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1.
Inorg Chem ; 58(8): 4894-4906, 2019 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30946577

RESUMO

The unique Rh-Al bond in recently synthesized Rh(PAlP) 1 {PAlP = pincer-type diphosphino-aluminyl ligand Al[NCH2(P iPr2)]2(C6H4)2NMe} was investigated using the DFT method. Complex 1 has four doubly occupied nonbonding d orbitals on the Rh atom and one Rh d orbital largely participating in the Rh-Al bond which exhibits considerably large bonding overlap between Rh and Al atoms like in a covalent bond. Interestingly, Rhδ--Alδ+ polarization is observed in the bonding MO of 1, which is reverse to Rhδ+-Eδ- (E = coordinating atom) polarization found in a usual coordinate bond. This unusual polarization arises from the presence of the Al valence orbital at significantly higher energy than the Rh valence orbital energy. Characteristic features of 1 are further unveiled by comparing 1 with similar Rh complexes RhL(PMe3)2 (2 for L = AlMe2, 3 for L = Al(NMe2)2, 4 for L = BMe2, 5 for L = SiMe3, 6 for L = SiH3, 7 for L = CH3, 8 for L = OMe, and 9 for L = Cl). As expected, 7, 8, and 9 exhibit usual Rhδ+-Eδ- polarization (E = coordinating atom) in the Rh-E bonding MO. On the other hand, the reverse Rhδ--Eδ+ polarization is observed in the Rh-E bonding MOs of 2-5 like in 1, while the Rh-Si bond is polarized little in 6. These results are clearly understood in terms of the valence orbital energy of the ligand. Because the LUMO of 1 mainly consists of the Rh 4dσ, 5s, and 5p orbitals and the Al 3s and 3p orbitals, both Rh and Al atoms play the role of coordinating site for a substrate bearing a lone pair orbital. For instance, NH3 and pyridine coordinate to both Al and Rh atoms with considerably large binding energy. PAlP exhibits significantly strong trans influence, which is as strong as that of SiMe3 but moderately weaker than that of BMe2. The trans influence of these ligands is mainly determined by the valence orbital energy of the ligand and the covalent bond radius of the coordinating E atom.

2.
J Am Chem Soc ; 140(23): 7070-7073, 2018 06 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29792688

RESUMO

We report rhodium complexes bearing PAlP pincer ligands with an X-type aluminyl moiety. IR spectroscopy and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis of a carbonyl complex exhibit the considerable σ-donating ability of the aluminyl ligand, whose Lewis acidity is confirmed through coordination of pyridine to the aluminum center. The X-type PAlP-Rh complexes catalyze C2-selective monoalkylation of pyridine with alkenes.

3.
J Am Chem Soc ; 139(18): 6494-6505, 2017 05 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28409626

RESUMO

A d0 niobium(V) complex, NbCl3(α-diimine) (1a), supported by a dianionic redox-active N,N'-bis(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)-1,4-diaza-2,3-dimethyl-1,3-butadiene (α-diimine) ligand (ene-diamido ligand) served as a catalyst for radical addition reactions of CCl4 to α-olefins and cyclic alkenes, selectively affording 1:1 radical addition products in a regioselective manner. During the catalytic reaction, the α-diimine ligand smoothly released and stored an electron to control the oxidation state of the niobium center by changing between an η4-(σ2,π) coordination mode with a folded MN2C2 metallacycle and a κ2-(N,N') coordination mode with a planar MN2C2 metallacycle. Kinetic studies of the catalytic reaction elucidated the reaction order in the catalytic cycle: the radical addition reaction rate obeyed first-order kinetics that were dependent on the concentrations of the catalyst, styrene, and CCl4, while a saturation effect was observed at a high CCl4 concentration. In the presence of excess amounts of styrene, styrene coordinated in an η2-olefinic manner to the niobium center to decrease the reaction rate. No observation of oligomers or polymers of styrene and high stereoselectivity for the radical addition reaction of CCl4 to cyclopentene suggested that the C-C bond formation proceeded inside the coordination sphere of niobium, which was in good accordance with the negative entropy value of the radical addition reaction. Furthermore, reaction of 1a with (bromomethyl)cyclopropane confirmed that both the C-Br bond activation and formation proceeded on the α-diimine-coordinated niobium center during transformation of the cyclopropylmethyl radical to a homoallyl radical. With regard to the reaction mechanism, we detected and isolated NbCl4(α-diimine) (6a) as a transient one-electron oxidized species of 1a during reductive cleavage of the C-X bonds; in addition, the monoanionic α-diimine ligand of 6a adopted a monoanionic canonical form with selective one-electron oxidation of the dianionic ene-diamido form of the ligand in 1a.

