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1.
Plant Physiol ; 2021 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34633454

RESUMO

Nicotiana benthamiana has emerged as a complementary experimental system to Arabidopsis thaliana. It enables fast-forward in vivo analyses primarily through transient gene expression and is particularly popular in the study of plant immunity. Recently, our understanding of nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat (NLR) plant immune receptors has greatly advanced following the discovery of the Arabidopsis HOPZ-ACTIVATED RESISTANCE1 (ZAR1) resistosome. Here, we describe a vector system of 72 plasmids that enables functional studies of the ZAR1 resistosome in N. benthamiana. We showed that ZAR1 stands out among the coiled coil class of NLRs (CC-NLRs) for being highly conserved across distantly related dicot plant species and confirmed NbZAR1 as the N. benthamiana ortholog of Arabidopsis ZAR1. Effector-activated and autoactive NbZAR1 trigger the cell death response in N. benthamiana and this activity is dependent on a functional N-terminal α1 helix. C-terminally tagged NbZAR1 remains functional in N. benthamiana, thus enabling cell biology and biochemical studies in this plant system. We conclude that the NbZAR1 open source pZA plasmid collection forms an additional experimental system to Arabidopsis for in planta resistosome studies.

2.
PLoS Biol ; 19(10): e3001124, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34669691

RESUMO

Reference datasets are critical in computational biology. They help define canonical biological features and are essential for benchmarking studies. Here, we describe a comprehensive reference dataset of experimentally validated plant nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat (NLR) immune receptors. RefPlantNLR consists of 481 NLRs from 31 genera belonging to 11 orders of flowering plants. This reference dataset has several applications. We used RefPlantNLR to determine the canonical features of functionally validated plant NLRs and to benchmark 5 NLR annotation tools. This revealed that although NLR annotation tools tend to retrieve the majority of NLRs, they frequently produce domain architectures that are inconsistent with the RefPlantNLR annotation. Guided by this analysis, we developed a new pipeline, NLRtracker, which extracts and annotates NLRs from protein or transcript files based on the core features found in the RefPlantNLR dataset. The RefPlantNLR dataset should also prove useful for guiding comparative analyses of NLRs across the wide spectrum of plant diversity and identifying understudied taxa. We hope that the RefPlantNLR resource will contribute to moving the field beyond a uniform view of NLR structure and function.

3.
J Biochem ; 2021 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34676394

RESUMO

Myostatin (Mstn) and GDF11 are critical factors that are involved in muscle atrophy in the young and sarcopenia in the elderly, respectively. These TGF-ß superfamily proteins activate not only Smad signaling but also non-Smad signaling including the Ras-mediated ERK pathway (Raf-MEK-ERK phosphorylation cascade). Although Mstn and GDF11 have been shown to induce muscle atrophy or sarcopenia by Smad2/3-mediated Akt inhibition, participation of the non-Smad Ras-ERK pathway in atrophy and sarcopenia has not been well determined. We show here that both Mstn and GDF11 prevented skeletal myocyte differentiation but that the MEK inhibitor U0126 or trametinib restored differentiation in Mstn- or GDF11-treated myocytes. These MEK inhibitors induced the expression of DA-Raf1 (DA-Raf), which is a dominant-negative antagonist of the Ras-ERK pathway. Exogenous expression of DA-Raf in Mstn- or GDF11-treated myocytes restored differentiation. Furthermore, administration of trametinib to aged mice resulted in an increase in myofiber size, or recovery from muscle atrophy. The trametinib administration downregulated ERK activity in these muscles. These results imply that the Mstn/GDF11-induced Ras-ERK pathway plays critical roles in the inhibition of myocyte differentiation and muscle regeneration, which leads to muscle atrophy. Trametinib and similar approved drugs might be applicable to the treatment of muscle atrophy in sarcopenia or cachexia.

