Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 111
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
J Atheroscler Thromb ; 2020 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32009075

RESUMO

AIM: The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident dramatically changed the lifestyle of residents who lived near the plant. We evaluated the association of metabolic syndrome (MetS) with specific lifestyle- and disaster-related factors in residents following the accident. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 20,920 residents who underwent both the Comprehensive Health Check and the Mental Health and Lifestyle Survey from June 2011 to March 2012. Associations between MetS and lifestyle- and disaster-related factors, including psychological distress (post-traumatic stress disorder [PTSD]), were estimated using logistic regression analysis, adjusted for demographic and lifestyle factors, in 2019. RESULTS: MetS was present in 30.4% of men and 11.5% of women. There were significant differences in smoking, drinking status, and PTSD prevalence between subjects with and without MetS. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that age, quitting smoking, light to moderate drinking, and low physical activity were significantly associated with MetS. Moreover, PTSD was also significantly associated with MetS in women. CONCLUSIONS: Lifestyle- and disaster-related factors, including PTSD, were associated with MetS among subjects who lived near the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

2.
J Radiat Res ; 2020 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32030428

RESUMO

The identification of thyroid cancers among children after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident propelled concerns regarding long-term radiation effects on thyroid cancer in children affected by the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident in Fukushima, Japan. Herein we consider the potential association between absorbed dose in the thyroid and the risk of developing thyroid cancer as detected by ultrasonography on 300 473 children and adolescents aged 0-18 years in Fukushima. The absorbed dose mentioned in the present study indicates the sum of that from external exposure and that from internally deposited radionuclides. We grouped participants according to estimated absorbed doses in each of 59 municipalities in Fukushima Prefecture, based on The United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) 2013 report. The 59 municipalities were assigned to quartiles by dose. We limited our analyses to participants aged ≥6 years because only one case of thyroid cancer was observed in participants aged ≤5 years; 164 299 participants were included in the final analysis. Compared with the lowest dose quartile, the age- and sex-adjusted rate ratios (95% confidence intervals) for the low-middle, high-middle and highest quartiles were 2.00 (0.84-4.80), 1.34 (0.50-3.59) and 1.42 (0.55-3.67) for the 6-14-year-old groups and 1.99 (0.70-5.70), 0.54 (0.13-2.31) and 0.51 (0.12-2.15) for the >15-year-old group, respectively. No dose-dependent pattern emerged from the geographical distribution of absorbed doses by municipality, as estimated by UNSCEAR, and the detection of thyroid cancer among participants within 4-6 years after the accident. Ongoing surveillance might further clarify the effects of low-dose radiation exposure on thyroid cancer in Fukushima.

3.
Pediatr Int ; 2020 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31961051

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The objectives of this study were to determine the longer-term trends in childhood obesity and hyperlipidemia among residents of Fukushima Prefecture 5 years after the Great East Japan Earthquake. METHODS: We evaluated the changes in height, weight, body mass index (BMI), BMI SD score, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-CHO), high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-CHO), and triglyceride (TG) in residents aged 7 to 15 years who had lived in the evacuation zone between 2011 and 2015. RESULTS: 1) The mean BMI SD score in all residents in 2011 was 0.113, and the mean BMI SD score in all residents gradually decreased from 2011 to 2015. 2) Serum LDL-CHO levels and TG levels in all residents with a BMI value≧+2SD in 2011 were higher than those in residents with a BMI value < +2SD. 3) The frequency of residents with an LDL-CHO level ≧140 mg/dl in 2012, 2013, 2014 did not decrease in comparison with that in 2011, whereas the frequency of residents with an LDL-CHO level ≧140 mg/dl in 2015 was lower than that in 2011. The frequency of residents with a TG level ≧120 mg/dl increased over the 5 years. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that a number of pediatric residents suffered from obesity and hyperlipidemia. Furthermore, the long-term observation indicated an improvement in obesity, although the improvement in lipid abnormalities was delayed compared with that in obesity. Thus, it is necessary to continue with health checks for these residents with obesity and/or hyperlipidemia.

