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1.
Neurosci Res ; 2021 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33440224

RESUMO

Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) modulates pain. Studies have indicated that TRPV1 is upregulated in the spinal dorsal horn in the neuropathic pain model, but its mechanism is unknown. Here, we examined the mechanism by which TRPV1 modulates neuropathic pain by employing partial sciatic nerve ligation (pSNL) in adult male C57BL/6 J (wild-type: WT) and TRPV1 knockout (Trpv1-/-) mice. We analyzed mechanical/heat sensitivities (von Frey test/hot plate test) and glial/neuronal activities (Iba-1/GFAP/FosB by immunofluorescence) in laminae I and II in the L5 ipsilateral dorsal horn of the spinal cord. Mechanical/heat sensitivities, expression levels of microglial Iba-1 and astrocytic GFAP, and the number of FosB-positive neurons were significantly increased on days 7 and 14 in the pSNL group compared with the sham-operated and non-operated groups of both WT and Trpv1-/- mice. While mechanical sensitivity was comparable between WT and Trpv1-/- mice, the threshold against heat sensitivity was markedly prolonged in Trpv1-/- than WT mice on day 14 after pSNL. Conversely, the increment of FosB positive neurons was significantly attenuated in Trpv1-/- than WT mice on days 7 and 14 after pSNL. These results suggest that TRPV1 may modulate thermal perception via increased astrocytes in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord.

2.
J Orthop Surg (Hong Kong) ; 28(3): 2309499020975580, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33272082

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Constitutional varus in the coronal plane is formed based on the Hueter-Volkmann's law. The varus deformity occurs at the proximal metaphysis of the tibia and the tibial condyle rotates medially. In the sagittal plane, we hypothesized that the posterior slope angle of the tibial articular surface may also occur at the proximal metaphysis and the tibial condyle rotates posteriorly. The purpose of this study was to verify the hypothesis. METHODS: A total of 208 patients who underwent TKA had lateral view proximal tibia digital radiograph on which seven parameters were analyzed. The posterior slope angle of the tibial articular surface relative to the anterior wall of the tibial condyle and that relative to the anterior cortex of the tibial shaft were assessed. Correlation between the position of the tibial condyle and the posterior slope angle of the articular surface were assessed. RESULTS: The proximal tibial condyle itself did not have a posterior slope in the 86.5% of the participants. Posterior rotation of the tibial condyle created posterior slope of the tibial articular surface relative to the anterior cortex of the tibial shaft. The more tibial condyle was posteriorly rotated, the more the tibial articular surface shifted posteriorly. CONCLUSION: Study findings showed that the posterior tibial slope occurs at the proximal metaphysis of the tibia, and the tibial condyle rotates posteriorly. The posterior tibial slope involves the posterior shift of the tibial articular surface. The posterior tibial slope is mainly created by the posterior rotation of the tibial condyle.

3.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 21(1): 817, 2020 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33287779

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Implants made from bioabsorbable unsintered hydroxyapatite and poly-L-lactate composites (u-HA/PLLA) are widely used in the oral, maxillofacial, and orthopedic fields. This study assess the long-term (> 5 years) outcomes of patients with metacarpal fractures who were surgically treated using bioabsorbable plates and screws (Super-Fixsorb MX40 mesh; Teijin Medical Technology, Osaka, Japan). METHODS: A retrospective analysis of six patients with eight metacarpal fractures treated with bioabsorbable plates was done. All patients were followed for more than 5 years post-surgery. The clinical outcomes were evaluated using Q-DASH scores and the grip strength (GS): opposite side ratio. The resorption status of implants was assessed on plain computed tomography (CT) scans at final follow-up appointments. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients at the time of surgery was 29.5 years (16-54), and the median follow-up period was 81.8 months (68-101). All fractures united without displacement after an average of 3.5 months, and there were no implant specific complications associated with the use of absorbable plates. The mean grip strength ratio was 85.1% (56.8-104.5). The mean Q-DASH scores of 11.36 points (0-34.09) was good in all but two patients. We also observed that it took more than 8 years for the plates to be absorbed completely. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that the process of bioabsorption in metacarpal fractures might be completed in about 8 years, and the absorption speeds were different inside and outside of the bone. The bioabsorbable plates are more cost-effective than metallic implants. The potential for bioabsorbable plates to be used in various clinical procedures is promising.

