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1.
Clin Neurol Neurosurg ; 209: 106922, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34509751

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Primary brain tumor is a leading cause of death in cancer-bearing children. Acutely progressive patterns of electroencephalography (EEG) remain to be investigated for children with rapidly growing brain tumors. CASE REPORT: A 14-month-old boy was transferred to our department for prolonged seizures and unrecovered consciousness on his fifth day of illness. The EEG recording on admission showed highly disorganized background activity with high-voltage rhythmic delta waves. Serial EEG monitoring revealed a rapid transition of the background activity to the suppression-burst pattern, and then to generalized suppression of cortical activity within a few hours after admission. Magnetic resonance imaging detected a midline tumor at the pineal gland extending to the midbrain and pons. The tumor was pathologically confirmed as atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT) with absent expression of SMARCB1. He died of tumor progression on the 20th day after admission. CONCLUSION: AT/RT is an additional category of brain tumors that cause the clinically and electro-physiologically critical condition in a few days after the onset.

2.
Clin Exp Immunol ; 2021 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34559885

RESUMO

Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma-translocation gene 1 (MALT1)-deficiency is a rare combined immunodeficiency characterized by recurrent infections, dermatitis and enteropathy. We herein investigate the immunological profiles of our patient and previously reported children with MALT1-deficiency. A mutation analysis was performed by targeted panel sequencing for primary immunodeficiency. Lymphocyte subset, activation and B cell differentiation were analyzed by flow cytometry and t-distributed stochastic neighbor embedding. Pneumocystis pneumonia developed in a 6-month-old Japanese infant with atopic dermatitis, enteritis and growth restriction. This infant showed agammaglobulinemia without lymphopenia. At 8 years of age, the genetic diagnosis of MALT1-deficiency was confirmed on a novel homozygous mutation of c.1102G>T, p.E368X. T cell stimulation tests showed impairments in the production of interleukin-2, phosphorylation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) p65 and differentiation of B cells. In combination with the literature data, we found that the number of circulatory B cells, but not T cells, were inversely correlated with the age of patients. The hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) successfully reconstituted the differentiation of mature B cells and T cells. These data conceptualize that patients with complete MALT1-deficiency show aberrant differentiation and depletion of B cells. The early diagnosis and HCT lead to a cure of the disease phenotype associated with the loss-of-function mutations in human CARD11.

3.
BMJ Open ; 11(8): e043202, 2021 08 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34380712

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association between breast feeding and infant development during the first year of life using sibling comparison. DESIGN: Nationwide prospective birth cohort study with sibling pair analysis. SETTING: 15 regional centres that participated in the Japan Environment and Children's Study. PARTICIPANTS: This study included 77 119 children (singleton, term birth and no malformation/severe diseases) whose mothers were registered between January 2011 and March 2014, including 3521 duos or trios of siblings. PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was developmental delay at 6 and 12 months of age, assessed using the Japanese translation of the Ages and Stages Questionnaires, third edition. Multivariable regression analyses adjusted for confounders were performed to estimate the risk ratios of delay associated with any or exclusive breast feeding. Pairs of siblings discordant for statuses were selected, and conditional regression analyses were conducted with a matched cohort design. RESULTS: Developmental delay was identified in 6162 (8.4%) and 10 442 (14.6%) children at 6 and 12 months of age, respectively. Any breast feeding continued until 6 months or 12 months old was associated with reduced developmental delay at 12 months of age (adjusted risk ratio (95% CI): 0.81 (0.77 to 0.85) and 0.81 (0.78 to 0.84), respectively). Furthermore, exclusive breast feeding until 3 months was associated with reduced developmental delay at 12 months of age (adjusted risk ratio, 0.86 (95% CI 0.83 to 0.90)). In sibling pair analysis, the association between any breast feeding until 12 months and reduced developmental delay at 12 months of age persisted (adjusted risk ratio, 0.64 (95% CI 0.43 to 0.93)). CONCLUSIONS: The present study demonstrated the association of continuous breast feeding with reduced developmental delay at 1 year of age using sibling pair analysis, in which unmeasured confounding factors are still present but less included. This may provide an argument to promote breastfeeding continuation.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Irmãos , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Japão/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos
4.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(8)2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34451964