4.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 53(32): 4497-4500, 2017 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28382353

RESUMO

Highly regio- and stereoselective alkenylation of N-acylindoles with unactivated internal alkynes has been accomplished by cooperative nickel/aluminium catalysis to afford C3-alkenylated indoles. Coordination of the acyl moiety to a bulky aluminium-based Lewis acid plays a crucial role in the selective functionalization at the C3-position by electron-rich nickel(0) catalysis.

5.
J Am Chem Soc ; 138(44): 14699-14704, 2016 11 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27759372

RESUMO

We report a method that ensures the selective alkylation of benzamides and aromatic ketones at the para-position via cooperative nickel/aluminum catalysis. Using a bulky catalyst/cocatalyst system allows reactions between benzamides and alkenes to afford the corresponding para-alkylated products. The origin of the high para-selectivity has also been investigated by density functional theory calculations.

6.
Inorg Chem ; 54(12): 6004-9, 2015 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26017157

RESUMO

The organosilicon reducing reagent 2,3,5,6-tetramethyl-1,4-bis(trimethylsilyl)-1,4-diaza-2,5-cyclohexadiene (1a) was used for the one-electron, salt-free reduction of ((t)BuN═)NbCl3(py)2 (2), resulting in the formation of a neutral, triply chloride-bridged dinuclear niobium(IV) complex, [((t)BuN═)ClNb(py)](µ-Cl)3[((t)BuN═)Nb(py)2] (3) in moderately high yield. Heating 3 in toluene at 80 °C caused a unique intramolecular rearrangement of 3 to another neutral dinuclear complex, [Cl2Nb(py)](µ-Cl)(µ-N(t)Bu)2[ClNb(py)2] (4), in which two niobium(IV) atoms were bridged by one chloride atom and two imido ligands. Reaction of complex 3 with benzo[c]cinnoline produced a benzo[c]cinnoline-bridged dinuclear niobium(V) complex 7 by an overall two-electron reduction of benzo[c]cinnoline through a disproportionation of 3 into a mixture of a niobium(V) complex 2 and a niobium(III) complex, the latter of which efficiently reduced benzo[c]cinnoline.


Assuntos
Nióbio/química , Compostos Organometálicos/química , Fenantrenos/química , Técnicas de Química Sintética , Cristalografia por Raios X
7.
J Am Chem Soc ; 136(13): 5161-70, 2014 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24597916

