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1.
Respir Med ; 190: 106675, 2021 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34768076

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breathing frequency is rarely measured during a field walking test since the current monitoring system using a face mask is cumbersome for older adults. For effective clinical application, we aimed to validate the new respiratory monitor using wearable strain sensors during a 6-min walk test (6MWT) in young adults and patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). METHODS: The study included young adults and patients with stable COPD voluntarily recruited from three hospitals. Breathing frequency during 6MWT were measured by the strain sensor and a nasal capnometer. Total breathing frequencies were measured by the capnometer. The Bland-Altman method was used to estimate the mean limit of agreement for breathing frequency. RESULTS: A total of 23 young adults (age = 23.1 ± 3.7, mean ± SD) and 50 patients with COPD (age = 75.2 ± 7.2, %FEV1 = 59.1 ± 19.7) were analyzed. During the entire test period, the total breathing frequencies were measured based on an average of 252 ± 46 breaths, and the total breathing frequency was higher in patients with COPD than in young adults (mean difference = -3.349, p < 0.0013). The mean difference in breathing frequency between the strain sensors and capnometer was -0.28 (95%CI: 0.75 to 0.20), and the limit of agreement ranged from -4.1 to 3.6. The CI of the limit of agreement included the limit of equivalence (4 counts/min). CONCLUSIONS: The novel respiratory monitor with wearable sensors achieved the target accuracy in both young adults and patients with COPD in the 6MWT.

2.
Biomedicines ; 9(11)2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34829887

RESUMO

Erectile function is regulated by complex mechanisms centered on vascular- and nerve-related systems. Hence, dysregulation of these systems leads to erectile dysfunction (ED), which causes mental distress and decreases the quality of life of patients and their partners. At the molecular level, many factors, such as fibrosis, lipid metabolism abnormalities, the immune system, and stem cells, play crucial roles in the etiology and development of ED. Although phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors are currently the standard treatment agents for patients with ED, they are effective only in a subgroup of patients. Therefore, further insight into the pathological mechanism underlying ED is needed to discuss ED treatment strategies. In this review, we focused on the biological and pathological significance of macrophages in ED because the interaction of macrophages with ED-related mechanisms have not been well explored, despite their important roles in vasculogenic and neurogenic diseases. Furthermore, we examined the pathological significance of macrophages in Peyronie's disease (PD), a cause of ED characterized by penile deformation (visible curvature) during erection and pain. Although microinjury and the subsequent abnormal healing process of the tunica albuginea are known to be important processes in this disease, the detailed etiology and pathophysiology of PD are not fully understood. This is the first review on the pathological role of macrophages in PD.

4.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 20279, 2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34645904

RESUMO

Prostaglandin E2 plays an important role in carcinogenesis and malignant potential of prostate cancer (PC) cells by binding to its specific receptors, E-type prostanoid (EP) receptors. However, anti-carcinogenic effects of the EP receptor antagonist are unclear. In this study, we used a mouse model of PC. The mice were provided standard feed (control) or feed containing the EP1 receptor antagonist and were sacrificed at 10, 15, 30, and 52 weeks of age. Apoptosis was evaluated by immunohistochemical analysis using a cleaved caspase-3 assay. The incidence of cancer in the experimental group was significantly lower than that in the control group at 15, 30, and 52 weeks of age. The percentage of poorly differentiated PC cells was significantly lower in the experimental group than in the control group at 30 and 52 weeks of age. The percentage of apoptotic cells in the experimental group was significantly higher than that in the control group at 15, 30, and 52 weeks of age. These findings indicate that feeding with the addition of EP1 receptor antagonist delayed PC progression via the upregulation of apoptosis. We suggest that the EP1 receptor antagonist may be a novel chemopreventive agent for PC.