RESUMO

The causal effects of vaccines on Kawasaki disease (KD) remain elusive. We aimed to examine the association between vaccines administered during infancy and the development of KD in Japan. We conducted a multicenter prospective case-control study using questionnaires and compared the vaccination status of infants (age: 6 weeks to 9 months) who developed KD (KD group; n = 102) and those who did not develop KD (non-KD group; n = 139). Next, we performed a case-crossover study of 98 cases in the KD group and compared the status of vaccinations between the case and control periods. We also compared the incidence of KD in children for each 5-year period before and after the addition of new vaccines (2012-2013) using data from the Nationwide Survey of KD. In the case-control study, the vaccination status of the KD and control groups did not differ to a statistically significant extent. Multivariable analysis of the vaccination status and patient backgrounds showed no significant association between vaccination and KD development. In the case-crossover study, the status of vaccinations during the case and control periods did not differ to a statistically significant extent. In the analysis of data from the Nationwide Survey of KD, the incidence of KD in children of ages subject to frequent vaccination showed no significant increases in the latter five years, 2014-2018. Based on these prospective analyses, we confirmed that vaccination in early infancy did not affect the risk of KD.

5.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(7)2021 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34290002

RESUMO

Pulmonary rehabilitation is a cornerstone of management for patients after lung transplantation (LT), but the benefits of inspiratory muscle training (IMT) after LT in children are unclear. Therefore, we examined whether IMT can improve respiratory function and dyspnoea in a paediatric patient after LT.The patient was a 13-year-old boy who underwent double LT. However, mild physical activity such as walking triggered dyspnoea for the patient. The patient underwent IMT with the intensity of approximately 30% of his maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP) for 2 months.The patient's MIP was increased by approximately 60% after 2 months, and his forced vital capacity as a percent of the predicted normal value increased from 74.6% to 83.4%, with improvement of dyspnoea.IMT may help improve dyspnoea after LT in children with respiratory muscle weakness and a decline in respiratory function.


Assuntos
Transplante de Pulmão , Músculos Respiratórios , Adolescente , Exercícios Respiratórios , Criança , Dispneia/etiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Qualidade de Vida
6.
Brain Dev ; 2021 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34301435

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chemotherapy in childhood leukemia potentially induces brain lesions and neurological sequelae. Paroxysmal sympathetic hyperactivity (PSH) is known as a treatment-associated complication; however, the full clinical spectra of PSH remain to be elusive. CASE REPORT: A 5-year-old girl was diagnosed of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) M5. After the intensification therapy, she developed recurrent symptoms of episodic tachycardia, hypertension and perspiration lasting for several hours per day. The low-frequency-high-frequency ratio on Holter electrocardiography was rapidly increased from 0.84 to 2.24 at the onset of the paroxysmal event, whereas the video-monitoring electroencephalography (EEG) never identified ictal patterns of epileptiform discharges during the episodes. Thus, the diagnosis of PSH was given at 7 years of age. Myoclonic and generalized tonic-clonic seizures frequently appeared from 10 years of age, which poorly responded to anticonvulsants. EEG showed diffuse slow-wave bursts with multifocal spikes. Serial head magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed diffuse cerebral and hippocampal atrophy, but not inflammatory lesions in the limbic system. CONCLUSION: We first demonstrate a pediatric case with PSH who developed drug-resistant epilepsy 3 years after the onset of PSH. Our data suggest the pathophysiological link of persistent PSH with chemotherapy-associated brain damage.