4.
Cancer Lett ; 522: 119-128, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34534615

RESUMO

Anaplastic lymphoma kinase-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (ALK-TKIs) have improved clinical outcomes in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) harboring ALK- rearrangements. However, a small population of tumor cells survives due to adaptive resistance under drug pressure and ultimately acquires drug resistance. Thus, it is necessary to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the prevention of drug resistance to improve the prognosis of patients with ALK-rearranged NSCLC. We identified novel adaptive resistance, generated through c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)/c-Jun signaling, to initial ALK-TKIs-alectinib and brigatinib-in ALK-rearranged NSCLC. Inhibition of JNK/c-Jun axis showed suppression of growth and promotion of apoptosis induced by ALK-TKIs in drug-tolerant cells. JNK inhibition, in combination with the use of ALK-TKIs, increased cell apoptosis through repression of the Bcl-xL proteins, compared with ALK-TKI monotherapy. Importantly, combination therapy targeting JNK and ALK significantly delayed the regrowth following cessation of these treatments. Together, our results demonstrated that JNK pathway activation plays a pivotal role in the intrinsic resistance to ALK-TKIs and the emergence of ALK-TKI-tolerant cells in ALK-rearranged NSCLC, thus indicating that optimal inhibition of tolerant signals combined with ALK-TKIs may potentially improve the outcome of ALK-rearranged NSCLC.

5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445749

RESUMO

Cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption are major risk factors for lifestyle-related diseases. Although it has been reported that the combination of these habits worsens risks, the underlying mechanism remains elusive. Reactive carbonyl species (RCS) cause chemical modifications of biological molecules, leading to alterations in cellular signaling pathways, and total RCS levels have been used as a lipid peroxidation marker linked to lifestyle-related diseases. In this study, at least 41 types of RCS were identified in the lipophilic fraction of plasma samples from 40 subjects using liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS/MS). Higher levels of 10 alkanals, 5 trans-2-alkenals, 1 cis-4-alkenal, and 3 alkadienals were detected in the smoking/drinking group (N = 10) as compared to those with either habit (N = 10 each) or without both habits (N = 10) in the analysis of covariances adjusted for age and BMI. The levels of 3 alkanals, 1 trans-2-alkenal, 1 alkadienal, and 1 4-hydroxy-2-alkenal in the smoking/drinking group were significantly higher than those in the no-smoking/drinking and no-smoking/no-drinking groups. These results strongly indicate that the combination of cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking synergistically increases the level and variety of RCS in the circulating blood, and may further jeopardize cellular function.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/sangue , Aldeídos/sangue , Fumar Cigarros/sangue , Cetonas/sangue , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Cromatografia Líquida , Fumar Cigarros/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Carbonilação Proteica , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray
6.
J Exp Bot ; 2021 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34387350

RESUMO

Activation of cell-surface and intracellular receptor-mediated immunity results in rapid transcriptional reprogramming that underpins disease resistance. However, the mechanisms by which co-activation of both immune systems lead to transcriptional changes are not clear. Here, we combine RNA-seq and ATAC-seq to define changes in gene expression and chromatin accessibility. Activation of cell-surface or intracellular receptor-mediated immunity, or both, increases chromatin accessibility at induced defense genes. Analysis of ATAC-seq and RNA-seq data combined with publicly available information on transcription factor DNA-binding motifs enabled comparison of individual gene regulatory networks activated by cell-surface or intracellular receptor-mediated immunity, and by both. These results and analyses reveal overlapping and conserved transcriptional regulatory mechanisms between the two immune systems.

7.
Cancer Sci ; 112(10): 4166-4175, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34288272

RESUMO

Various molecular-targeting drugs have markedly improved the treatment of patients with breast cancer. As yet, therapies for triple-negative breast cancer are mainly cytotoxic agents. To investigate the novel therapy for triple-negative breast cancer, we herein examined the effects of a new combination therapy comprising a RAF/MEK inhibitor CH5126766, also known as VS-6766, which we originally discovered, and eribulin. The combination of CH5126766 and eribulin potently inhibited cell growth in the triple-negative breast cancer cell lines tested. The underlying mechanism in the efficacy of this combination treatment in vitro and in vivo was due to enhanced apoptosis through the suppression of survivin and Bcl-2 family proteins. We also showed the suppressed expression of programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) in combination therapy in vivo. We found that combination therapy with eribulin and CH5126766 for triple-negative breast cancer inhibited cell growth by apoptosis and raised a possibility that immune responses through suppression of PD-L1 might partially contribute to inhibition of tumor growth, indicating the potential of this combination as a novel strategy for triple-negative breast cancer.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Cumarínicos/uso terapêutico , Furanos/uso terapêutico , Cetonas/uso terapêutico , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-raf/antagonistas & inibidores , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Proteína Oncogênica v-akt/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Distribuição Aleatória , Survivina/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/imunologia , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/metabolismo , Ensaio Tumoral de Célula-Tronco
8.
G3 (Bethesda) ; 2021 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33871605

