives. Although the COVID-19 pandemic is expected to have had an impact on the work of anesthesiologists, the specific impact has been largely unreported. We hypothesized that the number of general anesthesia (GA) cases has decreased due to the COVID-19 pandemic. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a retrospective survey at 34 facilities in Japan as a part of the Japanese Epidemiologic Study for Perioperative Anaphylaxis. The results showed that the number of GA cases had significantly decreased, particularly in May 2020, under the government's declaration of a state of emergency. The decline in GA caseload had not fully recovered by July 2020. Furthermore, there were regional differences in the decline in the number of GA cases. The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the work of anesthesiologists was greater in prefectures where there were more COVID-19 patients and where the state of emergency was declared earlier. Our study suggested a region-dependent decrease in the number of GA cases due to the COVID-19 pandemic.

15.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(18): e019267, 2021 09 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34533038

RESUMO

Background Ventricular-arterial coupling predicts outcomes in patients with heart failure. The arterial elastance to end-systolic elastance ratio (Ea/Ees) is a noninvasively assessed index that reflects ventricular-arterial coupling. We aimed to determine the prognostic value of ventricular-arterial coupling assessed through Ea/Ees after transcatheter aortic valve replacement to predict clinical events. Methods and Results We retrieved data on 1378 patients (70% women) who underwent transcatheter aortic valve replacement between October 2013 and May 2017 from the OCEAN-TAVI (Optimized transCathEter vAlvular iNtervention) Japanese multicenter registry. We determined the association between Ea/Ees and the composite end point of hospitalization for heart failure and cardiovascular death by classifying the patients into quartiles based on Ea/Ees values (group 1: <0.326; group 2: 0.326-0.453; group 3: 0.453-0.666; and group 4: >0.666) during the midterm follow-up after transcatheter aortic valve replacement. During a median follow-up period of 736 days (interquartile range, 414-956), there were 247 (17.9%) all-cause deaths, 89 (6.5%) cardiovascular deaths, 130 (9.4%) hospitalizations for heart failure, and 199 (14.4%) composite events of hospitalization for heart failure and cardiovascular death. The incidence of the composite end point was significantly higher in group 2 (hazard ratio [HR], 1.76; 95% CI, 1.08-2.87 [P=0.024]), group 3 (HR, 2.43; 95% CI, 1.53-3.86 [P<0.001]), and group 4 (HR, 2.89; 95% CI, 1.83-4.57 [P<0.001]) than that in group 1. On adjusted multivariable Cox analysis, Ea/Ees was significantly associated with composite events (HR, 1.47 per 1-unit increase; 95% CI, 1.08-2.01 [P=0.015]). Conclusions These findings suggest that a higher Ea/Ees at discharge after transcatheter aortic valve replacement is associated with adverse clinical outcomes during midterm follow-up. Registration URL: https://www.upload.umin.ac.jp/. Unique identifier: UMIN000020423.

16.
Surg Today ; 2021 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34542715

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of morphine or morphine equivalents on the risk of bile leakage (BL) after hepatectomy. METHODS: The subjects of this retrospective study were 379 patients who underwent hepatectomy without biliary reconstruction and biliary decompression tube insertion at Gunma University between 2016 and 2020. Clinical BL was defined as International Study Group of Liver Surgery post-hepatectomy bile leakage Grade B or C. RESULTS: Intra- and post-operative analgesia comprised intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (IV-PCA) with fentanyl (n = 58), epidural analgesia with fentanyl (n = 157), epidural analgesia with morphine (n = 151), and epidural analgesia with ropivacaine or levobupivacaine (n = 13). Clinical BL was diagnosed in 14 of the 379 (3.7%) patients. The significant risk factors for clinical BL were hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), elevated serum total bilirubin, high indocyanine green retention at 15 min, elevated Mac-2-binding protein glycosylated isomer, prolonged duration of surgery, and a large volume of blood loss. There was no significant correlation of clinical BL with intra- and post-operative analgesia and total oral morphine equivalents. CONCLUSION: Intra- and post-operative IV-PCA and epidural analgesia were not related to clinical BL after hepatectomy. Based on our data, fentanyl and morphine can be administered safely as epidural or intravenous analgesic agents.