5.
J Oleo Sci ; 70(11): 1615-1621, 2021 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34645746

RESUMO

In this study, we synthesize hydrophilic amine-based protic ionic liquids (PILs) with hydroxy groups in a cation and different anions. Subsequently, we evaluate the kinetic friction coefficients of iron oxide in aqueous solutions of the PILs under different sliding conditions. Ditriethanolamine malate, triethanolamine lactate, triethanolamine methoxyacetate, and triethanolamine acetate are used as PIL samples in this study. Among them, ditriethanolamine malate exhibits the lowest kinetic friction coefficient. As the number of sliding cycles increases, the excellent lubrication capability remains. Subsequently, we characterize the adsorption of the PILs on an iron oxide surface to investigate the lubrication behavior on the basis of quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring and force curve data. We expect hydrophilic PILs to be excellent water-soluble lubricants and additives for use in metal surface treatments.

6.
Anticancer Res ; 41(9): 4333-4341, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34475053

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Prostaglandin (PG) E2 mediates malignant aggressiveness by binding to four specific E-type prostanoid receptors (EP1R - 4R). This study aimed to clarify the pathological significance of EPRs in hormone-sensitive prostate cancer (HSPC) and castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: EP1R - 4R expression was examined in 102 HSPC and 27 CRPC specimens. The relationships between their expression and proliferation index (PI), apoptotic index (AI), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A expression were analyzed. RESULTS: EP4R expression in CRPC was significantly higher compared to that in HSPC, even in advanced disease (T3/4, N1, and/or M1). EP4R expression was significantly correlated with PI, AI, and VEGF-A expression in CRPC. Such significant relationships were not detected between EP1R - 3R and CRPC. CONCLUSION: EP4R expression in CRPC was significantly higher than that in HSPC and was associated with cancer cell proliferation, apoptosis, and pro-angiogenetic potential.


Assuntos
Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/patologia , Receptores de Prostaglandina E Subtipo EP4/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Apoptose , Proliferação de Células , Sobrevivência Celular , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , Gradação de Tumores , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/metabolismo
7.
Intern Med ; 2021 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34565774

RESUMO

Objective The quality of life and activities of daily living (ADL) are generally poor among dialysis patients after intracerebral hemorrhaging, and their precise clinical course remains unclear. In addition, the association between the severity of cerebral hemorrhaging and the long-term prognosis in these patients has not been fully elucidated. This study aimed to evaluate the subsequent prognosis of hemodialysis patients who survived the acute phase of intracerebral hemorrhaging. Methods We included hemodialysis patients who were admitted to Nagasaki University Hospital between 2007 and 2015 for intracerebral hemorrhaging treatment. After excluding cases of in-hospital death, survivors were classified using the 5-point modified Rankin Scale (mRS), which specifically measures the ADL in patients with cerebrovascular diseases. The patients were followed up at the medical facilities to which they were transferred in the same medical zone until 2017. Results Out of 91 patients with cerebral hemorrhaging (65±11 years old, 66% men, hemodialysis duration 108±91 months), 62 survived until discharge. Twenty-one patients died during observation, largely due to infectious diseases, such as sepsis and pneumonia (n=16, 76%). Compared to patients with mRS 0-4 (n=31), those with mRS 5 (n=31) showed a significantly poorer prognosis. The hazard ratio adjusted for age and antiplatelets was 13.7 (95% confidence interval: 3.88-63.7, p<0.001). Conclusion Hemodialysis patients with intracerebral hemorrhaging who were bedridden showed poor outcomes. The major causes of death were infections. Therefore, these patients should be carefully monitored for infections in order to improve their prognosis.

8.
Prostate ; 81(15): 1252-1260, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492128

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Large tumor suppressor 2 (LATS2) is an important regulator of the Hippo pathway and it plays crucial roles in cell survival and behaviors. Herein, we evaluated the pathological roles of LATS2 in prostate cancer (PC), for which very little information is available. METHODS: Cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in response to the siRNA-mediated knockdown (KD) LATS2 expression were evaluated in two PC cell lines (LNCaP and PC3). The expression of LATS2 in specimens from 204 PC patients was investigated immunohistochemically, and the relationships between its expression and clinicopathological features, proliferation index (PI; measured using an anti-KI-67 antibody), and biochemical recurrence (BCR) were investigated. RESULTS: KD of LATS2 increased the growth, migration, and invasion in LNCaP cells and only increased migration in PC3 cells. The expression of LATS2 was negatively associated with the grade group, T, N, M stage, and PI. In addition, the expression of LATS2 was a useful predictor of the histological effects of neoadjuvant hormonal therapy and BCR-free survival periods. A multivariate analysis model including clinicopathological features showed that negative expression of LATS2 had a significantly higher risk of BCR (odds ratio = 2.95, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: LATS2 acts as a tumor suppressor in PC. LATS2 expression is a useful predictor for BCR. LATS2-related activities are possibly dependent on the androgen-dependency of PC cells. Therefore, we suggest that LATS2 could be a potential therapeutic target and a useful predictor for outcome in patients with PC.

