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1.
Adv Mater ; : e1902965, 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31566264

RESUMO

The application of liquid-exfoliated 2D transition metal disulfides (TMDs) as the hole transport layers (HTLs) in nonfullerene-based organic solar cells is reported. It is shown that solution processing of few-layer WS2 or MoS2 suspensions directly onto transparent indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes changes their work function without the need for any further treatment. HTLs comprising WS2 are found to exhibit higher uniformity on ITO than those of MoS2 and consistently yield solar cells with superior power conversion efficiency (PCE), improved fill factor (FF), enhanced short-circuit current (JSC ), and lower series resistance than devices based on poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) and MoS2 . Cells based on the ternary bulk-heterojunction PBDB-T-2F:Y6:PC71 BM with WS2 as the HTL exhibit the highest PCE of 17%, with an FF of 78%, open-circuit voltage of 0.84 V, and a JSC of 26 mA cm-2 . Analysis of the cells' optical and carrier recombination characteristics indicates that the enhanced performance is most likely attributed to a combination of favorable photonic structure and reduced bimolecular recombination losses in WS2 -based cells. The achieved PCE is the highest reported to date for organic solar cells comprised of 2D charge transport interlayers and highlights the potential of TMDs as inexpensive HTLs for high-efficiency organic photovoltaics.

2.
Australas Emerg Care ; 2019 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31481350

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In order to develop and implement prevention strategies for falls, comprehensive epidemiological data are required. Therefore, this study mapped emergency presentations for falls across the western region of Victoria, Australia, encompassing urban, regional and rural areas. METHODS: This cross-sectional study utilised electronic data for emergency presentations following a fall from <1m for individuals aged ≥40yr during 2014-2016 inclusive. Age-standardised incidence rates (per 1000 population/year) were calculated for each Local Government Area (LGA). RESULTS: Age-standardised falls incidence varied across the LGAs, with the lowest occurring in the Rural City of Ararat LGA (4.4; 95%CI:3.5-5.4) and the highest for the City of Warrnambool (25.1; 95%CI:23.7-26.6), Colac-Otway (24.7; 95%CI:23.0-26.4) and Moyne (23.0; 95%CI:21.2-24.8). Patterns were similar for men and women when stratified by sex across these LGAs. For men and women combined, most patients arrived at the hospital using private transportation (55.3%) or road ambulance service (43.1%). Most falls occurred during leisure activities (48.0%) in a home setting (54.8%). CONCLUSIONS: Higher rates of falls presentations were observed in southern LGAs and most commonly occurred at home, during leisure activity. Future research should identify specific intervention strategies to reduce falls in the region, based on the data reported from this study.

3.
BMC Cancer ; 19(1): 892, 2019 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31492163

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cancer is a leading burden of disease in Australia and worldwide, with incidence rates varying with age, sex and geographic location. As part of the Ageing, Chronic Disease and Injury study, we aimed to map the incidence rates of primary cancer diagnoses across western Victoria and investigate the association of age, accessibility/remoteness index of Australia (ARIA) and area-level socioeconomic status (SES) with cancer incidence. METHODS: Data on cancer incidence in the study region were extracted from the Victorian Cancer Registry (VCR) for men and women aged 40+ years during 2010-2013, inclusive. The age-adjusted incidence rates (per 10,000 population/year), as well as specific incidence for breast, prostate, lung, bowel and melanoma cancers, were calculated for the entire region and for the 21 Local Government Areas (LGA) that make up the whole region. The association of aggregated age, ARIA and SES with cancer incidence rates across LGAs was determined using Poisson regression. RESULTS: Overall, 15,120 cancer cases were identified; 8218 (54%) men and 6902 women. For men, the age-standardised rate of cancer incidence for the whole region was 182.1 per 10,000 population/year (95% CI 177.7-186.5) and for women, 162.2 (95% CI: 157.9-166.5). The incidence of cancer (overall) increased with increasing age for men and women. Geographical variations in cancer incidence were also observed across the LGAs, with differences identified between men and women. Residents of socioeconomically disadvantaged and less accessible areas had higher cancer incidence (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Cancer incidence rates varied by age, sex, across LGAs and with ARIA. These findings not only provide an evidence base for identifying gaps and assessing the need for services and resource allocation across this region, but also informs policy and assists health service planning and implementation of preventative intervention strategies to reduce the incidence of cancer across western Victoria. This study also provides a model for further research across other geographical locations with policy and clinical practice implications, both nationally and internationally.