RESUMO

Characterizing epistatic gene interactions is fundamental for understanding the genetic architecture of complex traits. However, due to the large number of potential gene combinations, detecting epistatic gene interactions is computationally demanding. A simple, easy-to-perform method for sensitive detection of epistasis is required. Due to their homozygous nature, use of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) excludes the dominance effect of alleles and interactions involving heterozygous genotypes, thereby allowing detection of epistasis in a simple and interpretable model. Here, we present an approach called RIL-StEp (recombinant inbred lines stepwise epistasis detection) to detect epistasis using single nucleotide polymorphisms in the genome. We applied the method to reveal epistasis affecting rice (Oryza sativa) seed hull color and leaf chlorophyll content and successfully identified pairs of genomic regions that presumably control these phenotypes. This method has the potential to improve our understanding of the genetic architecture of various traits of crops and other organisms.

9.
Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 6(6): 474-481, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33812492

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The only established treatment for preventing colorectal cancer in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is colectomy, which greatly reduces patient quality of life. Thus, an alternative method is warranted. In this trial, we aimed to clarify the individual and joint effects of low-dose aspirin and mesalazine on the recurrence of colorectal polyps in Japanese patients with FAP. METHODS: This was a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre trial with a two-by-two factorial design done in 11 centres in Japan. Eligible patients were aged 16-70 years and had a history of more than 100 adenomatous polyps in the large intestine, without a history of colectomy. Before the study, patients underwent endoscopic removal of all colorectal polyps of at least 5·0 mm in diameter. Randomisation was done with a minimisation method with a random component to balance the groups with respect to the adjustment factors of sex, age (<30 years vs ≥30 years), or smoking status at the time of entry. Patients and researchers were masked to the treatment group. There were four groups: aspirin (100 mg per day) plus mesalazine (2 g per day), aspirin (100 mg per day) plus mesalazine placebo, aspirin placebo plus mesalazine (2 g per day), or aspirin placebo plus mesalazine placebo. Treatment was continued until 1 week before 8 month colonoscopy. The primary endpoint was the incidence of colorectal polyps of at least 5·0 mm at 8 months and was assessed in the intention-to-treat population. Safety was assessed in the ITT population. We also did a per-protocol analysis including only patients who took at least 70% of the allocated study drug. This trial is registered with the UMIN Clinical Trials Registry, number UMIN000018736, and is complete. FINDINGS: Between Sept 25, 2015, and March 13, 2017, 104 patients were randomly assigned to receive either aspirin or aspirin placebo (n=52) or mesalazine or mesalazine placebo (n=52). Two patients withdrew from the aspirin plus mesalazine placebo group. 26 (50%) of 52 patients who received no aspirin had colorectal polyps of at least 5·0 mm at 8 months, as did 15 (30%) of the 50 patients who received any aspirin, 21 (42%) of the 50 patients who received no mesalazine, and 20 (38%) of the 52 patients who received any mesalazine. The adjusted odds ratio for polyp recurrence was 0·37 (95% CI 0·16-0·86) in the patients who received any aspirin and 0·87 (95% CI 0·38-2·00) in any who received mesalazine. The most common adverse events were grade 1-2 upper gastrointestinal symptoms in three (12%) of 26 patients who received aspirin plus mesalazine, one (4%) of 24 patients who received aspirin plus mesalazine placebo, and one (4%) of 26 patients who received mesalazine plus aspirin placebo. There was one grade 4 event in the mesalazine plus aspirin placebo group, but not related to the treatment. INTERPRETATION: Low-dose aspirin safely suppressed the recurrence of colorectal polyps larger than 5·0 mm in patients with FAP. These results suggest an effect of low-dose aspirin for FAP and could be an alternative method for preventing colorectal cancer in FAP. FUNDING: Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development.