7.
J Neuroimmunol ; 358: 577656, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34304142

RESUMO

Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a slow virus infection associated with mutant measles virus (MeV). The long-term outcome of antiviral treatments remains to be determined. We herein present a Japanese boy who was diagnosed with SSPE at 10 years of age. Intraventricular infusions of interferon-α effectively prevented the progress of symptoms during 14 years of follow-up period. Flow-cytometric analysis demonstrated higher proportion of T helper 17 cells (Th17, 18.2%) than healthy controls (4.8-14.5%) despite the normal subpopulation of peripheral lymphocytes. These data suggest that a group of patients with SSPE may show favorable responses to intraventricular infusions of interferon-α.

8.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 12090, 2021 06 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34103642

RESUMO

Predicting outcomes of children after cardiac arrest (CA) remains challenging. To identify useful prognostic markers for pediatric CA, we retrospectively analyzed the early findings of head computed tomography (CT) of patients. Subjects were non-traumatic, out-of-hospital CA patients < 16 years of age who underwent the first head CT within 24 h in our institute from 2006 to 2018 (n = 70, median age: 4 months, range 0-163). Of the 24 patients with return of spontaneous circulation, 14 survived up to 30 days after CA. The degree of brain damage was quantitatively measured with modified methods of the Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (mASPECTS) and simplified gray-matter-attenuation-to-white-matter-attenuation ratio (sGWR). The 14 survivors showed higher mASPECTS values than the 56 non-survivors (p = 0.035). All 3 patients with mASPECTS scores ≥ 20 survived, while an sGWR ≥ 1.14 indicated a higher chance of survival than an sGWR < 1.14 (54.5% vs. 13.6%). Follow-up magnetic resonance imaging for survivors validated the correlation of the mASPECTS < 15 with severe brain damage. Thus, low mASPECTS scores were associated with unfavorable neurological outcomes on the Pediatric Cerebral Performance Category scale. A quantitative analysis of early head CT findings might provide clues for predicting survival of pediatric CA.

10.
Nutrition ; 90: 111275, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34004415

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Malnutrition and vitamin deficiency are growing concerns in the clinical management of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This case report presents a boy with ASD who developed vitamin A deficiency during follow-up. CASE REPORT: A 7-y-old boy had been diagnosed with ASD and developmental delay at age 18 mo. He developed convulsions associated with hypocalcemia and vitamin D deficiency at 3 y of age. Although vitamin D supplementation was continued, he was only able to eat rice, green tea, and fried potatoes from 3 y of age to age 7 y. He had started rubbing his eyes and had refused to open his eyes 9 mo before. An ophthalmologic examination showed bilateral corneal ulcers and right corneal perforation. Vitamin A was immediately supplemented with a nasogastric tube; however, his right eye was surgically enucleated against the persistent infection. LITERATURE REVIEW: A search of the relevant literature from 1993 to 2020 identified 11 cases of patients with ASD (5-17 y of age) who developed vitamin A deficiency owing to malnutrition. Only 4 cases (36%) had a full recovery in visual acuity. CONCLUSION: Vitamin A deficiency frequently causes irreversible visual impairment in children with ASD. Vigilant monitoring of vitamin levels prevents unfavorable outcomes in children with ASD and difficulty in food intake.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Perfuração da Córnea , Deficiência de Vitamina A , Deficiência de Vitamina D , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/complicações , Criança , Suplementos Nutricionais , Humanos , Masculino , Deficiência de Vitamina A/complicações
11.
Syst Rev ; 10(1): 110, 2021 04 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33853692