4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(1): e18486, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31895781

RESUMO

We have been examining the Comprehensive Health Check of the Fukushima Health Management Survey of residents of 13 municipalities who were forced by the government to evacuate due to the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake (GEJE). Our findings showed that evacuation is a risk factor for polycythemia and suggested that experiencing an unprecedented disaster and exposure to chronic stress due to evacuation might be a cause of polycythemia.We analyzed the relationship between the prevalence of polycythemia and the following factors observed in the Mental Health and Lifestyle Survey in an observational study with a cross-sectional design: traumatic symptoms, depression status, socioeconomic factors such as residential environment, and working situation after the GEJE. Target population of the survey included men and women who were at least 15 years of age and who lived in the evacuation zones specified by the government. Participants analyzed consisted of 29,474 persons (12,379 men and 16,888 women) who had participated in both the 2011 Comprehensive Health Check and Mental Health and Lifestyle Survey from June 2011 through March 2012.The prevalence of polycythemia was not associated with mental states associated with traumatic symptoms (Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist Scale ≥ 44) and depression status (Kessler 6-item Scale ≥ 13). Furthermore, multivariate analysis showed that there was a tendency for males to develop polycythemia, with characteristics such as being aged 65 years and older, highly educated, obese (body mass index ≥ 25), hypertensive, diabetic, having liver dysfunction, and a smoker being significantly related to the prevalence of polycythemia.Our findings conclusively demonstrated that polycythemia was not significantly related to psychological factors, but was significantly related to the onset of lifestyle-related disease after the GEJE.


Assuntos
Acidente Nuclear de Fukushima , Policitemia/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Causalidade , Comorbidade , Terremotos , Feminino , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Policitemia/etiologia , Policitemia/psicologia , Prevalência , Tsunamis , Adulto Jovem
5.
Nutrients ; 12(1)2020 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31906499

RESUMO

: Cardiometabolic risks were increasing in Fukushima residents after the Great East Japan Earthquake. We examined the association between dietary patterns and cardiometabolic risks in those aged ≥16 years. Dietary patterns were derived by principal component analysis for participants who underwent at least one diet assessment using a short-form food frequency questionnaire during 2011-2013 and a health checkup in 2014 and 2015 (n = 15,409 and 14,999, respectively). In 2014, the adjusted prevalence ratio (PR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) in the highest versus lowest quartile of accumulative mean scores were 0.97 (0.96-0.99) for overweight/obesity, 0.96 (0.95-0.97) for total cholesterol (TC) ≥220 mg/dL, 0.96 (0.95-0.98) for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) ≥140 mg/dL, and 0.97 (0.96-0.99) for triglycerides ≥150 mg/dL for a vegetable diet and 1.03 (1.01-1.04) for TC ≥220 mg/dL and 1.02 (1.01-1.04) for LDL-C ≥140 mg/dL for a juice/milk diet. In 2015, we found consistently significant associations for the vegetable and juice/milk diets, and the PR and 95% CI were 0.99 (0.98-1.00) for HDL-C <40 mg/dL for a meat diet. The continuous promotion of the vegetable pattern diet is necessary to reduce cardiometabolic risks, particularly dyslipidemia, in Japan.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31867629

RESUMO

Following the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, a survey for estimating individual external doses for the first 4 months after the accident was started, and it remains ongoing. Since the authors' previous paper, 44 605 new dose estimates have been made. The new dose estimates increase the number of dose estimates to 465 999 and are reported in this note. Since the previous paper, most of the recently collected responses have been gotten through public relations activities to encourage responses across the prefecture. Thus, recent respondents might be biased ('selection bias'). Also, the dose estimates were based on self-administered responses about personal behaviour, which relied on memories of residents. In this respect, incorrect behaviour records possibly resulted as memories have faded over time ('recall bias'). However, the effects of these biases on dose distribution on a whole-prefecture basis seemed to be small.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31875902

RESUMO

Individual external doses for the first 4 months after the Fukushima accident have been estimated by the 'Basic Survey' of the Fukushima Health Management Survey. On the other hand, the UNSCEAR 2013 report presented the first-year effective dose due to external radiation for each municipality in nonevacuated areas of Fukushima Prefecture. In this study, the doses estimated by the Basic Survey were averaged for each of three age groups (infants, 0-5 y; children, 6-15 y; and adults, >16 y), in accordance with the categories adopted by the UNSCEAR report. The average dose ratios (infants/adults and children/adults) obtained from the Basic Survey were 1.08 and 1.06 for nonevacuated areas, respectively. These were smaller than the estimation by the UNSCEAR report (1.7 and 1.4, respectively). Three factors (body size factor, location factor and occupancy factor) were discussed and the location and occupancy factors were likely to be reasons for the difference.