4.
J UOEH ; 42(4): 327-330, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33268609

RESUMO

A 60 year-old woman with hip dysplasia battled with duodenal cancer that was complicated with Candida tropicalis sepsis. Two years later, the patient underwent a total hip arthroplasty (THA). She complained of a persisting low-grade fever and local heat on the THA scar. Arthrocentesis of the hip was performed and the Candida tropicalis was detected. Debridement and polyethylene liner/modular head exchange were performed 28 days after the primary THA. Fluconazole was administrated for one year. The patient reported no symptoms five years later. It was found that periprosthetic infection could be prevented by implant preservation surgery.

5.
J Hip Preserv Surg ; 7(2): 345-350, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33163221

RESUMO

Sports medicine surgeons sometimes encounter morbidly obese athletes with femoroacetabular impingement, such as Sumo wrestlers. In such cases, traditional arthroscopic equipment will not reach the joint. This case report describes the use of a cystoscope to perform arthroscopy to treat borderline developmental dysplasia of the hip combined with cam impingement in a morbidly obese athlete. The cystoscope enables hip arthroscopy to be performed when traditional instruments are not of sufficient length to access the hip and/or an extra-long arthroscope is not available. The use of the cystoscope provides a practical, feasible and minimally invasive option to treat non-arthritic intraarticular hip pathology in the morbidly obese or extremely muscular athletes.

6.
Int J Infect Dis ; 102: 73-78, 2020 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33065296

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the factors associated with mortality among patients with necrotizing soft-tissue infection (NSTI) in Japan using inpatient data from the Diagnosis Procedure Combination (DPC) Database. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study using a population retrieved from the Japanese DPC inpatient database of patients who underwent surgical operations from 2014 through 2017. The associations between the covariates and mortality were estimated using multivariate logistic regression models. RESULTS: In total, 4597 patients were registered in this study, with an overall mortality rate of 6.9%. Multilevel logistic regression analysis revealed that higher age, lower body mass index (BMI<18.5kg/m2), pre-existing cancer diagnosis, sepsis at admission, maintenance dialysis, antithrombin III use, and anti-methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) antibiotic use were associated with a high mortality rate among NSTI patients. However, sex, underlying diabetes mellitus, ambulance use at admission, intravenous immunoglobulin use, higher hospital case volume, and frequency of operations were not associated with mortality. CONCLUSION: This study is the first to report the association of lower BMI, antithrombin III use, and anti-MRSA antibiotic use with a higher mortality rate among NSTI patients.

7.
Bone Rep ; 13: 100718, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33024798

RESUMO

This study aimed to clarify whether novel cotton-like composite made of ß-tricalcium phosphate (ß-TCP) and poly(Dl-lactide-co-glycolide) (PDLGA) has a different effect on in vivo bone regeneration after bone defect than that of granular ß-TCP. Five male Beagle dogs served as subjects. Cortical and medullary bone defect as non-through holes were made at the diaphysis of the bilateral femurs. One side was implanted with ß-TCP/PDLGA (ß-TCP/PDLGA group) and the other side was implanted with granular ß-TCP (ß-TCP group). At 4 weeks after implantation, we found no significant differences in the percentages of newly formed bone area and fibrous tissue area in the bone defect between the two groups. The ß-TCP/PDLGA group showed more uniform filling on the surface and earlier disappearance of the material in the medullary region, and there were fewer inflammatory cells and osteoclasts in the bone defect in the ß-TCP/PDLGA group. In conclusion, ß-TCP/PDLGA performs better at filling the bone defect uniformly and disappears earlier at the cortical and medullary regions while causing less inflammation and bone resorption. Although bone formation activity of the ß-TCP/PDLGA group in the cortical region was lower, the newly formed bone volume in bone defect of the ß-TCP/PDLGA group was equal to that of the ß-TCP group.