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Supplemental oxygen during exercise training is used to increase the training effect of an exercise program in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) who show exercise-induced desaturation. Exercise-induced desaturation is not clearly defined in the guidelines; however, it is generally defined in clinical studies as a decrease in SpO2 of more than 4% from rest or a decrease to less than 88% during exercise. Although some meta-analyses examined the effectiveness of supplemental oxygen during exercise training, these studies concluded that it does not further improve exercise tolerance compared to exercise training alone. However, supplemental oxygen during exercise training may be effective in improving exercise tolerance in COPD patients with severe exercise-induced desaturation. Therefore, this study will be performed to elucidate the effectiveness of supplemental oxygen during exercise training and the relationship between its effectiveness and severity of exercise-induced desaturation at baseline. METHODS: We will first assess the effectiveness of supplemental oxygen during exercise training in COPD. The main outcome is the change in exercise tolerance before and after the intervention, indicated by the 6-min walking distance, the walking distance, or the walking time in incremental shuttle walking test, and analyzed as the standardized mean difference (SMD). The quality and risk of bias in individual studies will be assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system and risk-of-bias tool (RoB ver.2). If statistical heterogeneity in terms of the effectiveness of exercise tolerance is shown, we will conduct meta-regression analyses to examine the association between the effectiveness of exercise training with supplemental oxygen and severity of exercise-induced desaturation at baseline. DISCUSSION: One strength of this study is that it is a systematic review with meta-regression analysis to elucidate the effectiveness of supplemental oxygen during exercise training in patients with COPD who show severe exercise-induced desaturation. Furthermore, we will assess the severity of exercise-induced desaturation for which exercise training with supplemental oxygen is effective, the influence of acute effects at baseline, and the effect of supplemental oxygen on adverse events. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: Registration number, UMIN000039960.


Assuntos
Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Exercício Físico , Teste de Esforço , Tolerância ao Exercício , Humanos , Oxigênio , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/terapia , Análise de Regressão , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
12.
Epilepsy Res ; 174: 106647, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33915304

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Absence epilepsy shows age-related clinical features, as is observed in childhood and juvenile absence epilepsy. Electroencephalogram (EEG) is characterized by bursts of 3 Hz spike-and-wave complex (SWC). We noticed a morphological variation of the slow-wave component of SWCs between patients. This study investigated whether the waveform of SWC might be associated with the child's age of this epilepsy. METHODS: Digitally-recorded EEGs under medication-free conditions were collected from 25 children who received the diagnosis of childhood or juvenile absence epilepsy. The morphology of slow wave in SWC in the frontal midline region was quantitatively compared between younger and older children using a cluster-based permutation test. RESULTS: At <7 years of age (2.9-6.5 years of age, n = 6), the electrical potential of the descending slope in the slow wave was positively correlated with age whereas this correlation was not observed in patients of ≥7 years of age (7.1-12.9 years, n = 19). A cluster-based permutation test confirmed the results-among the entire slow wave period (0-285 msec), the period of the descending slope (195-260 msec) showed significantly lower potential in patients of <7 years of age in comparison to patients of ≥7 years of age (sum of t-values: 46.57, p-value: 0.011). CONCLUSIONS: The current study demonstrated an age-dependent morphological difference in the slow-wave components of SWCs in EEGs of patients with pediatric absence epilepsy. This finding may provide a clue to understanding the age-related clinical manifestations of this epilepsy.

13.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(4): e214475, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33822065