17.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 694298, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34485175

RESUMO

Understanding of sterile inflammation and its associated biological triggers and diseases is still at the elementary stage. This becomes more warranted in cases where infections are not associated with the pathology. Detrimental effects of bacterial and viral infections on the immune responses at the maternal-fetal interface as well as pregnancy outcomes have been well documented. However, an infection-induced etiology is not thought to be a major contributing component to severe pregnancy complications such as preeclampsia (PE) and gestational diabetes. How is then an inflammatory signal thought to be associated with these pregnancy complications? It is not clear what type of inflammation is involved in the onset of PE-like features. We opine that sterile inflammation regulated by the inflammasome-gasdermins-caspase-1 axis is a contributory factor to the onset of PE. We hypothesize that increased production and release of damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) or Alarmins such as high-mobility group box1 (HMGB1), cell-free fetal DNA, uric acid, the NOD-like receptor pyrin-containing receptor 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome, IL-1ß and IL-18 occur in the PE placenta. Some of these molecules have already been observed in the placenta from women with PE. Mechanistically, emerging evidence has demonstrated that excessive placental endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, impaired autophagy and gasdermine D (GSDMD)-mediated intrinsic pyroptosis are key events that contribute to systemic sterile inflammation in patients with PE, especially early-onset PE (e-PE). In this review, we highlight the advances on the roles of sterile inflammation and inflammatory signaling cascades involving ER stress, autophagy deficiency and pyroptosis in PE pathophysiology. Deciphering the mechanisms underlying these inflammatory pathways may provide potential diagnostic biomarkers and facilitate the development of therapeutic strategies to treat this devastating disease.


Assuntos
Pré-Eclâmpsia , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamassomos , Inflamação , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR , Placenta , Pré-Eclâmpsia/etiologia , Gravidez
18.
J Anesth ; 2021 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34491428

RESUMO

PURPOSE: From the perspective of infection prevention during the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, a recommendation was made to use surgical masks after extubation in patients in the operating room. For compliance with this recommendation, anesthesiologists need to administer oxygen to the patient with an oxygen mask over the surgical mask. However, no studies have investigated whether this method allows good maintenance of oxygenation in patients. This study aimed to investigate which method of oxygen administration lends itself best to use with a surgical mask in terms of oxygenation. METHOD: We administered oxygen to the study subjects using all the following three methods in random order: an oxygen mask over or under a surgical mask and a nasal cannula under the surgical mask. Oxygenation was assessed using the oxygen reserve index (ORi) and end-tidal oxygen concentration (EtO2). RESULT: This study included 24 healthy volunteers. ORi values with administration of oxygen were higher in the order of a nasal cannula under the surgical mask, an oxygen mask under the surgical mask, and an oxygen mask over the surgical mask, with median values of 0.50, 0.48, and 0.43, respectively, and statistically significant differences between all groups (P < 0.001). EtO2 values were in the same order as ORi, with median values of 33.0%, 31.0%, and 25%, respectively, and statistically significant differences between all groups (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Wearing a surgical mask over the nasal cannula during oxygen administration is beneficial for oxygenation and might help prevent aerosol dispersal.

19.
JACC Case Rep ; 3(8): 1139-1140, 2021 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34471899

RESUMO

A pacemaker generator change for a frail woman was performed with a direct oral anticoagulant. After the procedure, a hematoma was exposed. Stopping direct oral anticoagulants in frail patients should be considered before the procedure. (Level of Difficulty: Beginner.).

20.
Eur Heart J Case Rep ; 5(8): ytab214, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34514299

RESUMO

Background: Giant cell myocarditis (GCM) is a rare cause of fulminant heart failure (HF). The most common presentation is progressive hemodynamic deterioration, and a few cases present with idiopathic complete atrioventricular block (cAVB). The prognosis of GCM is poor, and GCM patients usually die of HF and ventricular arrhythmia unless cardiac transplantation is performed. Few reports have described the effects of treatments such as immunosuppression and detailed reverse remodelling in GCM patients. Case summary: A 69-year-old female presented with cAVB. Transvenous pacemaker was implanted via the left subclavian vein. One and a half months later, she exhibited left ventricular dyssynchrony and lower left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), resulting in hospitalization for HF. She received cardiac resynchronization therapy; however, this had no apparently positive effects on her cardiac function. To investigate the cause of the lower LVEF, an endomyocardial biopsy was taken from the right ventricular septum. She was diagnosed with GCM and immediately received immunosuppression therapy with prednisolone and ciclosporin. This resulted in the functional recovery of the right ventricle; on the other hand, the left ventricle had still not recovered based on transthoracic echocardiography. Fortunately, she successfully recovered from severe HF without recurrence. Discussion: This is a case of fulminant HF due to GCM which initially presented as cAVB. Moreover, this case demonstrates the quite difference of the functional recovery between the left ventricle and the right ventricle with immunosuppression therapy.

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