8.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 21(1): 683, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33059663

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Scaphoid excision and four-corner arthrodesis is an acceptable salvage procedure for the treatment of scapholunate advanced collapse (SLAC) and scaphoid nonunion advanced collapse (SNAC) wrists, since first popularized in the 1980s. We investigated the potential application of novel bioabsorbable plates and screws made of un-sintered hydroxyapatite/poly-L-lactide composite for the treatment of metacarpal fractures. We used this material for the fixation of four-corner fusions for SLAC or SNAC wrists commencing from April 2009. The purpose of this study was to clarify the controversy in the literature regarding the use of these plates. METHODS: The surgical procedures and clinical outcomes of four-corner fusions using a bioabsorbable (poly-L-lactic acid and hydroxyapatite) plate were reported. Ten patients (mean age, 59.2 years) with SLAC or SNAC wrists underwent fusions between April 2009 and June 2016. The primary diseases were scapholunate ligament injury, Preiser disease, and scaphoid pseudarthrosis. The mean postoperative follow-up period was 45.9 months (range, 12-86). RESULTS: In all patients, bone union was achieved without dislocation or pain. The mean wrist flexion and extension arc improved from 78.5 degrees before surgery to 90.5 degrees after surgery. Mean grip strength improved from 51 to 69% after surgery, and the Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (QuickDASH) score improved from 53.5 to 14.3. No complications such as infection, avascular swelling, or tendon adhesion were observed. This implant requires no removal of internal fixation devices, produces stable outcomes, and is an effective fusion technique. CONCLUSIONS: We summarized the outcomes of four-corner arthrodesis using bioabsorbable plates. Satisfactory clinical results were shown, with no obvious complications. This novel plate also serves as a good alternative for patients who are allergic to metals. Furthermore, bioabsorbable plates are advantageous as they do not require removal.

9.
Orthop J Sports Med ; 8(9): 2325967120951118, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33062763

RESUMO

Background: Deep gluteal syndrome (DGS) is an uncommon source of buttock and groin pain, resulting from entrapment of the sciatic nerve in the deep gluteal space. The incidence and risk factors of postoperative DGS after primary hip arthroscopic surgery are currently unknown. Purpose: To investigate the incidence and risk factors of postoperative DGS after primary hip arthroscopic surgery. Study Design: Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: This study reviewed 1167 patients who underwent arthroscopic surgery between 2010 and 2018 by a single surgeon at a single center in Japan. DGS was defined using the seated piriformis stretch test, active hamstring test, and evidence of a hypertrophic sciatic nerve on magnetic resonance imaging. Overall, 11 of 1167 patients were diagnosed with DGS postoperatively. The DGS group (n = 11) was compared with the non-DGS group (n = 1156). Patient age, sex, body mass index (BMI), generalized joint laxity (GJL; Beighton score >6), number of hip arthroscopic procedures, and radiographic parameters including lateral center-edge angle, Sharp angle, vertical center anterior angle, Tönnis angle, alpha angle, ischiofemoral distance, ischiofemoral space, and quadratus femoris space were compared. The prevalence of developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) and borderline DDH (BDDH) was also compared. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to identify potential predictors for a postoperative DGS diagnosis. Results: The incidence of postoperative DGS in our study was 0.9%. Female sex (male:female ratio: 0:11 in DGS group vs 568:588 in non-DGS group; P < .01), mean number of hip surgical procedures (1.8 ± 0.9 in DGS group vs 1.1 ± 0.4 in non-DGS group; P < .01), and GJL (P < .01) were significantly higher in the DGS group, while the mean BMI was significantly lower in the DGS group (19.8 ± 1.8 vs 22.7 ± 3.6 kg/m2, respectively; P < .01). Radiographic parameters were not significantly different between groups. Logistic regression analysis revealed that female sex (odds ratio [OR], 22.0 [95% CI, 1.29-374.56]), multiple surgical procedures (OR, 7.8 [95% CI, 2.36-25.95]), GJL (OR, 40.9 [95% CI, 8.74-191.70]), lower BMI (OR, 0.77 [95% CI, 0.644-0.914]), and DDH/BDDH (OR, 18.1 [95% CI, 2.30-142.10]) were potential predictors of postoperative DGS. Conclusion: The incidence of postoperative DGS in our study was 0.9%. The predictors for postoperative DGS after hip arthroscopic surgery were female sex, GJL, multiple hip surgical procedures, and DDH/BDDH. Although hip arthroscopic surgery can provide favorable clinical outcomes, surgeons should be aware of the risk factors for DGS as a complication of hip arthroscopic surgery.