RESUMO

Importance: The development of Kawasaki disease (KD) has been suggested to be associated with droplet- or contact-transmitted infection; however, its triggers and transmission modes remain to be determined. Under an epidemic of SARS-CoV-2, the COVID-19 state of emergency in Japan served as a nationwide social experiment to investigate the impact of quarantine or isolation on the incidence of KD. Objective: To assess the role of droplet or contact transmission in the etiopathogenesis of KD. Design, Setting, and Participants: This multicenter, longitudinal, cross-sectional study was conducted from 2015 to 2020 at Fukuoka Children's Hospital and 5 adjacent general hospitals. The number of admissions for KD and infectious diseases were analyzed. Participants were pediatric patients admitted to the participating hospitals for KD or infectious diseases. Exposures: Quarantine and isolation owing to the COVID-19 state of emergency. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary end points were the ratios of patients with KD to patients with respiratory tract or gastrointestinal infections admitted from April to May in 2015 to 2019 and 2020. A Poisson regression model was used to analyze them. Results: The study participants included 1649 patients with KD (median [interquartile range] age, 25 [13-43] months; 901 boys [54.6%]) and 15 586 patients with infectious disease (data on age and sex were not available for these patients). The number of admissions for KD showed no significant change between April and May in 2015 to 2019 vs the same months in 2020 (mean [SD], 24.8 [5.6] vs 18.0 [4.0] admissions per month; 27.4% decrease; adjusted incidence rate ratio [aIRR], 0.73; 95% CI, 0.48-1.10; P = .12). However, the number of admissions for droplet-transmitted or contact-transmitted respiratory tract infections (mean [SD], 157.6 [14.4] vs 39.0 [15.0] admissions per month; 75.3% decrease; aIRR, 0.25; 95% CI, 0.17-0.35; P < .001) and gastrointestinal infections (mean [SD], 43.8 [12.9] vs 6.0 [2.0] admissions per month; 86.3% decrease; aIRR, 0.14; 95% CI, 0.04-0.43; P < .001) showed significant decreases between April and May in 2015 to 2019 vs the same months in 2020 (total, 12 254 infections). Thus, the ratio of KD to droplet- or contact-transmitted respiratory tract and gastrointestinal infections incidence in April and May 2020 was significantly increased (ratio, 0.40 vs 0.12; χ21 = 22.76; P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, the significantly increased incidence of KD compared with respiratory tract and gastrointestinal infections during the COVID-19 state of emergency suggests that contact or droplet transmission is not a major route for KD development and that KD may be associated with airborne infections in most cases.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Linfonodos Mucocutâneos/epidemiologia , Admissão do Paciente/tendências , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hospitais Pediátricos , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Japão/epidemiologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Quarentena/estatística & dados numéricos , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Sci Adv ; 7(13)2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33762331

RESUMO

Polymicrogyria is a common malformation of cortical development whose etiology remains elusive. We conducted whole-exome sequencing for 124 patients with polymicrogyria and identified de novo ATP1A3 variants in eight patients. Mutated ATP1A3 causes functional brain diseases, including alternating hemiplegia of childhood (AHC), rapid-onset dystonia parkinsonism (RDP), and cerebellar ataxia, areflexia, pes cavus, optic nerve atrophy, and sensorineural deafness (CAPOS). However, our patients showed no clinical features of AHC, RDP, or CAPOS and had a completely different phenotype: a severe form of polymicrogyria with epilepsy and developmental delay. Detected variants had different locations in ATP1A3 and different functional properties compared with AHC-, RDP-, or CAPOS-associated variants. In the developing cerebral cortex of mice, radial neuronal migration was impaired in neurons overexpressing the ATP1A3 variant of the most severe patients, suggesting that this variant is involved in cortical malformation pathogenesis. We propose a previously unidentified category of polymicrogyria associated with ATP1A3 abnormalities.

15.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 23(8): 5028-5030, 2021 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33595576

RESUMO

In our recent paper titled "Bi-layering at ionic liquid surfaces: a sum-frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy- and molecular dynamics simulation-based study" co-authored by T. Iwahashi, T. Ishiyama, Y. Sakai, A. Morita, D. Kim, and Y. Ouchi, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2020, 22, 12565 (hereafter referred to as IW), the sum-frequency (SF) spectra for a homologous series of 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)amide ([Cnmim][TFSA] n = 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12) were reported. In particular, a clear decrease in the SF signals from the [TFSA]- anions with increasing chain length of the [Cnmim]+ cation (Fig. 5 of IW) was explained in terms of "head-to-head" bi-layer formation at the air/ionic liquid (IL) interface. A comment by M. Deutsch et al. (hereafter referred to as DE) questioned this report, claiming that our proposed structure is not consistent with a multilayered electron density (ED) profile obtained by X-ray reflectivity (XR).