4.
J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad ; 31(3): 441-444, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31535524

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Conservative management of traumatic CSF rhinorrhoea is associated with a greater risk of developing meningitis in the presence of active CSF leak. Lumbar drains have been reported to be better than conservative management alone in stopping CSF leaks following traumatic brain injury. METHODS: This randomized controlled trial enrolled 60 patients with CSF rhinorrhoea and divided them into two groups. One group was managed with conservative management plus a lumbar drain (group A) and the other was managed with conservative management alone (Group B). Length of CSF rhinorrhoea in days was estimated in both groups. RESULTS: There was a statistically significant difference in in mean length of CSF rhinorrhoea in both groups. In group A, mean Length of CSF rhinorrhoea was found to be 3.4 days ±1.1 SD, while in group B it was 6.75 days ±1.96 SD (p=0.001). Stratification with respect to gender, age, duration and type of trauma showed similar trend (p<0.05 in all cases). CONCLUSIONS: Patients who underwent lumbar drain insertion plus conservative management demonstrated significantly shorter length of CSF rhinorrhoea when compared to conservative management alone in the treatment of traumatic CSF rhinorrhoea.

5.
Plant Sci ; 286: 28-36, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31300139

RESUMO

MYB family genes act as important regulators modulating the response to abiotic stress in plants. However, much less is known about MYB proteins in cotton. Here, we found that a cotton MYB gene, GhMYB73, was induced by NaCl and abscisic acid (ABA). Silencing GhMYB73 expression in cotton increased sensitivity to salt stress. The cotyledon greening rate of Arabidopsis thaliana over-expressing GhMYB73 under NaCl or mannitol treatment was significantly enhanced during the seedling germination stage. What's more, several osmotic stress-induced genes, such as AtNHX1, AtSOS3 and AtP5CS1, were more highly induced in the over-expression lines than in wild type under salt treatment, supporting the hypothesis that GhMYB73 contributes to salinity tolerance by improving osmotic stress resistance. Arabidopsis lines over-expressing GhMYB73 had superior germination and cotyledon greening under ABA treatment, and some abiotic stress-induced genes involved in ABA pathways (AtPYL8, AtABF3, AtRD29B and AtABI5), had increased transcription levels under salt-stress conditions in these lines. Furthermore, we found that GhMYB73 physically interacts with GhPYL8 and AtPYL8, suggesting that GhMYB73 regulates ABA signaling during salinity stress response. Taken together, over-expression of GhMYB73 significantly increases tolerance to salt and ABA stress, indicating that it can potentially be used in transgenic technology approaches to improve cotton salt tolerance.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Gossypium/fisiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Estresse Salino/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Arabidopsis/genética , Inativação Gênica , Genes myb , Gossypium/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Tolerância ao Sal/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
6.
BMJ Open ; 9(5): e026880, 2019 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31122981