10.
J Magn Reson Imaging ; 2020 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32949073

RESUMO

The spectrum of soft-tissue mass is varied, including neoplastic and nonneoplastic/inflammatory lesions. However, soft-tissue tumors have similar imaging findings and, therefore, the diagnosis of soft-tissue mass is challenging. Although careful assessment of the internal characteristics on imaging can often narrow the differential diagnoses, the differential diagnosis may be out of the question if identification of the soft-tissue mass origin is missed. The purpose of this article is to review the imaging findings and the essential anatomy to identify the primary site of the soft-tissue mass, and discuss the associated potential pitfalls. In order not to fall into a pitfall, recognition of characteristic imaging findings indicating the origin of the soft-tissue mass and anatomical knowledge of the normal tissue distribution are necessary. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 5 TECHNICAL EFFICACY STAGE: 3.

11.
J Neuroendocrinol ; 32(8): e12892, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32761684

RESUMO

Osteoarthritis (OA) causes chronic joint pain and significantly impacts daily activities. Hence, developing novel treatment options for OA has become an increasingly important area of research. Recently, studies have reported that exogenous, as well as endogenous, hypothalamic-neurohypophysial hormones, oxytocin (OXT) and arginine-vasopressin (AVP), significantly contribute to nociception modulation. Moreover, the parvocellular OXT neurone (parvOXT) extends its projection to the superficial spinal dorsal horn, where it controls the transmission of nociceptive signals. Meanwhile, AVP produced in the magnocellular AVP neurone (magnAVP) is released into the systemic circulation where it contributes to pain management at peripheral sites. The parvocellular AVP neurone (parvAVP), as well as corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH), suppresses inflammation via activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis. Previously, we confirmed that the OXT/AVP system is activated in rat models of pain. However, the roles of endogenous hypothalamic-neurohypophysial hormones in OA have not yet been characterised. In the present study, we investigated whether the OXT/AVP system is activated in a knee OA rat model. Our results show that putative parvOXT is activated and the amount of OXT-monomeric red fluorescent protein 1 positive granules in the ipsilateral superficial spinal dorsal horn increases in the knee OA rat. Furthermore, both magnAVP and parvAVP are activated, concurrent with HPA axis activation, predominantly modulated by AVP, and not CRH. The OXT/AVP system in OA rats was similar to that in systemic inflammation models, including adjuvant arthritis; however, magnocellular OXT neurones (magnOXT) were not activated in OA. Hence, localised chronic pain conditions, such as knee OA, activate the OXT/AVP system without impacting magnOXT.

12.
J Bone Miner Metab ; 38(6): 894-902, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32656645

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Rapid descent in bone mineral density (BMD) and ascent in bone turnover marker (BTM) occur within the short period following denosumab (Dmab) discontinuation. In addition, the incidence of vertebral fracture also rises within the short period. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of sequential therapy using zoledronic acid (ZOL) on any adverse events after Dmab discontinuation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was a multicenter retrospective observational study, and the subjects were osteoporosis patients who visited our institutions between 2013 and 2018. We performed sequential therapy using ZOL for 30 patients who had difficulty continuing Dmab, due to physical or social reasons, and investigated the fracture incidence and BMD/BTM changes at 4 time points (at the start of Dmab, the start of ZOL, 6 months after ZOL and 12 months after ZOL). RESULTS: No new vertebral/nonvertebral fractures were observed at each time point after switching from Dmab to ZOL in any of the 30 patients. The BMD/BTM changes were evaluated in 18 of the 30 cases, since all data of lumbar/femoral neck BMDs and TRACP-5b at 4 time points was only available in 18 cases. BMDs significantly increased at each time point compared with that at the start of Dmab. Serum TRACP-5b significantly decreased at each time point compared with that at the start of Dmab. CONCLUSION: It was suggested that sequential therapy using ZOL could suppress the decrease of BMD, and increase of BTM, if the period of Dmab administration was less than 3 years.