16.
Brain Dev ; 43(6): 705-713, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33610339

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the clinical characteristics of Japanese pediatric patients with acquired demyelinating diseases (ADS), positive for myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody (MOG-IgG), we conducted a nation-wide survey. METHODS: Information about pediatric patients under 18 years old with ADS was solicited with surveys sent to 323 facilities. In an initial survey, we asked whether the center had any patients with ADS, and the MOG-IgG serostatus of the patients. In a follow-up survey, we requested more precise information on patients with ADS. RESULTS: Initial survey: 263 replies providing information on 175 patients were received. MOG-IgG were examined in 78 patients and 54 of those (69%) were positive for MOG-IgG. Follow-up survey: The characteristic involvement was optic neuritis, with visual disturbance and optic pain as characteristic symptoms. The relapse rate was 44% in patients positive for MOG-IgG, which was higher than that in seronegative patients (38%). For acute phase treatments, corticosteroid (CS), plasma exchange, and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) were useful. To prevent relapse, CS, intermittent IVIG, immunosuppressants, and monoclonal antibodies were useful, but the efficacies of disease modifying drugs were uncertain. Sequelae such as visual disturbance, cognitive impairment, motor dysfunction, and epilepsy were observed in 11% of patients with MOG-IgG. CONCLUSIONS: MOG antibody-associated diseases were found to be common among pediatric ADS patients. Since a variety of sequelae were observed in these patients, it is important to identify the appropriate treatment to ensure the best outcome. The presence of the MOG autoantibody should be taken into consideration as part of the diagnostic criteria for pediatric ADS.

17.
Brain Dev ; 43(4): 505-514, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33436160

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Patients with pathogenic cyclin-dependent kinase-like-5 gene (CDKL5) variants are designated CDKL5 deficiency disorder (CDD). This study aimed to delineate the clinical characteristics of Japanese patients with CDD and elucidate possible appropriate treatments. METHODS: We recruited patients with pathogenic or likely pathogenic CDKL5 variants from a cohort of approximately 1,100 Japanese patients with developmental and epileptic encephalopathies, who underwent genetic analysis. We retrospectively reviewed clinical, electroencephalogram, neuroimaging, and genetic information. RESULTS: We identified 29 patients (21 females, eight males). All patients showed severe developmental delay, especially in males. Involuntary movements were observed in 15 patients. No antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) achieved seizure freedom by monotherapy. AEDs achieving ≥ 50% reduction in seizure frequency were sodium valproate in two patients, vigabatrin in one, and lamotrigine in one. Seizure aggravation was observed during the use of lamotrigine, potassium bromide, and levetiracetam. Adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) was the most effective treatment. The ketogenic diet (KD), corpus callosotomy and vagus nerve stimulation did not improve seizure frequency in most patients, but KD was remarkably effective in one. The degree of brain atrophy on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) reflected disease severity. Compared with females, males had lower levels of attained motor development and more severe cerebral atrophy on MRI. CONCLUSION: Our patients showed more severe global developmental delay than those in previous studies and had intractable epilepsy, likely because previous studies had lower numbers of males. Further studies are needed to investigate appropriate therapy for CDD, such as AED polytherapy or combination treatment involving ACTH, KD, and AEDs.