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Hospitalisation rates for many chronic conditions are higher in socioeconomically disadvantaged and less accessible areas. We aimed to map diabetes hospitalisation rates by local government area (LGA) across Western Victoria, Australia, and investigate their association with socioeconomic status (SES) and accessibility/remoteness. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study METHODS: Data were acquired from the Victorian Admitted Episodes Dataset for all hospitalisations (public and private) with a diagnosis of type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus during 2011-2014. Crude and age-standardised hospitalisation rates (per 1000 population per year) were calculated by LGA for men, women and combined data. Associations between accessibility (Accessibility/Remoteness Index of Australia, ARIA), SES (Index of Relative Socioeconomic Advantage and Disadvantage, IRSAD) and diabetes hospitalisation were investigated using Poisson regression analyses. RESULTS: Higher LGA-level accessibility and SES were associated with higher rates of type 1 and type 2 diabetes hospitalisation, overall and for each sex. For type 1 diabetes, higher accessibility (ARIA category) was associated with higher hospitalisation rates (men incidence rate ratio [IRR]=2.14, 95% CI 1.64 to 2.80; women IRR=2.45, 95% CI 1.87 to 3.19; combined IRR=2.30, 95% CI 1.69 to 3.13; all p<0.05). Higher socioeconomic advantage (IRSAD decile) was also associated with higher hospitalisation rates (men IRR=1.25, 95% CI 1.09 to 1.43; women IRR=1.32, 95% CI 1.16 to 1.51; combined IRR=1.23, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.42; all p<0.05). Similarly, for type 2 diabetes, higher accessibility (ARIA category) was associated with higher hospitalisation rates (men IRR=2.49, 95% CI 1.81 to 3.43; women IRR=2.34, 95% CI 1.69 to 3.25; combined IRR=2.32, 95% CI 1.66 to 3.25; all p<0.05) and higher socioeconomic advantage (IRSAD decile) was also associated with higher hospitalisation rates (men IRR=1.15, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.30; women IRR=1.14, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.28; combined IRR=1.13, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.27; all p<0.05). CONCLUSION: Our observations could indicate self-motivated treatment seeking, and better specialist and hospital services availability in the advantaged and accessible areas in the study region. The determinants for such variations in hospitalisation rates, however, are multifaceted and warrant further research.

7.
Sci Total Environ ; 671: 339-350, 2019 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30933790

RESUMO

With communities increasingly concentrated in coastal regions globally, governments and stakeholders call for cohesive risk assessments for future sustainability in the wake of natural hazards. This can only be achieved through risk-based decision-making and smart resources treatment. To provide a basis for such actions, we here propose a risk assessment (RA) framework focusing on the risk-resilience-sustainability nexus. In contrast to focusing on the traditional RA approach, we propose an integrative approach based on hazard, vulnerability, and resilience covering the full spectrum of RA for effective risk reduction. We further explain how the proposed framework can simultaneously provide useful input for resilience management in parallel to achieving certain Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). We apply this framework for typhoon risk assessment (represented by a Typhoon Risk Index-TRI) of coastal counties of mainland China. Different TRIs e.g. total population, elderly population, non-adult population, and economic status are calculated for each coastal county to supplement multi-objective empirical measures for risk reduction. The RA results show a large spatial heterogeneity in typhoon risk with an increase in the risk from north to south along the coast of mainland China. The comparative results from this study are relevant to the prioritization of different regions for immediate or gradual actions, wise decision-making, and risk reduction through proper treatment of resources-related policy implications. The evaluation of the SDGs achievement status reveals that the overall performance of coastal provinces in mainland China is higher to achieve SDGs 3 and 15 followed by 13 and 8. The study shows that while Guangdong province is in the highest risk category, its achievement status for SDG-13 (climate actions, strengthening resilience) is the lowest relative to other provinces, which is critical. This study represents a major scientific contribution to mainland China's coastal risk management and calls for aligning risk-informed planning and sustainability frameworks.

8.
Calcif Tissue Int ; 104(6): 599-604, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30680432

RESUMO

Bone turnover markers (BTMs) are reduced in diabetes, but whether BTM changes occur in impaired fasting glucose (IFG) is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate whether BTMs are altered in IFG and diabetes compared to normoglycaemia. For men and women (n = 2222) in the Geelong Osteoporosis Study, IFG was defined as fasting plasma glucose (FPG) 5.5-6.9 mmol/L and diabetes as FPG ≥ 7.0 mmol/L, use of antihyperglycemic medication and/or self-report. Serum C-terminal telopeptide (CTx) and procollagen type 1 N-terminal propeptide (P1NP) were measured. After natural log transformation to normalise the data, multivariable regression was used to examine the relationship between glycaemia status and bone turnover markers (BTMs), before and after adjusting for other confounders. There were 643 men and 682 women with normoglycaemia, 355 men and 391 women with IFG and 97 men and 54 women with diabetes. Men with IFG or diabetes had lower adjusted ln(CTx) and ln(P1NP) compared to normoglycaemia (all p < 0.05). Women with IFG or diabetes had lower adjusted ln(CTx) and ln(P1NP) (all p < 0.05) except for ln(P1NP) when comparing diabetes with normoglycaemia, which showed a trend for lower ln(P1NP) (p = 0.053). In both sexes, an age * glycaemia interaction term indicated between-group differences in BTMs diminished with increasing age. No other confounders were identified. Bone turnover was lower in those with either IFG or diabetes compared to normoglycaemia.