8.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 15166, 2019 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31619749

RESUMO

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

9.
Int J Radiat Biol ; 95(12): 1668-1684, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31550191

RESUMO

Purpose: Dose-response curve (DRC) generation is an important aspect in cytogenetic biodosimetry for accurate dose estimation for individuals suspected of prior irradiation. DRC construction with dicentric chromosomes after acute radiation is well-established following the publication of the IAEA EPR-Biodosimetry 2011 and ISO 19238:2014. However, the short half-life of dicentrics might not be suitable for retrospective dose estimation in radiation medical workers, radiation accident clean-up workers and the general public living in areas with higher than average amount of radiation. There is an urgent need for a chromosome translocation-based DRC, which is constructed based on translocation identification with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Despite several attempts to generate such a DRC in the past 40 years, no internationally standardized protocol has been developed until 2019, resulting in possible statistical uncertainties between DRCs previously generated.Materials and methods: Using the recently published ISO 20049:2019, a DRC from five healthy donors (four males: 23, 35, 44, 55 years old, one female: 33 years old) was generated with age-adjusted translocations scored per cell equivalent (age-adjusted Tr/CE), using a modified R-script previously published in EPR-Biodosimetry, for 60Co gamma-ray doses of 0, 0.01, 0.02, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.5 and 1 Gy. The translocation data set used, based on probes used for chromosomes number 1, 2, and 4, was previously published by Abe et al. in 2018.Results: The results output from R include the DRC coefficients (C, α, ß), their p-values, the goodness-of-fit Pearson's chi square value and its corresponding p-value, and the DRC with its 95% confidence interval (CI). The equation of the DRC obtained was 0.0005 (±0.0001) +0.0178 (±0.0037) D + 0.0901 (±0.0054) D2. DRC generated with averaged Tr/CE had a wider 95% CI than DRC generated with pooled Tr/CE, resulting in a 1.3-1.5 times increase in estimated dose range. No outliers between α coefficients from previously published modified DRCs and our DRC were detected with robust Z-score.Conclusions: ISO 20046:2019 should be referenced for future FISH translocation-based DRC generation to ensure statistical reliability of dose estimation. Important considerations for FISH translocation-based DRC up to 1 Gy include scoring more than 2000 CE per dose, the use of multiple donors, age-adjustment of observed translocations, the use of a minimum of 5 dose points including 0 Gy, scoring of total simple translocations in only stable cells and the decision of using pooled or averaged age-adjusted Tr/CE.


Assuntos
Relação Dose-Resposta à Radiação , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Translocação Genética/efeitos da radiação , Adulto , Calibragem , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
10.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 10013, 2019 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31292485

RESUMO

Recent developments in artificial intelligence technology has facilitated advances in neuromorphic computing. Electrical elements mimicking the role of synapses are crucial building blocks for neuromorphic computers. Although various types of two-terminal memristive devices have emerged in the mainstream of synaptic devices, a hetero-synaptic artificial synapse, i.e., one with modulatable plasticity induced by multiple connections of synapses, is intriguing. Here, a synaptic device with tunable synapse plasticity is presented that is based on a simple four-terminal rutile TiO2-x single-crystal memristor. In this device, the oxygen vacancy distribution in TiO2-x and the associated bulk carrier conduction can be used to control the resistance of the device. There are two diagonally arranged pairs of electrodes with distinct functions: one for the read/write operation, the other for the gating operation. This arrangement enables precise control of the oxygen vacancy distribution. Microscopic analysis of the Ti valence states in the device reveals the origin of resistance switching phenomena to be an electrically driven redistribution of oxygen vacancies with no changes in crystal structure. Tuning protocols for the write and the gate voltage applications enable high precision control of resistance, or synaptic plasticity, paving the way for the manipulation of learning efficiency through neuromorphic devices.