Assuntos
Denosumab/uso terapêutico , Suspensão de Tratamento , Ácido Zoledrônico/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Densidade Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Conservadores da Densidade Óssea/efeitos adversos , Conservadores da Densidade Óssea/uso terapêutico , Remodelação Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Denosumab/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Fraturas Ósseas/sangue , Fraturas Ósseas/epidemiologia , Fraturas Ósseas/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoporose/sangue , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fosfatase Ácida Resistente a Tartarato/sangue , Ácido Zoledrônico/efeitos adversos
13.
Mol Pain ; 16: 1744806920943334, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32686583

RESUMO

The neurohypophysial hormone oxytocin (OXT) is synthesized in the hypothalamic paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei. Recently, some studies have considered OXT to be important in sensory modulation and that the OXT protein is upregulated by acute and chronic nociception. However, the mechanism by which OXT is upregulated in neurons is unknown. In this study, we examined the resting membrane potentials and excitatory postsynaptic currents in OXT-ergic neurons in the paraventricular nucleus in adjuvant arthritis rat model, a model of chronic inflammation, using whole-cell patch-clamping. Transgenic rats expressing OXT and monomeric red fluorescent protein 1 (mRFP1) fusion protein to visualize the OXT-ergic neurons were used, and the OXT-mRFP1 transgenic rat model of adjuvant arthritis was developed by injection of heat-killed Mycobacterium butyricum. Furthermore, the feedback system of synthesized OXT was also examined using the OXT receptor antagonist L-368,899. We found that the resting membrane potentials and frequency of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents and spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents in OXT-monomeric red fluorescent protein 1 neurons in the paraventricular nucleus were significantly increased in adjuvant arthritis rats. Furthermore, L-368,899 dose-dependently increased the frequency of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents and spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents in OXT-ergic neurons. Following bath application of the GABAA receptor antagonist picrotoxin and the cannabinoid receptor 1 antagonist AM 251, L-368,899 still increased the frequency of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents. However, following bath application of the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor Nω-Nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride, L-368,899 did not alter the miniature excitatory postsynaptic current frequency. Thus, it is suggested that OXT-ergic neuron activity is upregulated via an increase in glutamate release, and that the upregulated OXT neurons have a feedback system with released endogenous OXT. It is possible that nitric oxide, but not GABA, may contribute to the feedback system of OXT neurons in chronic inflammation.

14.
Orthopedics ; 43(5): e369-e377, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32602921

RESUMO

Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) is a systematic disease of unknown etiology characterized by ossification at the site of spine and major joints entheses, including the hip. Ossified connective tissue may cause pain and joint stiffness, which may require surgical intervention. The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical, radiographic, and arthroscopic presentation and surgical outcomes of patients with DISH involving the hips. Fourteen hips in 9 patients (mean±SD age, 63±14 years; range, 35-76 years) with overcoverage of the femoral head by DISH were retrospectively reviewed. For all joints, a transverse, capsulotomy-first approach was performed due to an inability to access the central compartment by traction of the lower extremity. After arthroscopic resection of the ossified lesion, labral reconstruction was performed with an iliotibial band autograft. For clinical evaluation, patient-reported outcome scores (modified Harris Hip Score [mHHS], Nonarthritic Hip Score [NAHS], International Hip Outcome Tool-12 [iHot-12], visual analog scale [VAS] pain score, and VAS satisfaction score) were obtained. Arthroscopically, circumferential labral damage with no or mild articular cartilage damage was observed. Mean NAHS, iHot-12 score, and VAS satisfaction score improved significantly (47 to 56, 43 to 71, and 21 to 72, respectively; P<.05). Mean mHHS and VAS pain score did not reach significance but did improve (65 to 92 and 45 to 78, respectively). Using a transverse, capsulotomy-first approach for arthroscopic hip surgery for patients with DISH yields successful outcomes in patient-reported outcome measures and satisfaction, despite minor gains in hip range of motion. [Orthopedics. 2020;43(5):e369-e377.].