9.
AAPS PharmSciTech ; 20(2): 81, 2019 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30645705

RESUMO

To achieve remotely directed delivery of anticancer drugs, surface-decorated nanoparticles with ligands are reported. In this study, folic acid- and thiol-decorated chitosan nanoparticles loaded with docetaxel (DTX-NPs) were prepared for enhanced cellular internalization in cancer cells and improved oral absorption. The DTX-NPs were explored through in vitro and in vivo parameters for various parameters. The DTX-NPs were found to be monodisperse nanoparticles with an average particle size of 158.50 ± 0.36 nm, a polydispersity index of 0.36 ± 0.0, a zeta potential of + 18.30 ± 2.52 mV, and an encapsulation efficiency of 71.47 ± 5.62%. The drug release from DTX-NPs followed the Korsmeyer-Peppas model with about 78% of drug release in 12 h. In in vitro cytotoxicity studies against folate receptor, positive MDA-MBB-231 cancerous cells showed improved cytotoxicity with IC50 of 0.58 µg/mL, which is significantly lower as compared to docetaxel (DTX). Ex vivo permeation enhancement showed an efflux ratio of 0.99 indicating successful transport across the intestine. Oral bioavailability was significantly improved as Cmax and AUC were higher than DTX suspension. Overall, the results suggest that DTX-NPs can be explored as a promising carrier for oral drug delivery.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/química , Quitosana/química , Docetaxel/química , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Ácido Fólico/química , Nanopartículas/química , Administração Oral , Animais , Disponibilidade Biológica , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Docetaxel/farmacocinética , Docetaxel/farmacologia , Humanos , Coelhos , Ratos , Compostos de Sulfidrila/química
10.
Calcif Tissue Int ; 2018 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30483848

RESUMO

Although individuals with diabetes appear to have a higher fracture risk compared to those without diabetes, fracture risk in impaired fasting glucose (IFG) has not been thoroughly explored. This study determined associations between glycaemia status and fracture risk. Women (n = 575, aged 50 + years) enrolled in the Geelong Osteoporosis Study, were followed from baseline (1993-1997), to date of first fracture, death or December 31, 2010, whichever occurred first (median 13.7 years, IQR 7.4-14.8). Hazard ratios (HRs) for any fracture (excluding fingers, toes, skull/face), as well as major osteoporotic fracture (MOF, clinical spine, hip, proximal humerus, wrist), in diabetes (n = 69), IFG (n = 250) and normoglycaemia (n = 256), were calculated using a Cox proportional hazards model. Normoglycaemia was set as the reference category. A Cox proportional hazards model with time-varying covariates was also used to assess change in baseline risk factors at the 10-year follow-up visit (2004-2008). During follow-up (6433 person-years), 162 women sustained any fracture and 104 had a MOF. Unadjusted fracture risk was higher in diabetes (HR 1.64; 95% CI 1.02-2.63) compared to normoglycaemia, but IFG and normoglycaemia had similar risk (HR 1.06; 95% CI 0.76-1.47). Age- and BMD-adjusted any-fracture risk in diabetes compared to normoglycaemia was greater (HR 1.59; 95% CI 0.98-2.58); IFG was similar to normoglycaemia (HR 1.01; 95% CI 0.72-1.41). For MOF, unadjusted and age- and BMD-adjusted fracture risk in IFG was similar to normoglycaemia HR 1.02; 95% CI 0.74-1.40 and HR 0.95; 95% CI 0.69-1.32, respectively, but diabetes was higher compared to normoglycaemia (unadjusted HR 1.64; 95% CI 1.04-2.60; adjusted HR 1.57; 95% CI 0.98-2.51). In the time-varying model, there was no difference between IFG in either the unadjusted or adjusted models, for both any fracture and MOF (p > 0.05). For diabetes, there was a significant difference between normoglycaemia in the adjusted model for any fracture (p = 0.046), but not for MOF (p = 0.103). An increased risk of fracture for women with diabetes was observed after accounting for time-varying risk factors. There was no difference in fracture risk detected for women with IFG.