11.
Oncol Lett ; 18(1): 275-282, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31289497

RESUMO

Chromosomal translocation is a key process in the oncogenic transformation of somatic cells. Previously, artificial induction of chromosomal translocation was performed using homologous recombination-mediated loxP labeling of target regions followed by Cre-mediated recombination. Recent progress in genome editing techniques has facilitated the easier induction of artificial translocation by cutting two targeted genome sequences from different chromosomes. The present study established a system to induce t(11;14)(q13;q32), which is observed primarily in multiple myeloma (MM) and involves the repositioning of the cyclin D1 (CCND1) gene downstream of the immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) constant region enhancers by translocation. The placing of tandem gRNAs designed to cut both the IgH Eµ and CCND1 15-kb upstream regions in lentiCRISPRv2 enabled the induction of chromosomal translocation in 293T cells, with confirmation by translocation-specific PCR and fluorescence in situ hybridization probing with IgH and CCND1. At the translocation junctions, small deletions and the addition of DNA sequences (indels) were observed in several clones. Cloned cells with t(11;14) exhibited slower growth and lower CCND1 mRNA expression compared to the parent cells, presenting the opposite phenomena induced by t(11;14) in MM cells, indicating that the silent IgH gene juxtaposed to CCND1 may negatively affect CCND1 gene expression and cell proliferation in the non-B lymphocyte lineage. Therefore, the present study achieved the induction of silent promoter/enhancer translocation in t(11;14)(q13;q32) as a preparatory experiment to study the role of IgH constant region enhancer-driven CCND1 overexpression in oncogenic transformation processes in B lymphocytes.

12.
Epidemiology ; 30(6): 853-860, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31259849

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake led to a nuclear accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. This study examines the associations of radiation dose and lifestyle factors with incidence of thyroid cancer in Fukushima. METHODS: We designed a prospective study with 300,473 participants aged 18 years or younger, who underwent thyroid examinations from October 2011. Follow-up surveys were conducted through June 2017, and 245,530 participants (123,480 men and 122,050 women, 82% follow-up) received follow-up examinations. Fukushima Prefecture was divided into five areas based on individual external radiation dose. We calculated relative risks and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for thyroid cancer in each area, with area of lowest dose as reference, using age-adjusted Poisson regression models. We also calculated risks associated with overweight and obesity. RESULTS: The incidence per 100,000 for Groups A (highest dose), B, C, D, and E (lowest dose) were 13.5, 19.2, 17.3, 9.0, and 8.3, respectively. Compared with Group E, the age-adjusted risks (95% CIs) were 1.62 (0.59, 4.47) for group A, 2.32 (0.86, 6.24) for group B, 2.21 (0.82, 5.94) for group C, and 1.02 (0.36, 2.86) for group D. Obesity was positively associated with thyroid cancer incidence; the multivariable-adjusted risk of thyroid cancer was 2.23 (1.01, 4.90) for obese individuals compared with nonobese individuals. CONCLUSION: Regional differences in radiation dose were not associated with increased risk of thyroid cancer among children in Fukushima within 4 to 6 years after the nuclear power plant accident. Obesity may be an important factor for further follow-up in Fukushima.

13.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 2601, 2019 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30796234

RESUMO

Resistive switching (RS) was demonstrated in four-terminal planar memristive devices fabricated on reduced TiO2 (TiO2-x) single crystal substrates. In the device, a pair of diagonally opposing electrode terminals is used to modify the distribution of oxygen vacancies in the region between another pair of diagonally opposing electrode terminals. This allowed microscopic visual observations of the oxygen vacancy distribution based on electrocoloring. The visual contrast observed in the TiO2-x reflects the oxygen vacancy concentration in the electrically active zone of the device, which can be modified by application of various external voltages to the electrodes. The current that flows in the device is significantly dependent on the modified oxygen vacancy distribution and the resultant resistance is switchable when the polarization of the applied external voltage is reversed. The crystallographic orientation of the TiO2-x substrate has a strong influence on the reversible RS phenomenon. Mechanisms behind the voltage-driven resistance change are elaborated with the aid of microscopic analysis for both crystalline and electronic structures in the electrically active zone of the device. Suppression of the formation of irreversible conductive structures comprised of accumulated oxygen vacancies is a key to establishing reversible RS in the device.

14.
JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 145(1): 4-11, 2019 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30489622