18.
Cardiovasc Res ; 117(1): 96-108, 2021 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31782770

RESUMO

AIMS: Coronary arteritis is a life-threatening complication that may arise in the acute stage of Kawasaki disease (KD), the leading cause of systemic vasculitis in childhood. Various microorganisms and molecular pathogens have been reported to cause KD. However, little is known about the key molecules that contribute to the development of coronary arteritis in KD. METHODS AND RESULTS: To identify causative molecules for coronary arteritis in KD, we prospectively recruited 105 patients with KD and 65 disease controls in four different parts of Japan from 2015 to 2018. During this period, we conducted lipidomics analyses of their sera using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The comprehensive LC-MS system detected a total of 27 776 molecules harbouring the unique retention time and m/z values. In the first cohort of 57 KD patients, we found that a fraction of these molecules showed enrichment patterns that varied with the sampling region and season. Among them, 28 molecules were recurrently identified in KD patients but not in controls. The second and third cohorts of 48 more patients with KD revealed that these molecules were correlated with inflammatory markers (leucocyte counts and C-reactive proteins) in the acute stage. Notably, two of these molecules (m/z values: 822.55 and 834.59) were significantly associated with the development of coronary arteritis in the acute stage of KD. Their fragmentation patterns in the tandem MS/MS analysis were consistent with those of oxidized phosphatidylcholines (PCs). Further LC-MS/MS analysis supported the concept that reactive oxygen species caused the non-selective oxidization of PCs in KD patients. In addition, the concentrations of LOX-1 ligand containing apolipoprotein B in the plasma of KD patients were significantly higher than in controls. CONCLUSION: These data suggest that inflammatory signals activated by oxidized phospholipids are involved in the pathogenesis of coronary arteritis in KD. Because the present study recruited only Japanese patients, further examinations are required to determine whether oxidized PCs might be useful biomarkers for the development of coronary arteritis in broad populations of KD.

19.
Neuropsychopharmacol Rep ; 40(4): 396-400, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33037790

RESUMO

AIM: Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a multifaceted disease, and frequently comorbid with neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and learning disorder. Dysfunction of adenylyl cyclase (AC) is one of the candidate pathways in abnormal development of neuronal cells in the brain of NF1 patients, while its dynamic abnormalities have not been observed. Direct conversion technology can generate induced-neuronal (iN) cells directly from human fibroblasts within 2 weeks. Just recently, we have revealed that forskolin, an AC activator, rescues the gene expression pattern of iN cells derived from NF1 patients (NF1-iN cells). In this microreport, we show the dynamic effect of forskolin on NF1-iN cells. METHODS: iN cells derived from healthy control (HC-iN cells) and NF1-iN cells were treated with forskolin (final concentration 10 µM), respectively. Morphological changes of iN cells were captured by inverted microscope with CCD camera every 2 minutes for 90 minutes. RESULTS: Prior to forskolin treatment, neuron-like spherical-form cells were observed in HC-iN cells, but most NF1-iN cells were not spherical-form but flatform. Only 20 minutes after forskolin treatment, the morphology of the iN cells were dramatically changed from flatform to spherical form, especially in NF1-iN cells. CONCLUSION: The present pilot data indicate that forskolin or AC activators may have therapeutic effects on the growth of neuronal cells in NF1 patients. Further translational research should be conducted to validate our pilot findings for future drug development of ASD.

20.
FASEB J ; 34(12): 16601-16621, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33107105

RESUMO

Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy (DEE) represents a group of neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by infantile-onset intractable seizures and unfavorable prognosis of psychomotor development. To date, hundreds of genes have been linked to the onset of DEE. GNAO1 is a DEE-associated gene encoding the alpha-O1 subunit of guanine nucleotide-binding protein (GαO ). Despite the increasing number of reported children with GNAO1 encephalopathy, the molecular mechanisms underlying their neurodevelopmental phenotypes remain elusive. We herein present that co-immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry analyses identified another DEE-associated protein, SPTAN1, as an interacting partner of GαO . Silencing of endogenous Gnao1 attenuated the neurite outgrowth and calcium-dependent signaling. Inactivation of GNAO1 in human-induced pluripotent stem cells gave rise to anomalous brain organoids that only weakly expressed SPTAN1 and Ankyrin-G. Furthermore, GNAO1-deficient organoids failed to conduct synchronized firing to adjacent neurons. These data indicate that GαO and other DEE-associated proteins organize the cytoskeletal remodeling and functional polarity of neurons in the developing brain.


Assuntos
Citoesqueleto/metabolismo , Subunidades alfa Gi-Go de Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo , Animais , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encefalopatias/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo , Fenótipo
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