9.
Biochim Biophys Acta Biomembr ; 1864(1): 183782, 2021 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34555418

RESUMO

Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is a voltage-dependent non-selective cation channel activated by capsaicin, the main pungent ingredient of chili peppers, and noxious heat. Although TRPV1 channels produce outwardly rectifying currents even in the absence of capsaicin, little is known about the regulation mechanism of the TRPV1 currents. In the present study, we found that intracellular ATP regulates the basal activities of TRPV1 channels in a concentration-dependent manner. The ATP-dependent regulation of TRPV1 channels was mediated by phosphoinositides. Moreover, an increase in intracellular ATP concentration negatively shifted voltage-dependent activation of TRPV1 channels. These results suggest that the ATP-dependent production of phosphoinositides regulates the voltage-dependent gating of the basal TRPV1 channel activities in the absence of capsaicin.

10.
BJU Int ; 2021 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34383381

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To compare the urinary pH, recurrence-free survival (RFS), and safety of adjuvant intravesical therapy in patients with non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) receiving mitomycin C (MMC) therapy and MMC + cytosine arabinoside (Ara-C) therapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 165 patients with NMIBC from six hospitals were randomly allocated to two groups: weekly instillation of MMC + Ara-C (30 mg/30 mL + 200 mg/10 mL) for 6 weeks and the same instillation schedule of MMC (30 mg/40 mL). The primary outcome was RFS, and secondary outcomes were urinary pH and toxicity in the two groups. RESULTS: A total of 81 and 87 patients were randomised into the MMC and MMC + Ara-C groups, respectively. Overall, the RFS in the MMC + Ara-C group was significantly longer (P = 0.018) than that in the MMC group. A similar significant difference was detected in patients with intermediate-risk NMIBC, but not in those with high-risk NMIBC. The mean (SD) urinary pH was significantly higher in the MMC + Ara-C group than in the MMC group, at 6.56 (0.61) vs 5.78 (0.64) (P < 0.001), and the frequency of a urinary pH of >7.0 in the MMC and MMC + Ara-C groups was 6.3% and 26.7%, respectively (P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis models including clinicopathological features and second transurethral resection demonstrated that increased urinary pH was associated with better outcomes (hazard ratio 0.18, 95% confidential interval 0.18-0.038; P < 0.001). In all, there were 14 and 10 adverse events in the MMC and MMC + Ara-C groups, respectively, without a significant difference (P = 0.113). CONCLUSIONS: Our randomised clinical trial suggested that intravesical therapy with MMC and Ara-C is useful and safe for patients with intermediate-risk NMIBC. Increase in urinary pH with Ara-C is speculated as a mechanism for increased anti-cancer effects.

11.
J Oleo Sci ; 70(9): 1247-1252, 2021 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34373406

RESUMO

We characterized the adsorption and desorption of α-gel (α-form hydrated crystal) dispersions in aqueous media using a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) technique. The α-gel was formed from a mixture of N-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl]docosanamide (APA-22) L-lactic acid salt, 1-octadecanol (C18OH), and water. The solid substrate employed in this study as a model for hair was silica. The QCM-D measurements revealed that the α-gel dispersions yielded a rigid adsorption film on the negatively charged silica surface. The adsorption mass decreased with decreasing domain size (on the micrometer scale) of the α-gel dispersions. The adsorption film highly restricted the desorption of the α-gel from the silica surface even after rinsing with water. The adsorption film also exhibited excellent lubrication ability in aqueous media both before and after rinsing with water. We expect that the α-gel formed by APA-22 L-lactic acid is a potential ingredient for formulating an environment-friendly hair conditioner owing to its high adsorption, limited desorption, and excellent lubrication abilities on the solid surface.