RESUMO

Importance: Ultrasonographic (US) screening for thyroid cancer was performed in the Fukushima Health Management Survey after the 2011 Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station accident. Clinical characteristics of thyroid cancers screened by US among children and young adults during the first 5 years after the accident were analyzed. Objectives: To evaluate the number of detected thyroid cancers by age group within 5 years of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station accident and to compare the basic clinical characteristics and demographic patterns in first- and second-round examinations. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this observational study, 324 301 individuals 18 years or younger at the time of accident were included. Patients received a cytologic diagnosis of malignant or suspected malignant thyroid cancer during the first (fiscal years 2011-2013) or second round (fiscal years 2014-2015) of screening. Number of detected cases of cancer was evaluated, correcting for the number of examinees by age group at the time of the accident and for the incidence of detected cancers according to age group at the time of the screening (age groups were divided into 3-year intervals). Results were compared using the age-specific incidence of unscreened cancers from a national cancer registry. Main Outcomes and Measures: Clinical baseline characteristics of the patients and the age-specific number and incidence of thyroid cancers detected during the second round. Results: Among 299 905 individuals screened in the first round (50.5% male; mean [SD] age at screening, 14.9 [2.6] years), malignant or suspected thyroid cancer was diagnosed in 116. Among 271 083 individuals screened in the second round (50.4% male; age at screening, 12.6 [3.2] years), malignant or suspected thyroid cancer was diagnosed in 71. The most common pathologic diagnosis in surgical cases was papillary thyroid cancer (149 of 152 [98.0%]). The distribution pattern by age group at the time of the accident, where the number of detected thyroid cancer cases was corrected by the number of examinees, increased with older age in both screening rounds. This demographic pattern was similar between the first and second examinations. The distribution pattern of the incidence rate by age group at the time of screening in the second round also increased with older age. The incidence rate detected by screening was 29 cases per 100 000 person-years for those aged 15 to 17 years, 48 cases per 100 000 person-years for those aged 18 to 20 years, and 64 cases per 100 000 person-years for those aged 21 to 22 years. Conclusions and Relevance: Large-scale mass US screening of young people resulted in the diagnosis of a number of thyroid cancers, with no major changes in overall characteristics within 5 years of the 2011 Fukushima nuclear power station accident. These results suggest that US screening can identify many detectable cancers from a large pool of nonclinical and subclinical thyroid cancers among individuals of a relatively young age, in an age-dependent manner.


Assuntos
Carcinoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Acidente Nuclear de Fukushima , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Neoplasias Induzidas por Radiação/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/diagnóstico por imagem , Adolescente , Carcinoma/epidemiologia , Carcinoma/etiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Neoplasias Induzidas por Radiação/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Induzidas por Radiação/etiologia , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/etiologia , Ultrassonografia , Adulto Jovem
15.
Micromachines (Basel) ; 9(7)2018 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30424253

RESUMO

Atom-sized contacts of metals are usually characterized by their direct current (DC) conductance. However, when atom-sized contacts are used as device interconnects and transmit high frequency signals or fast pulses, the most critical parameter is not their DC conductance but their admittance Y(ω), in particular its imaginary part ImY(ω). In this article, I will present a brief survey of theoretical and experimental results on the magnitude of Y(ω) for atom-sized contacts of metals. Theoretical contact models are first described and followed by numerical evaluation of ImY(ω) based on these models. As for experiments on Y(ω), previous experiments conducted under time-varying biases are surveyed, and then the results of direct signal transmission through atom-sized contacts are discussed. Both theoretical and experimental results indicate that ImY(ω) is negligibly small for typical atom-sized contacts for signal frequencies up to 1 GHz.

16.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 97(42): e12890, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30335013

RESUMO

Dramatic lifestyle changes due to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident increased the prevalence of hepatobiliary enzyme abnormalities (HEA). We aimed to evaluate associations of HEA with specific lifestyle- and disaster-related factors in residents who lived near the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant.This cross-sectional study included 22,246 residents who underwent a Comprehensive Health Check and the Mental Health and Lifestyle Survey from June 2011 to March 2012. Residents were divided into 2 groups based on residential area and housing status after the accident. Associations between HEA and lifestyle- and disaster-related factors, including psychological distress, were estimated using logistic regression analysis adjusted for demographic and lifestyle factors.HEA was present in 27.3% of subjects. The prevalence of HEA was significantly higher in evacuees than controls (29.5% vs 25.7%, P < .001). There were significant differences in various lifestyle characteristics and the prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder between evacuees and controls. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that age, sex, moderate to heavy drinking, and low/no physical activity were significantly associated with HEA regardless of evacuation status. Changes in jobs and unemployment were significantly associated with HEA in controls and evacuees, respectively.Lifestyle and disaster-related factors, but not psychological distress, were associated with HEA among subjects who lived near the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.