15.
J UOEH ; 42(2): 167-173, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32507840

RESUMO

The distinction between bacterial infectious and noninfectious arthritis is typically challenging in the early stages; however, it is critical for treatment decision making. Here, we investigated the diagnostic relevance of alpha- and beta-defensin levels in serum and synovial fluid as biomarkers of joint infection in patients presenting with fever and arthritis. The study included 12 patients who presented with fever (≥37°C) and arthritis (pain in the knee or hip joint). The diagnostic criteria for periprosthetic joint infection proposed by the Musculoskeletal Infection Society were used to detect joint infection and categorize the patients into infection and non-infection groups. Alpha-defensin-1 and beta-defensin-3 levels in serum and synovial fluid were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. No significant between-group difference was observed with respect to serum alpha-defensin-1 levels; however, synovial fluid alpha-defensin-1 levels were significantly higher in the infection group (33.6 ± 26.2 ng/ml) than in the non-infection group (0.9 ± 0.4 ng/ml). No significant between-group differences were observed with respect to serum or synovial fluid beta-defensin-3 levels. Furthermore, synovial fluid alpha-defensin-1 levels were increased in patients without prosthesis in the infection group. In conclusion, in patients with fever and arthritis, synovial fluid alpha-defensin-1 levels were significantly higher in patients with infectious arthritis than in those with noninfectious arthritis. Therefore, synovial fluid alpha-defensin-1 levels is a useful diagnostic marker for joint infection.


Assuntos
Artrite/diagnóstico , Líquido Sinovial/química , alfa-Defensinas/análise , Biomarcadores/análise , Humanos
16.
Bone Rep ; 12: 100268, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32373678

RESUMO

Calcium balance is important in bone homeostasis. The transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV) channel is a nonselective cation channel permeable to calcium and is activated by various physiological and pharmacological stimuli. TRPV1 and TRPV4, in particular, have important roles in intracellular Ca2+ signaling and extracellular calcium homeostasis in bone cells. TRPV1 and TRPV4 separately mediate osteoclast and osteoblast differentiation, and deficiency in any of these channels leads to increased bone mass. However, it remains unknown whether bone mass increases in the absence of both TRPV1 and TRPV4. In this study, we used TRPV1 and TRPV4 double knockout (DKO) mice to evaluate their bone mass in vivo, and osteoclast and osteoblast differentiation in vitro. Our results showed that DKO mice and wild type (WT) mice had no significant difference in body weight and femur length. However, the results of dual-energy X-ray absorption, microcomputed tomography, and bone histomorphometry clearly showed that DKO mice had higher bone mass than WT mice. Furthermore, DKO mice had less multinucleated osteoclasts and had lower bone resorption. In addition, the results of cell culture using flushed bone marrow from mouse femurs and tibias showed that osteoclast differentiation was suppressed, whereas osteoblast differentiation was promoted in DKO mice. In conclusion, our results suggest that the increase in bone mass in DKO mice was induced not only by the suppression of osteoclast differentiation and activity but also by the augmentation of osteoblast differentiation and activity. Our findings reveal that both the single deficiency of TRPVs and the concurrent deficiency of TRPVs result in an increase in bone mass. Furthermore, our data showed that DKO mice and single KO mice had varying approaches to osteoclast and osteoblast differentiation in vitro, and therefore, it is important to conduct further studies on TRPVs regarding the increase in bone mass to explore not only individual but also a combination of TRPVs.

18.
Bone ; 136: 115370, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32325250

RESUMO

Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) is the enzyme that oxidizes the acetaldehyde produced by alcohol metabolism. This variant not only affects the response to alcohol but is also associated with several diseases, such as esophageal cancer, myocardial infarction, and particularly osteoporosis. In our previous study, we reported that compared to wild-type (WT) mice, Aldh2 knockout (KO) mice naturally have a strong bone formation ability, and high expression of parathyroid hormone receptor (PTHR1) in osteocytes. The effect of the Aldh2 gene on bone metabolism in response to intermittent PTH treatment is unknown. The purpose of this study was to clarify the effect of the Aldh2 gene on the bone anabolic response to intermittent PTH treatment in ovariectomized mice. Female KO and WT mice were ovariectomized at 8 weeks of age. At 14 weeks of age, the KO and WT mice were divided into vehicle-treated (Veh) and PTH-treated (PTH) groups (i.e., the WT-Veh, WT-PTH, KO-Veh and KO-PTH groups). PTH (1-34) and vehicle were subcutaneously administered to each group at a dose of 40 µg/kg body weight (BW) five times per week for 4 weeks. Micro-CT showed that the bone volume (BV), trabecular number (Tb.N), connectivity density (Conn.D), and cortical thickness (Ct.Th) values in the KO-PTH mice were significantly higher than those in the KO-Veh mice. Histomorphometric analysis showed that the BV, Tb.N, and mineral apposition rate (MAR) values in the KO-PTH group were significantly higher than those in the KO-Veh group. The mRNA expression level of PTHR1 in the KO-PTH group was significantly increased and that of p21 in the KO-PTH group was significantly decreased compared with the levels in the KO-Veh group. The expression of PTHR in osteocytes from the KO-PTH group was also significantly increased compared with that in osteocytes from the KO-Veh group. Furthermore, cell cultures revealed that the ALP+CFU-f/total CFU-f percentage was significantly higher in the KO-PTH group than in the KO-Veh group. We concluded that in ovariectomized Aldh2 KO mice, the bone anabolic response to intermittent PTH treatment was significantly enhanced compared to that in WT mice, which may be mediated by the high expression level of PTHR1.