11.
eNeuro ; 5(4)2018 Jul-Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30310861

RESUMO

The neurodegenerative Huntington's disease (HD) is caused by a polyglutamine (polyQ) amplification in the huntingtin protein (HTT). Currently there is no effective therapy available for HD; however, several efforts are directed to develop and optimize HTT-lowering methods to improve HD phenotypes. To validate these approaches, there is an immediate need for reliable, sensitive, and easily accessible methods to quantify HTT expression. Using the AlphaLISA platform, we developed two novel sensitive and robust assays for quantification of HTT in biological samples using commercially available antibodies. The first, a polyQ-independent assay, measures the total pool of HTT, while the second, a polyQ-dependent assay, preferentially detects the mutant form of HTT. Using purified HTT protein standards and brain homogenates from an HD mouse model, we determine a lower limit of quantification of 1 and 3 pm and optimal reproducibility with CV values lower than 7% for intra- and 20% for interassay. In addition, we used the assays to quantify HTT in neural stem cells generated from patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells in vitro and in human brain tissue lysates. Finally, we could detect changes in HTT levels in a mouse model where mutant HTT was conditionally deleted in neural tissue, verifying the potential to monitor the outcome of HTT-lowering strategies. This analytical platform is ideal for high-throughput screens and thus has an added value for the HD community as a tool to optimize novel therapeutic approaches aimed at modulating HTT protein levels.

12.
PeerJ ; 6: e5672, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30280040

RESUMO

Lead (Pb) is a ubiquitous pollutant which poses serious threats to plants, animals and humans once entered into the food chain via contaminated industrial effluents on their discharge into the surface of water bodies and/or geological materials. This study aimed to examine and compare the biosorption potential of natural sugarcane bagasse (NB), pyrolysed sugarcane bagasse (PB) and acid assisted pyrolysed sugarcane bagasse (APB) for the removal of Pb from contaminated water. To explore this objective, a series of batch experiments were conducted at various adsorbent mass (0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0 g per 100 ml contaminated water), initial Pb concentration (7, 15, 30, 60 and 120 ppm), and contact time (7, 15, 30, 60 and 120 min). Results revealed that all the tested bio-sorbents have potential to adsorb and remove Pb ions from the contaminated water. In this regard, APB proved more effective since it removed 98% of Pb from aqueous solution at initial Pb concentration of 7 ppm and mass of 0.25 g per 100 ml of aqueous solution. The respective values in case of NB and PB were 90 and 95%. For a given adsorbent type, Pb adsorption decreased by increasing the mass from 0.25 to 1.0 g per 100 ml of aqueous solution. However, the greatest Pb removal occurred at adsorbent mass of 1.0 g per 100 ml of aqueous solution. Initial Pb concentration had a great impact on Pb adsorption and removal by adsorbent. The former increased and the latter decreased with the increase in initial Pb concentration from seven to 120 ppm. At seven ppm Pb concentration, maximum Pb removal took place irrespective to the adsorbent type. Out of the total Pb adsorption and removal, maximum contribution occurred within 15 min of contact time between the adsorbate and adsorbent, which slightly increased till 30 min, thereafter, it reached to equilibrium. Application of equilibrium isotherm models revealed that our results were better fitted with Freundlich adsorption isotherm model. Overall, and for the reasons detailed above, it is concluded that sugarcane bagasse has capabilities to adsorb and remove Pb ions from contaminated water. Its bio-sorption potential was considerably increased after pyrolysis and acid treatment.

13.
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak ; 28(9): S204-S206, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30173699

RESUMO

We report a rare case of bronchopulmonary extralobar sequestration in a 9-year girl mimicking pulmonary tuberculosis. Patient had recurrent chest infections and two episodes of massive hemoptysis. Preoperative x-ray chest showed an opacity in left lower lobe and computed tomography-aortogram showed that the lesion had systemic arterial supply from celiac trunk. Diagnosis of pulmonary sequestration was made and left lateral muscle sparing thoracotomy was planned. Intraoperatively, extralobar sequestration was found with dual systemic blood supply. Histopathology confirmed it to be a hybrid lesion.