Assuntos
Polipose Adenomatosa do Colo/tratamento farmacológico , Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Quimioprevenção/métodos , Neoplasias Colorretais/prevenção & controle , Mesalamina/uso terapêutico , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Polipose Adenomatosa do Colo/genética , Polipose Adenomatosa do Colo/patologia , Adulto , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/efeitos adversos , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Colectomia/métodos , Colectomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Colonoscopia/métodos , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/cirurgia , Método Duplo-Cego , Quimioterapia Combinada/métodos , Humanos , Incidência , Japão/epidemiologia , Mesalamina/administração & dosagem , Mesalamina/efeitos adversos , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/epidemiologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/prevenção & controle , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Efeito Placebo , Qualidade de Vida
10.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(5)2021 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33652782

RESUMO

Natural products have numerous bioactivities and are expected to be a resource for potent drugs. However, their direct targets in cells often remain unclear. We found that rabdosianone I, which is a bitter diterpene from an oriental herb for longevity, Isodon japonicus Hara, markedly inhibited the growth of human colorectal cancer cells by downregulating the expression of thymidylate synthase (TS). Next, using rabdosianone I-immobilized nano-magnetic beads, we identified two mitochondrial inner membrane proteins, adenine nucleotide translocase 2 (ANT2) and prohibitin 2 (PHB2), as direct targets of rabdosianone I. Consistent with the action of rabdosianone I, the depletion of ANT2 or PHB2 reduced TS expression in a different manner. The knockdown of ANT2 or PHB2 promoted proteasomal degradation of TS protein, whereas that of not ANT2 but PHB2 reduced TS mRNA levels. Thus, our study reveals the ANT2- and PHB2-mediated pleiotropic regulation of TS expression and demonstrates the possibility of rabdosianone I as a lead compound of TS suppressor.

11.
Cancer Gene Ther ; 2021 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33402732

RESUMO

Metabolic reprogramming leading to aerobic glycolysis, termed the "Warburg effect," is a critical property of cancer cells. However, the precise mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are not fully understood. A growing body of evidence indicates that γ-glutamylcyclotransferase (GGCT), an enzyme involved in glutathione homeostasis that is highly expressed in many types of cancer, represents a promising therapeutic target. In this study, we identified GGCT as a novel regulator of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), a transcription factor that plays a role in hypoxia adaptation promoting aerobic glycolysis. In multiple human cancer cell lines, depletion of GGCT downregulated HIF-1α at the mRNA and protein levels. Conversely, in NIH3T3 mouse fibroblasts, overexpression of GGCT upregulated HIF-1α under normoxia. Moreover, depletion of GGCT downregulated HIF-1α downstream target genes involved in glycolysis, whereas overexpression of GGCT upregulated those genes. Metabolomic analysis revealed that modulation of GGCT expression induced a metabolic switch from the citric acid cycle to glycolysis under normoxia. In addition, we found that GGCT regulates expression of HIF-1α protein via the AMPK-mTORC1-4E-BP1 pathway in PC3 cells. Thus GGCT regulates the expression of HIF-1α in cancer cells, causing a switch to glycolysis.

12.
J Labelled Comp Radiopharm ; 64(3): 109-119, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33067819

RESUMO

Recently, we produced 11 C-labeled 2-((1E,3E)-4-(6-(methylamino)pyridin-3-yl)buta-1,3-dienyl)benzo[d]thiazol-6-ol ([11 C]PBB3) as a clinically useful positron emission tomography (PET) tracer for in vivo imaging of tau pathologies in the human brain. To overcome the limitations (i.e., rapid in vivo metabolism and short half-life) of [11 C]PBB3, we further synthesized 18 F-labeled 1-fluoro-3-((2-((1E,3E)-4-(6-(methylamino)pyridine-3-yl)buta-1,3-dien-1-yl)benzo[d]thiazol-6-yl)oxy)propan-2-ol ([18 F]PM-PBB3). [18 F]PM-PBB3 is also a useful tau PET tracer for imaging tau pathologies. In this study, we developed a routine radiosynthesis and quality control testing of [18 F]PM-PBB3 for clinical applications. [18 F]PM-PBB3 was synthesized by direct 18 F-fluorination of the tosylated derivative, followed by removal of the protecting group. [18 F]PM-PBB3 was obtained with sufficient radioactivity (25 ± 6.0% of the nondecay-corrected radiochemical yield at the end of synthesis, EOS), radiochemical purity (98 ± 0.6%), and molar activity (350 ± 94 GBq/µmol at EOS; n = 53). Moreover, [18 F]PM-PBB3 consistently retained >95% of radiochemical purity for 60 min without undergoing photoisomerization using a new UV-cutoff light (yellow light) fixed in the hot cell to monitor the synthesis. All the results of the quality control testing for the [18 F]PM-PBB3 injection complied with our in-house quality control and quality assurance specifications. We have accomplished >200 production runs of [18 F]PM-PBB3 in our facility for various research purposes.