12.
Langmuir ; 37(36): 10770-10775, 2021 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34459205

RESUMO

Perfume solubilization is an important process in the production of commercial products such as beverages, foods, and cosmetics. In the present study, small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) experiments were performed to investigate the solubilization behavior of perfumes in cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) micelles. The solubilization of linalool (LL) and l-menthol (MT), which are relatively hydrophilic perfumes, did not change the size of the CTAB micelles although the perfumes were incorporated in the micelles, as indicated by a decrease in scattering length density. On the other hand, the solubilization of d-limonene (LN), a hydrophobic perfume, led to the swelling of CTAB micelles. An internal contrast variation SANS study was performed by the deuteration of CTAB molecules to directly observe the perfumes in the micelles. The radius of d-CTAB micelles solubilizing LL or MT corresponds to that of h-CTAB, which indicates that these perfumes are accommodated in the palisade layers of the micelles and are homogeneously distributed in the micelles. On the other hand, LN formed small droplets, as indicated by the SANS profile, which implies the solubilization of LN molecules in the core of the CTAB micelles. We found that the relatively hydrophilic perfumes (LL and MT) show less impact on the sizes of the cationic micelles in comparison to nonionic micelles. Thus, the internal contrast variation method of SANS allowed the direct observation of the solubilization sites of perfumes with different hydrophilicity-hydrophobicity balances. This method is a powerful tool to determine the solubilization states that affect the solubilization capacity, volatilization, or release speed of perfumes.


Assuntos
Micelas , Perfumes , Cetrimônio , Espalhamento a Baixo Ângulo , Tensoativos
13.
CEN Case Rep ; 2021 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34304384

RESUMO

Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) is an X-chromosome recessive immunodeficiency disease characterized by the triad of thrombocytopenia, eczema, and susceptibility to infection owing to WAS protein gene abnormalities. Kidney transplantation is rarely offered to WAS patients with end-stage renal disease because of concerns that thrombocytopenia and immune disorders may affect the clinical outcome. Here, we report the case of a 20-year-old kidney transplant patient who developed end-stage renal disease owing to immunoglobulin (Ig)A nephropathy caused by WAS. Despite recurrent IgA nephropathy and T-cell-mediated rejection 7 months after transplantation, two rounds of steroid pulse therapy attenuated his renal function and urinary abnormality. His serum creatinine level was maintained at approximately 1.5 mg/dL 1 year after transplantation. No other WAS-related complications were observed throughout the clinical course. Although WAS can cause poor prognosis in kidney transplant patients, careful follow-up may allow kidney transplantation to be performed.

14.
Anticancer Res ; 41(8): 3815-3823, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34281841

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: A previous report showed that immune complex-ceruloplasmin (CP) in urine is associated with carcinogenesis and malignant behavior in bladder cancer (BC). We investigated the pathological significance and prognostic roles of urine and tissue levels of CP protein in BC patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Urine CP levels were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 97 patients. CP expression in BC tissues was evaluated by immunohistochemical analysis in 176 patient samples. RESULTS: Urine CP levels were positively associated with tumor grade and pT stage in non-muscle invasive BC (NMIBC). CP expression in BC tissues was positively associated with tumor growth and progression. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that high urine CP levels was an independent predictor of recurrence in the urinary tract in NMIBC (hazard ratio=2.87, p=0.016). CONCLUSION: CP-related markers, especially urine CP levels, are useful biomarkers of malignant potential and prognosis in NMIBC.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Ceruloplasmina/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/patologia , Idoso , Biomarcadores Tumorais/urina , Ceruloplasmina/urina , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/metabolismo
15.
IJU Case Rep ; 4(4): 251-254, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34258542

RESUMO

Introduction: Neurogenic overactive bladder is a main feature of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis. We successfully performed intravesical onabotulinumtoxinA therapy for refractory neurogenic overactive bladder due to human T-cell leukemia virus type 1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis. Case presentation: We retrospectively reviewed four neurogenic overactive bladder patients with human T-cell leukemia virus type 1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis who underwent bladder wall injections of onabotulinumtoxinA from April to October 2020. All patients were female. Their median age was 66 (range, 63-71) years. They were previously treated with ß3-adrenergic receptor agonists or anticholinergic drugs alone or in combination for ≥12 weeks. However, insufficient results were obtained. After 4 weeks of intravesical onabotulinumtoxinA therapy, overactive bladder symptoms improved and maximum cystometric capacity increased in all cases. Conclusion: Intravesical onabotulinumtoxinA therapy may be useful for treating refractory overactive bladder due to human T-cell leukemia virus type 1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis.