15.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 10(29): 24665-24678, 2018 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29932630

RESUMO

Additives play an important role in modifying the morphology and phase separation of donor and acceptor molecules in bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells. Here, we report triptycene (TPC) as a small-molecule additive for supramolecular control of phase separation and concomitant improvement of the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of PTB7 donor and fullerene acceptor-based BHJ polymer solar cells. An overall 60% improvement in PCE is observed for both PTB7:PC61BM and PTB7:PC71BM blends. The improved photovoltaic (PV) performance can be attributed to three factors: (a) TPC-induced supramolecular interactions with donor:acceptor components in the blends to realize a nanoscale phase-separated morphology; (b) an increase in the charge transfer state energy that lowers the driving force for electron transfer from donor to acceptor molecules; and (c) an increase in the charge carrier mobility. An improvement in efficiency using TPC as a supramolecular additive has also been demonstrated for other BHJ blends such as PBDB-T:PC71BM and P3HT:PCBM, implying the wide applicability of this new additive molecule. A comparison of the photostability of TPC as an additive for PTB7:PCBM solar cells to that of the widely used 1,8-diiodooctane additive shows ∼30% higher retention of PV performance for the TPC-added solar cells after 34 h of AM 1.5G illumination. The results obtained suggest that the approach of using additives that can promote supramolecular interactions to modify the length scale of phase separation between donor and acceptor is very promising and can lead to the development of highly efficient and stable organic photovoltaics.

16.
Nanoscale ; 10(24): 11335-11341, 2018 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29713724

RESUMO

Thiolate-protected gold nanoclusters have recently attracted considerable attention due to their size-dependent luminescence characterized by a long lifetime and large Stokes shift. However, the optimization of nanocluster properties such as the luminescence quantum yield is still a challenge. We report here the transformation of Au25Capt18 (Capt labels captopril) nanoclusters occurring at low pH and yielding a product with a much increased luminescence quantum yield which we have identified as Au23Capt17. We applied a simple method of treatment with HCl to accomplish this transformation and we characterized the absorption and emission of the newly created ligated nanoclusters as well as their morphology. Based on DFT calculations we show which Au nanocluster size transformations can lead to highly luminescent species such as Au23Capt17.

17.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 8(5)2018 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29702591

RESUMO

In this study, one-dimensional porous silicon nanowire (1D⁻PSiNW) arrays were fabricated by one-step metal-assisted chemical etching (MACE) to etch phosphorus-doped silicon wafers. The as-prepared mesoporous 1D⁻PSiNW arrays here had especially high specific surface areas of 323.47 m²·g-1 and were applied as anodes to achieve fast charge⁻discharge performance for lithium ion batteries (LIBs). The 1D⁻PSiNWs anodes with feature size of ~7 nm exhibited reversible specific capacity of 2061.1 mAh·g-1 after 1000 cycles at a high current density of 1.5 A·g-1. Moreover, under the ultrafast charge⁻discharge current rate of 16.0 A·g-1, the 1D⁻PSiNWs anodes still maintained 586.7 mAh·g-1 capacity even after 5000 cycles. This nanoporous 1D⁻PSiNW with high surface area is a potential anode candidate for the ultrafast charge⁻discharge in LIBs with high specific capacity and superior cycling performance.