13.
Carcinogenesis ; 42(1): 148-158, 2021 02 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32710739

RESUMO

Artesunate (ART) is a clinically approved antimalarial drug and was revealed as a candidate of colorectal cancer chemopreventive agents in our drug screening system. Here, we aimed to understand the suppressive effects of ART on intestinal tumorigenesis. In vitro, ART reduced T-cell factor/lymphoid enhancer factor (TCF/LEF) promoter transcriptional activity. In vivo, ART inhibited intestinal polyp development. We found that ART reduces TCF1/TCF7 nuclear translocation by binding the Ras-related nuclear protein (RAN), suggesting that ART inhibits TCF/LEF transcriptional factor nuclear translocation by binding to RAN, thereby inhibiting Wnt signaling. Our results provide a novel mechanism through which artesunate inhibits intestinal tumorigenesis.


Assuntos
Polipose Adenomatosa do Colo/prevenção & controle , Artesunato/farmacologia , Carcinogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Via de Sinalização Wnt/efeitos dos fármacos , Polipose Adenomatosa do Colo/genética , Polipose Adenomatosa do Colo/patologia , Proteína da Polipose Adenomatosa do Colo/genética , Animais , Artesunato/uso terapêutico , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Fator 1-alfa Nuclear de Hepatócito/genética , Fator 1-alfa Nuclear de Hepatócito/metabolismo , Humanos , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Intestinal/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Mutação , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Fator 1 de Transcrição de Linfócitos T/genética , Fator 1 de Transcrição de Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Ativação Transcricional/efeitos dos fármacos , Via de Sinalização Wnt/genética , Proteína ran de Ligação ao GTP/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteína ran de Ligação ao GTP/genética , Proteína ran de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo
14.
Mol Cancer Ther ; 19(10): 1992-2000, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32847975

RESUMO

Rhabdoid tumor is an aggressive, early childhood tumor. Biallelic inactivation of the SWI/SNF-related matrix-associated actin-dependent regulator of chromatin subfamily B member 1 (SMARCB1)/integrase interactor 1 (INI1) gene is the only common genetic feature in rhabdoid tumors. Loss of SMARCB1 function results in downregulation of several tumor suppressor genes including p16, p21, and NOXA The novel histone deacetylase inhibitor, OBP-801, induces p21 and has shown efficacy against various cancers. In our study, OBP-801 strongly inhibited the cell growth of all rhabdoid tumor cell lines in WST-8 assay. However, Western blotting and cell-cycle analysis revealed that OBP-801 did not activate the P21-RB pathway in some cell lines. p21 knockout indicated that p21 did not dominate the OBP-801 antitumor effect in rhabdoid tumor cell lines. We discovered that OBP-801 induced NOXA expression and caspase-dependent apoptosis in rhabdoid tumor cell lines independent of TP53. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay showed that OBP-801 acetylated histone proteins and recruited RNA polymerase II to the transcription start site (TSS) of the NOXA promotor. Moreover, OBP-801 recruited BRG1 and BAF155, which are members of the SWI/SNF complex, to the TSS of the NOXA promotor. These results suggest that OBP-801 epigenetically releases the silencing of NOXA and induces apoptosis in rhabdoid tumors. OBP-801 strongly inhibited tumor growth in human rhabdoid tumor xenograft mouse models in vivo Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling and cleaved caspase-3 were stained in tumors treated with OBP-801. In conclusion, OBP-801 induces apoptosis in rhabdoid tumor cells by epigenetically releasing the silencing of NOXA, which is a key mediator of rhabdoid tumor apoptosis. The epigenetic approach for NOXA silencing with OBP-801 is promising for rhabdoid tumor treatment.