16.
Anticancer Res ; 41(7): 3327-3335, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34230128

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Stage-specific embryonic antigen (SSEA)-4 plays important roles in the malignant aggressiveness of various cancers. The aim of this study was to investigate the pathological characteristics of SSEA-4 in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: SSEA-4 expression and its pathological roles were evaluated in five prostate cancer (PC) cell lines and 27 CRPC tissues. The relationship between SSEA-4 and the androgen receptor (AR) was also examined. RESULTS: SSEA-4 expression was detected in AR-negative cells (PC3, DU145, and AICaP1) but was not detected in AR-positive cells (LNCaP and AICaP2). SSEA-4 expression in human CRPC tissues was significantly higher than that in locally advanced or metastatic hormone sensitive PC (HSPC) tissues. A negative correlation was also detected between SSEA-4 and AR in CRPC tissues but not in HSPC tissues. CONCLUSION: SSEA-4 was over-expressed in CRPC and the changes were mediated by complex mechanisms that related to the AR and hormonal therapy.


Assuntos
Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/metabolismo , Receptores Androgênicos/metabolismo , Antígenos Embrionários Estágio-Específicos/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Células PC-3
17.
Int J Urol ; 28(10): 1008-1011, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34291508

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To report a multicenter experience with the management of urachal abscess treatment in Japan. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of 263 cases of urachal abscess managed at 12 university hospitals in the Kyushu-Okinawa region over a 10-year period. Age, sex, abscess size, clinical symptoms, type of urachal remnants, and treatment were collected and analyzed. RESULTS: The average age was 29.8 ± 18.1 years, with males accounting for approximately two-thirds of the study population. The average abscess size was 1.7 cm (range 0-11 cm). The most common presenting symptom was umbilical secretion (66%), followed by abdominal pain (46%). A total of 127 patients (48.3%) were treated with antibiotics alone, whereas 136 patients (51.7%) received surgical treatment. The surgical approach was laparotomy in 75 patients (61.0%) and laparoscopic surgery in 48 patients (39.0%). Regarding the type of urachal remnant, the urachus sinus (180 patients) accounted for 68.4% of the total. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this study represents the first report on urachal abscess treatment in Japan. Our data show that the clinical symptoms might vary depending on the type of urachus remnant. It should be noted that gross hematuria, a characteristic symptom of urachal cancer, is rare in patients with urachal abscess.


Assuntos
Abscesso , Úraco , Abscesso/diagnóstico , Abscesso/epidemiologia , Abscesso/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Umbigo , Úraco/diagnóstico por imagem , Úraco/cirurgia , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Oleo Sci ; 70(8): 1093-1101, 2021 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34248096

RESUMO

The size, dispersibility, and fluidity of DPPC (1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine), POPC (1-palmitoy-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine), and DOPC (1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine) liposomes doped with ß-sitosteryl sulfate (PSO4) were comparatively studied. In all three types of liposomes, PSO4 reduced sizes and enhanced the negative values of the ζ-potential. However, the effect on sizes quantitatively differed in the three cases in a manner dependent on their phase behaviors. PSO4 rigidified each type of membrane in its liquid crystalline phase and fluidized the gel phase. It enhanced the glucose trapping efficiency (TE) of both DPPC and DOPC liposomes. The TE of DPPC first increased with the increasing concentration of PSO4, then decreased gradually. On the other hand, in the case of DOPC, the TE increased significantly upon addition of PSO4, then remained nearly constant. Though the exact dependence of TE on the PSO4 concentration differed in the two cases, its effect, in each case, was more than the effect of ß-sitosterol (POH). The ability of PSO4 for reducing the size and enhancing dispersibility and TE of liposomes can be useful for preparing cosmetics and pharmaceutical formulations.