RESUMO

Electron-rich organosilicon compounds, such as 1,4-bis(trimethylsilyl)-1,4-diaza-2,5-cyclohexadiene (2a), 2,5-dimethyl-1,4-bis(trimethylsilyl)-1,4-diaza-2,5-cyclohexadiene (2b), 2,3,5,6-tetramethyl-1,4-bis(trimethylsilyl)-1,4-diaza-2,5-cyclohexadiene (2c), and 1,1'-bis(trimethylsilyl)-1,1'-dihydro-4,4'-bipyridine (4), served as versatile reducing reagents of group 4-6 metal chloride complexes, such as Cp2TiCl2, Cp*2TiCl2 (Cp* = η(5)-C5Me5), Cp*TiCl3, Cp*TaCl4, and WCl4(PMe2Ph)2, to generate the corresponding low-valent metal species in a salt-free manner. Nitrogen-containing reductants, such as 2a-c and 4, had stronger reducing ability than the parent organosilicon reductants, 3,6-bis(trimethylsilyl)-1,4-cyclohexadiene (1a) and 1-methyl-3,6-bis(trimethylsilyl)-1,4-cyclohexadiene (1b), as well as a pyridine-derived reductant, 1,4-bis(trimethylsilyl)-1-aza-2,5-cyclohexadiene (3). These greater effects of 2a-c and 4 are likely due to their negative one-electron redox potentials, as typically demonstrated in the reduction of Cp2TiCl2, for which compounds 2a and 4 gave the corresponding one-electron reduced products, pyrazine-bridged and 4,4'-bipyridyl-bridged dimeric Ti(III) complexes 5 and 6, and compounds 2b and 2c afforded the same double chloride-bridged dimeric Ti(III) complex, [Cp2Ti]2(µ-Cl)2 (7), though 1a and 1b could not reduce Cp2TiCl2. Application of the organosilicon compounds as reducing agents for catalytic reactions revealed that the combination of 2c and a catalytic amount of Cp2TiCl2 assisted a Reformatsky reaction of nonanal and ethyl 2-bromoisobutyrate and its derivatives to give ethyl 3-hydroxy-2,2-dimethylundecanoate and its derivatives. In this coupling reaction, 2c served as the best reductant among 2a-c and 4 due to the suppression of an undesired reaction between 2c and ethyl 2-bromoalkanoates.

8.
J Am Chem Soc ; 135(16): 5986-9, 2013 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23581394

RESUMO

We developed a salt-free reduction of WCl6 using 1-methyl-3,6-bis(trimethylsilyl)-1,4-cyclohexadiene (MBTCD) in toluene to give a low-valent trinulcear tungsten complex involving W(II) and W(III) centers, while in the presence of redox active ligands such as α-diketone and α-diimine the same reduction produced W(IV) complexes with the corresponding redox-active ligands, (α-diketone)WCl4 and (α-diimine)WCl4. A W(VI) complex with two α-diketone ligands, (α-diketone)2WCl2, was found to be synthetically equivalent to low-valent W(IV) species that trapped azopyridine to give (α-diketone)WCl2(azopyridine).

9.
J Am Chem Soc ; 133(46): 18673-83, 2011 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21981364

RESUMO

High-valent tantalum complexes having redox-active α-diimine ligands, (α-diimine)TaCl(n) (n = 3, 4), are prepared by the reaction of TaCl(5), α-diimine ligands, and an organosilicon-based reductant, 1-methyl-3,6-bis(trimethylsilyl)-1,4-cyclohexadiene. Reductive cleavage of the C-Cl bond of polyhaloalkanes is accomplished by trichlorotantalum complexes having dianionic α-diimine ligands via electron transfer from the dianionic ligands, whereas oxidative decomposition of tetraphenylborate is observed using tetrachlorotantalum complexes with monoanionic α-diimine ligands through electron transfer to the monoanionic ligands. Chemically oxidized or reduced complexes of (α-diimine)TaCl(4) are isolated as ligand-centered redox products, [Cp(2)Co][(α-diimine)TaCl(4)] and [(α-diimine)TaCl(4)][WCl(6)], where the α-diimine ligand coordinates to the metal center as a dianionic or neutral ligand, respectively. On the basis of EPR measurements of (α-diimine)TaCl(4) complexes (which are key intermediates for reductive cleavage of C-Cl bond and oxidative decomposition of tetraphenylborate), two redox isomers--a tantalum-centered radical and ligand-localized radical--are present in solution.

10.
J Am Chem Soc ; 131(15): 5370-1, 2009 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20560633

RESUMO

Mild and salt-free reduction of MCl(5) (M = Nb, Ta) has been achieved by using 3,6-bis(trimethylsilyl)-1,4-hexadiene derivatives as reducing reagents. The salt-contact-free low-valent TaCl(3) exhibits high catalytic activity for the trimerization of ethylene to 1-hexene (>1000 TOF) with excellent selectivity (>98%). This salt-free tantalum system enables us to observe new evidence for a metallacycle mechanism.

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