Assuntos
Inibidores de Histona Desacetilases/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Tumor Rabdoide/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Apoptose , Feminino , Inibidores de Histona Desacetilases/farmacologia , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus
15.
Nutrients ; 12(6)2020 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32485893

RESUMO

Weight loss, often observed in the elderly, is associated with increased risks of various diseases. No large and long-term human study has been conducted to demonstrate the health maintenance-related effects of lactic acid bacteria preparations. To reveal the potential benefit of long-term lactic acid, the effects of bacteria-based probiotics for health maintenance were examined. This observational study included the participants from a previous clinical study designed to evaluate the effects of wheat bran biscuits or Lactobacillus preparation, 3 g/day biolactis powder (BLP), in preventing colorectal tumor. The participants were provided an option to continue treatment with BLP on an outpatient basis after completion of the study. The 380 patients who completed the study were contacted and asked to participate in the present study and those who consented were surveyed for cancer incidence, treatment compliance, lifestyle, weight, and other variables. Informed consent was obtained from 237 of the 380 (62.4%) patients. The mean follow-up period was 7913 days (21.7 years). Cancer developed in 24 of 128 (18.8%) patients in the BLP extension group and 24 of 109 (22.0%) patients in the non-BLP extension group (risk ratio 0.88 [95% confidence interval 0.53-1.47]). Although no significant difference was observed, the cumulative cancer incidence rose at a slightly lower rate in the BLP extension group. Both groups showed a significant weight decrease over the course of 20 years, although the decrease in the BLP extension group was only 1.4 kg, compared with 2.8 kg in the non-BLP extension group. Very long-term treatment with a Lactobacillus probiotic preparation suppressed weight loss in the elderly.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Lactobacillus casei , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Probióticos/farmacologia , Perda de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Neoplasias Colorretais/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Tempo
16.
J Pediatr ; 2020 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32553864

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess platelet thrombus formation (PTF) under flow conditions in patients with Kawasaki disease. Previously available platelet activation data were limited for nonphysiological shear stress condition. The total thrombus-formation analysis system (T-TAS) was developed for quantitative PTF analysis. STUDY DESIGN: In total, 33 patients with acute Kawasaki disease were assessed. Whole blood samples, obtained immediately before treatment and 1 week and 1 month after treatment, were assessed using the T-TAS with a collagen-coated platelet chip under high shear values (1000 s-1 [PL12] and 2000 s-1 [PL24]). Measures, such as time to reach 5 kPa above the base pressure (T5+α) and area under the curve for flow pressure curve for 10 minutes (AUC10) were analyzed to quantify PTF. RESULTS: Immediately before treatment, the median PL12-T5+α and PL24-T5+α were 3.3 minutes (IQR 2.0-4.5) and 1.3 minutes (0.9-1.9), respectively, and both values were significantly lower in adult controls (3.5 minutes [2.9-6.4] and 2.8 minutes [1.8-4.8]; P = .015 and P < .001, respectively). In addition, the PL12-AUC10 (151.7 U [94.5-279.9]) significantly decreased in adult controls (234.1 U [110.5-306.5], P = .007). By contrast, at 1 week and 1 month after the start of treatment, the T5+α was longer, and the PL12-AUC10 and PL24-AUC10 decreased. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with acute Kawasaki disease, the PTF had an early onset and weak stability.

17.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(5)2020 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32365457

RESUMO

Aspirin is one of the most promising over-the-counter drugs to repurpose for cancer treatment. In particular, aspirin has been reported to be effective against PIK3CA-mutated colorectal cancer (CRC); however, little information is available on how the PIK3CA gene status affects its efficacy. We found that the growth inhibitory effects of aspirin were impaired upon glutamine deprivation in PIK3CA-mutated CRC cells. Notably, glutamine dependency of aspirin-mediated growth inhibition was observed in PIK3CA-mutated cells but not PIK3CA wild type cells. Mechanistically, aspirin induced G1 arrest in PIK3CA-mutated CRC cells and inhibited the mTOR pathway, inducing the same phenotypes as glutamine deprivation. Moreover, our study including bioinformatic approaches revealed that aspirin increased the expression levels of glutaminolysis-related genes with upregulation of activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) in PIK3CA-mutated CRC cells. Lastly, the agents targeting glutaminolysis demonstrated significant combined effects with aspirin on PIK3CA-mutated CRC cells. Thus, these findings not only suggest the correlation among aspirin efficacy, PIK3CA mutation and glutamine metabolism, but also the rational combinatorial treatments of aspirin with glutaminolysis-targeting agents against PIK3CA-mutated CRC.