18.
BMJ Open ; 8(3): e020346, 2018 03 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29574446

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether adults with normoglycaemia, impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and diabetes differed according to the incidence, rate, length and primary reasons for hospital admission. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Barwon Statistical Division, Geelong, Australia. PARTICIPANTS: Cohort included 971 men and 924 women, aged 20+ years, participating in the Geelong Osteoporosis Study. Glycaemic status was assessed at cohort entry using fasting plasma glucose, use of antihyperglycaemic medication and/or self-report. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Primary outcome measure was any admission to the major tertiary public hospital in the study region over the follow-up period. Secondary outcome measures were admission rate and length (days). RESULTS: Over a median follow-up of 7.4 years (IQR 5.3-9.6), participants with diabetes, compared with those with normoglycaemia, were two times as likely to be hospitalised (OR 2.07, 95% CI 1.42 to 3.02), had a higher admission rate (incidence rate ratio 1.61, 95% CI 1.17 to 2.23) and longer hospital stay (third quartile difference 7.7, 95% CI 1.3 to 14.1 and ninth decile difference 16.2, 95% CI 4.2 to 28.3). IFG group was similar to normoglycaemia for the incidence, rate and length of admission. Cardiovascular disease-related diagnoses were the most common primary reasons for hospitalisation across all glycaemic categories. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show increased incidence, rate and length of all-cause hospital admission in adults with diabetes as compared with normoglycaemia; however, we did not detect any associations for IFG. Interventions should focus on preventing IFG-to-diabetes progression and reducing cardiovascular risk in IFG and diabetes.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Estado Pré-Diabético/sangue , Estado Pré-Diabético/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Austrália , Glicemia/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Incidência , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado Pré-Diabético/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
19.
Bone ; 108: 1-9, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29229437

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hip fractures are associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. Hip fracture incidence varies across different levels of accessibility/remoteness and socioeconomic status (SES). As part of the Ageing, Chronic Disease and Injury Study, we aimed to map the pattern of hip fractures across the western region of the Australian state of Victoria, which contains a range of remoteness levels and SES. METHODS: Data on hip fractures resulting in hospital admission were extracted from the Victorian Admitted Episodes Dataset (VAED) for men and women aged 40+years during 2010-2013 inclusive. An age-adjusted incidence rate (per 10,000population/year) was calculated for the entire region. Crude incidence rates and length of acute care hospital stay (excluding rehabilitation) were calculated for each Local Government Area (LGA). The impact of aggregated age, accessibility/remoteness index of Australia (ARIA) and SES on hip fracture rates aggregated across LGAs was determined using Poisson regression. RESULTS: For men, the age-standardised rate of hospitalisations for hip fracture across the whole region was 19.2 per 10,000population/year (95%CI 18.0-20.4) and for women, 40.0 (95%CI 38.3-41.7). The highest incidence rates for both sexes occurred in the less accessible LGAs of Yarriambiack and Hindmarsh, as well as the LGA with the lowest SES, Central Goldfields. In both sexes, approximately two thirds of individuals were discharged from acute hospital care within 14days. Increasing age, higher remoteness and lower SES were all associated with higher hip fracture rates. CONCLUSION: Crude incidence rates varied by location. Given that a high proportion of patients had acute hospital care of ≤14days, and accessibility and SES were associated with hip fracture rates, these results can inform policy and provide a model for other groups to conduct similar research in their local environment.

20.
Calcif Tissue Int ; 102(1): 32-40, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28965154

RESUMO

Diabetes is associated with increased skeletal fragility, despite higher bone mineral density (BMD). Alternative measures are necessary to more accurately determine fracture risk in individuals with diabetes. Therefore, we aimed to describe the relationship between trabecular bone score (TBS) and normoglycaemia, impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and diabetes and determine whether TBS-adjusted FRAX (Aus) score differed between these groups. This study included 555 men (68.7 ± 12.2 years) and 514 women (62.0 ± 12.0 years), enrolled in the observational Geelong Osteoporosis Study. IFG was considered as fasting plasma glucose (FPG) ≥ 5.5 mmol/L and diabetes as FPG ≥ 7.0 mmol/L, with the use of antihyperglycaemic medication and/or self-report. Using multivariable regression, the relationship between groups and TBS was determined. Men and women (all ages) with diabetes had lower mean TBS compared to those with normoglycaemia, in models adjusted for age, height and weight/waist circumference (all p < 0.05). Men with IFG had lower mean TBS in the age-adjusted models only (all p < 0.05). The addition of TBS to the FRAX score improved the discrimination between glycaemia groups, particularly for younger women (< 65 years). There was no difference in TBS detected between normoglycaemia and IFG; however, those with diabetes had lower TBS. Thus, the increased fracture risk in men and women with diabetes may be a result of BMD-independent bone deterioration. TBS adjustment of FRAX scores may be useful for younger women (< 65 years) with diabetes. This suggests that halting or reversing progression from IFG to diabetes could be important to prevent skeletal fragility in diabetes.

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