Assuntos
1,2-Dipalmitoilfosfatidilcolina/química , Lipossomos/química , Fosfatidilcolinas/química , Sitosteroides/química , 1,2-Dipalmitoilfosfatidilcolina/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Lipossomos/metabolismo , Fluidez de Membrana , Estrutura Molecular , Tamanho da Partícula , Fosfatidilcolinas/metabolismo , Sitosteroides/metabolismo , Eletricidade Estática
19.
Life Sci ; 279: 119690, 2021 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34111460

RESUMO

AIMS: We examined age-associated changes in bladder and urethral coordination involving the nitric oxide (NO)/soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) system, which induces urethral smooth muscle relaxation, and urethral ischemic/oxidative stress changes in rats. MAIN METHODS: Sixteen female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into young (3 months old) and middle-aged (12-15 months old) groups. Urethral activity was evaluated by simultaneously recording intravesical pressure under isovolumetric conditions and urethral perfusion pressure (UPP) under urethane anesthesia. Sodium nitroprusside (SNP, 0.1 mg/kg), an NO donor, and BAY 41-2272, a novel NO-independent stimulator of sGC (0.1 mg/kg), were administered intravenously to both groups. N-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (l-NAME, 100 mg/kg) was also injected intravenously, to inhibit NO synthase activity in both groups. Staining for the ischemic marker, hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), and the oxidative stress markers, 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and malondialdehyde (MDA), was performed on tissue sections of the urethra, in both groups. KEY FINDINGS: Baseline UPP and UPP changes were significantly lower in middle-aged rats than in young rats. After administration of SNP and BAY 41-2272, baseline UPP and UPP nadir were significantly decreased in both groups. After administration of l-NAME, UPP change/bladder contraction amplitude in young rats was still lower than at baseline but was completely restored to control levels in middle-aged rats. Immunoreactivity of HIF-1α, 8-OHdG, and MDA was higher in middle-aged rats than in young rats. SIGNIFICANCE: Age-associated ischemic and oxidative stress in the urethra might be correlated with impairment of the NO/sGC system and with coordination of the bladder and urethra.


Assuntos
Ataxia/patologia , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Guanilil Ciclase Solúvel/metabolismo , Uretra/patologia , Bexiga Urinária/patologia , Fatores Etários , Animais , Ataxia/metabolismo , Feminino , Relaxamento Muscular , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Uretra/metabolismo , Bexiga Urinária/metabolismo
20.
Langmuir ; 37(23): 7032-7038, 2021 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34082534

RESUMO

Mixtures of surfactants, long-chain alcohols, and water sometimes yield lamellar gels with hexagonally packed alkyl chains. This assembly is called "α-gel" or "α-form hydrated crystal." In this study, we characterized the rheological properties of α-gel prepared using disodium N-dodecanoylglutamate (C12Glu-2Na), 1-hexadecanol (C16OH), and water at different NaCl concentrations. The α-gel structure was assessed using small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering (SWAXS). The SWAXS measurements revealed that an increased NaCl concentration (0-200 mmol dm-3) resulted in a decreased d-spacing caused by the screening of electrostatic repulsion between lamellar bilayers. This led to an increased amount of excess water (i.e., the water present between the α-gel domains), and hence, the viscosity of the α-gel decreased in the range of the NaCl concentration. A further increase in the NaCl concentration (200-1000 mmol dm-3) resulted in decreased electrostatic repulsion between the α-gel domains and/or an increased number of α-gel domains (multilamellar vesicles). These effects increased the domain-to-domain interactions, leading to increased viscosity. Therefore, we concluded that the viscosity of the α-gel was controlled by the amount of excess water and the domain-to-domain interactions. Once the network structure collapsed under the strain, it was difficult to recover the original network structure. The low recoverability resulted from increased cohesion between the domains at high NaCl concentrations.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos , Tensoativos , Álcoois , Géis , Reologia , Cloreto de Sódio
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