18.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(4)2020 03 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32235498

RESUMO

As histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) have limited efficacy against solid tumors, we investigated whether and how oxidative stress is involved in sensitivity to HDACIs to develop a novel therapeutic option of HDACIs treatment. We first tested whether a reduction of the antioxidant glutathione (GSH) by glutamine deprivation affects sensitivity to a commercially available HDACI vorinostat and reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation. Next we investigated the relationship between a glutamate-cystine transporter xCT and the efficacy of vorinostat using siRNA of xCT and bioinformatic analyses. Finally, we verified the combinatory effects of vorinostat and the xCT inhibitor salazosulfapyridine (SASP) on ROS accumulation, cell death induction, and colony formation. Glutamine deprivation increased vorinostat-mediated cell death with ROS accumulation. Genetic ablation of xCT improved the efficacy of vorinostat, consistent with the results of public data analyses demonstrating that xCT expressions positively correlate with insensitivity to HDACIs in many types of cancer cell lines. Vorinostat caused ROS accumulation when combined with SASP, possibly resulting in synergistic ferroptosis. Our study provides a novel mechanistic insight into the mechanism underlying sensitivity to HDACIs involving xCT, suggesting xCT to be a promising predictive marker of HDACIs and rationalizing combinatory therapy of HDACIs with xCT inhibitors to induce ferroptosis.

19.
Cancer Sci ; 111(6): 2052-2061, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32291856

RESUMO

KRAS mutation is frequently seen in a subtype of ovarian cancer categorized as type 1. The KRAS-MAPK pathway, which is closely involved in type 1 cancer progression, is under the regulation of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). AXL, one of the RTKs, has been reported to be overexpressed in ovarian cancer and contributes to the poor prognosis. However, there is no useful target-based agent against such gene profiles. We examined the combined effect of the dual RAF/MEK inhibitor CH5126766 and AXL inhibitor R428 on the growth of ovarian cancer HEY-T30 and OVCAR-5 cell lines, both of which bear KRAS mutation and express AXL at a high level, using the WST-8 assay and the colony formation assay. The synergistic effect of the combination was evaluated by the combination index. The apoptotic cells were analyzed by flow cytometry. The expression of apoptotic proteins and the phosphorylation of MAPK and AKT pathway proteins were investigated by western blotting. We found that CH5126766 and R428 suppressed the phosphorylation of ERK and AKT, respectively, and their combination synergistically inhibited the growth of both cell lines with enhancement of apoptosis accompanied by the Bim upregulation. Combined treatment with CH5126766 and R428 is expected as the novel therapeutic option for KRAS-mutated ovarian cancer with high expression of AXL.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Benzocicloeptenos/farmacologia , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/patologia , Cumarínicos/farmacologia , Triazóis/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/genética , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Mutação , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/genética , Receptores Proteína Tirosina Quinases/metabolismo
20.
J BUON ; 25(1): 464-471, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32277670

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Myxofibrosarcoma is characterized by a high rate of recurrence after surgery. Since myxofibrosarcoma is refractory to conventional cytotoxic chemotherapy, the established radical treatment is primary wide resection. The effects of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors on myxofibrosarcoma have not yet been investigated. Therefore, the main purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of a HDAC inhibitor on myxofibrosarcoma. METHODS: The effects of the HDAC inhibitor OBP-801 on human myxofibrosarcoma cells were examined using cell viability assay, flow cytometric analysis of the cell cycle and apoptosis, and Western blotting. The effects of combinations of OBP-801 with pazopanib or Akt-mTOR inhibitors were also investigated using cell viability assay. RESULTS: OBP-801 inhibited the growth of myxofibrosarcoma NMFH-1 and NMFH-2 cells. It also induced cell cycle arrest at the G2 phase and apoptosis in both cell lines. The inhibitory effects of pazopanib and Akt-mTOR inhibitors on the growth of myxofibrosarcoma cells were enhanced by the combination with OBP-801. CONCLUSIONS: The present results demonstrated that OBP-801 exerted therapeutic effects in myxofibrosarcoma in both single and concomitant administrations. Therefore, OBP-801 has potential as a novel treatment for myxofibrosarcoma.


Assuntos
Fibrossarcoma/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Histona Desacetilases/uso terapêutico , Humanos
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