19.
Arthroscopy ; 36(8): 2122-2133, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32259644

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To establish the characteristics of synovium-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from the hip joints of patients with femoroacetabular impingement syndrome (FAIS) and osteoarthritis (OA), particularly their proliferation and differentiation potentials. We further investigated their functional differences. METHODS: Synovium samples were harvested from 21 patients with FAIS who underwent hip arthroscopic surgery and from 14 patients with OA who underwent total hip arthroplasty. The MSC number, colony-forming units, cell viability, and differentiation potential were compared. Real-time polymerase chain reaction assessed the differentiation potential into adipose, bone, and cartilage tissues. RESULTS: The number of colonies at a density of 104 at passage 0 from OA synovium was significantly greater than that from FAIS synovium (P < .01). However, their proliferation and viability were significantly lower than those of FAIS synovium cells (P = .0495). The expression of lipoprotein lipase mRNA in OA synovium cells was greater than that in FAIS synovium cells (P < .01). Meanwhile, the fraction of colonies positive for von Kossa and alkaline phosphatase staining, as well as the level of bone gamma-carboxyglutamate protein expression in OA synovium cells, were greater than those in FAIS synovium cells (P < .01). In chondrogenic pellet culture experiments, the expression of COL10A1 mRNA was lower in OA synovium than in FAIS synovium (P < .01). CONCLUSIONS: Synovial MSCs from patients with OA had greater colony numbers but less viability and proliferative potential. They also showed greater osteogenic and adipogenic potentials, whereas those from patients with FAIS showed greater chondrogenic potential. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: MSCs from patients with FAIS exhibited good potential as cell sources for stem cell therapy in case of cartilage damage in the hip joint.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32117068

RESUMO

Various types of acute/chronic nociceptive stimuli cause neuroendocrine responses such as activation of the hypothalamo-neurohypophysial [oxytocin (OXT) and arginine vasopressin (AVP)] system and hypothalamo-pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis. Chronic multiple-arthritis activates the OXT/AVP system, but the effects of acute mono-arthritis on the OXT/AVP system in the same animals has not been simultaneously evaluated. Further, AVP, not corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), predominantly activates the HPA axis in chronic multiple-arthritis, but the participation of AVP in HPA axis activation in acute mono-arthritis remains unknown. Therefore, we aimed to simultaneously evaluate the effects of acute mono-arthritis on the activity of the OXT/AVP system and the HPA axis. In the present study, we used an acute mono-arthritic model induced by intra-articular injection of carrageenan in a single knee joint of adult male Wistar rats. Acute mono-arthritis was confirmed by a significant increase in knee diameter in the carrageenan-injected knee and a significant decrease in the mechanical nociceptive threshold in the ipsilateral hind paw. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the number of Fos-immunoreactive (ir) cells in the ipsilateral lamina I-II of the dorsal horn was significantly increased, and the percentage of OXT-ir and AVP-ir neurons expressing Fos-ir in both sides of the supraoptic (SON) and paraventricular nuclei (PVN) was increased in acute mono-arthritic rats. in situ hybridization histochemistry revealed that levels of OXT mRNA and AVP hnRNA in the SON and PVN, CRH mRNA in the PVN, and proopiomelanocortin mRNA in the anterior pituitary were also significantly increased in acute mono-arthritic rats. Further, plasma OXT, AVP, and corticosterone levels were significantly increased in acute mono-arthritic rats. These results suggest that acute mono-arthritis activates ipsilateral nociceptive afferent pathways at the spinal level and causes simultaneous and integrative activation of the OXT/AVP system. In addition, the HPA axis is activated by both AVP and CRH in acute mono-arthritis with a distinct pattern compared to that in chronic multiple-arthritis.

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