Assuntos
Doenças Biliares/psicologia , Acidente Nuclear de Fukushima , Estilo de Vida , Hepatopatias/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/complicações , Adulto , Idoso , Sistema Biliar/enzimologia , Doenças Biliares/epidemiologia , Doenças Biliares/etiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Eliminação Hepatobiliar , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Fígado/enzimologia , Hepatopatias/epidemiologia , Hepatopatias/etiologia , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia
17.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 6841, 2018 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29717228

RESUMO

We propose a new approach to constructing a phase diagram using the effective Hamiltonian derived only from a single real-space image produced by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). Currently, there have been two main methods to construct phase diagrams in material science: ab initio calculations and CALPHAD with thermodynamic information obtained by experiments and/or theoretical calculations. Although the two methods have successfully revealed a number of unsettled phase diagrams, their results sometimes contradicted when it is difficult to construct an appropriate Hamiltonian that captures the characteristics of materials, e.g., for a system consisting of multiple-scale objects whose interactions are essential to the system's characteristics. Meanwhile, the advantage of our approach over existing methods is that it can directly and uniquely determine the effective Hamiltonian without any thermodynamic information. The validity of our approach is demonstrated through an Mg-Zn-Y long-period stacking-ordered structure, which is a challenging system for existing methods, leading to contradictory results. Our result successfully reproduces the ordering tendency seen in STM images that previous theoretical study failed to reproduce and clarifies its previously unknown phase diagram. Thus, our approach can be used to clear up contradictions shown by existing methods.

19.
J Hypertens ; 36(4): 924-932, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29227375

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: After the Great East Japan Earthquake in 2011, the prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors increased in victims. We examined the trends in the prevalence, treatment, and control of hypertension before and after the disaster, as well as the impact of evacuation. METHODS: Study participants were approximately 10 000 men and 12 000 women aged 40-74 years in each year from 2008 to 2014. All of the participants had lived in radiation evacuation zones prior to the Fukushima nuclear crisis. The age-standardized prevalence, treatment, and control of hypertension were calculated using the direct method. In a comparison of evacuees with nonevacuees, the proportion ratios and 95% confidence intervals for hypertension, treatment, and control were calculated by Poisson regression with robust error variance adjusted for covariates in each year after the disaster. RESULTS: The age-standardized prevalence of hypertension peaked in 2012 at 48.8% in men and 39.0% in women. By 2014, the treatment and control of hypertension had increased to 66.3 and 67.1% in men, and 70.6 and 68.1% in women, respectively. The multiadjusted proportion ratios for the prevalence, treatment, and control of hypertension in any given year were 1.02-1.03, 0.99-1.05, and 0.93-1.06 in men, and 0.96-1.00, 0.99-1.05, and 1.06-1.11 in women, respectively. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of hypertension peaked 1 year after the disaster, while the treatment and control of hypertension increased thereafter. These results indicate that evacuation had little to no impact on the prevalence, treatment, and control of hypertension in the population of Fukushima Prefecture.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Pressão Sanguínea , Acidente Nuclear de Fukushima , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Desastres , Terremotos , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência
20.
J Radiat Res ; 59(1): 35-42, 2018 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29040682

RESUMO

In terms of biological dosimetry at the time of radiation exposure, the dicentric chromosome (Dic) assay (DCA) is the gold standard for assessing for the acute phase and chromosome translocation (Tr) analysis is the gold standard for assessing the chronic phase. It is desirable to have individual dose-response curves (DRCs) for each laboratory because the analysis criteria differ between laboratories. We constructed the DRCs for radiation dose estimation (with three methods) using peripheral blood (PB) samples from five healthy individuals. Aliquots were irradiated with one of eight gamma-ray doses (0, 10, 20, 50, 100, 200, 500 or 1000 mGy), then cultured for 48 h. The number of chromosome aberrations (CAs) was analyzed by DCA, using Giemsa staining and centromere-fluorescence in situ hybridization (centromere-FISH) and by chromosome painting (chromosome pairs 1, 2 and 4) for Tr analysis. In DCA, there was large variation between individuals in the frequency of Dics formed, and the slopes of the DRCs were different. In Tr analysis, although variation was observed in the frequency of Tr, the slopes of the DRCs were similar after adjusting the background for age. Good correlation between the irradiation dose and the frequency of CAs formed was observed with these three DRCs. However, performing three different biological dosimetry assays simultaneously on PB from five donors nonetheless results in variation in the frequency of CAs formed, especially at doses of 50 mGy or less, highlighting the difficulty of biological dosimetry using these methods. We conclude that it might be difficult to construct universal DRCs.


Assuntos
Aberrações Cromossômicas/efeitos da radiação , Raios gama , Translocação Genética/efeitos da radiação , Adulto , Relação Dose-Resposta à Radiação , Feminino , Humanos , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doadores de Tecidos , Adulto Jovem
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA