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1.
Urol Oncol ; 2020 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32139291

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT) overexpression has been linked to poor prognosis in several cancers. MAPT-AS1 is a long noncoding RNA existing at the antisense strand of the MAPT promoter region. The clinical significance of MAPT and MAPT-AS-1 in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is unknown. This study aimed to assess the expression and function of MAPT and MAPT-AS1 in ccRCC. METHODS: The expression of MAPT was determined using immunohistochemistry in ccRCC. The effects of MAPT knockdown on cell growth and invasion were evaluated and the interaction between MAPT and microtubule-associated protein tau antisense (MAPT-AS1) were analyzed. The expression of MAPT-AS1 was determined using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction in ccRCC tissues. We investigated the effect of MAPT-AS1 knockdown on cell growth and invasion. We analyzed the regulation of MAPT and MAPT-AS1. RESULTS: Immunohistochemistry in 135 ccRCC cases showed that 61% of the cases were positive for MAPT. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that the low expression of MAPT was associated with poor overall survival after nephrectomy. Knockdown of MAPT enhanced cell growth and invasion. quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction revealed a positive correlation between MAPT and MAPT-AS1. The expression of MAPT-AS1 was higher in ccRCC tissue than in nonneoplastic kidney tissue. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that the low expression of MAPT-AS1 was associated with poor overall survival after nephrectomy by in silico analysis. MAPT-AS1 knockdown promoted cell growth and invasion activity. P53 knockout suppressed the expression of MAPT and MAPT-AS1. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that MAPT and MAPT-AS1 may be promising predictive biomarkers for survival and play a tumor-suppressive role in ccRCC.

2.
Hepatol Res ; 2020 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32202371

RESUMO

AIM: This study aimed to determine the optimal psoas muscle mass index (PMI) cut-off values for diagnosis of skeletal muscle mass loss. METHODS: We evaluated PMI in two groups of normal controls (NCs): a medical check-up group and a liver donation candidate group. We analyzed two novel PMI cut-off values, one based on the mean -2SD and one based on the lower 5%. Skeletal muscle mass index (SMI) evaluations using computed tomography (sliceOmatic®; TomoVision) and bioelectrical impedance analysis and PMI evaluation were conducted simultaneously. We analyzed the correlation between our PMI cut-off values and the Japan Society of Hepatology (JSH) defined SMI cut-off values. The prevalence of skeletal muscle mass loss in patients with liver disease was assessed using the novel PMI cut-off values. RESULTS: In 504 NCs aged ≤50 years, the PMI cut-off values based on mean -2SD and the lower 5% were set at 3.30 cm2 /m2 for males and 1.69 cm2 /m2 for females and 3.74 cm2 /m2 for males and 2.29 cm2 /m2 for females, respectively. PMI cut-off values based on the lower 5% alone showed that skeletal muscle mass loss increased with age. Furthermore, they correlated well with JSH defined SMI (sliceOmatic®) cut-off values and showed a significantly higher prevalence of skeletal muscle mass loss in patients with liver cirrhosis (LC) than those without LC. CONCLUSIONS: We propose the following PMI cut-off values: 3.74 cm2 /m2 for males and 2.29 cm2 /m2 for females. These cut-off values can facilitate accurate diagnosis and management of sarcopenia in patients with chronic liver disease.

4.
J Dig Dis ; 2020 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32223015

RESUMO

AIM: To elucidate the long-term outcomes of permanent endoscopic biliary stenting (EBS) and risk factors for recurrent biliary obstruction (RBO) in high-risk or elderly patients with common bile duct (CBD) stones. METHODS: The electronic database of Hakodate Municipal Hospital was searched to identify elderly or high-risk patients with CBD stones who underwent initial permanent EBS using a plastic stent without stone removal and was followed without re-intervention until symptoms between April 2011 and May 2019. RESULTS: Among a total of 47patients (19males [40.4%]; median age, 86 [interquartile range, 80-90] years). RBO and death without biliary disease occurred in 14 (29.8%) and 19 (40.4%) patients, respectively. The cumulative RBO rates at 20, 40, and 60 months were 22.1%, 31.8%, and 35.5%, respectively. The median periods until RBO were 13.0 and 38.0 months in the group with the CBD stone diameter ≥ 15 mm and 11-14 mm, respectively, and the date was not reached in the group with the CBD stone diameter ≤ 10 mm. The cumulative RBO incidence rates were significantly different among the three groups based on the CBD stone diameter (competing risk analysis, P < 0.01). Multivariate analysis showed that an increase in CBD stone diameter predicted the increased risk of RBO (hazard ratio per 1 mm, 1.26, P = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Permanent EBS is a feasible option for high-risk patients with small CBD stones. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32187734

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) have revolutionized anti-malignancy therapy and thus have been increasingly used. Although ICI may cause immune-related adverse events (irAE) in various organs, including the liver, the prevalence and predictive factors of irAE have not been clarified. METHODS: In this retrospective study, consecutive patients who had malignancies and were treated with ICI without other chemotherapeutic agents at Hokkaido University Hospital between 2014 and 2019 were screened. Patients were excluded if they were < 20 years old and had insufficient clinical data. RESULTS: Of the 233 patients screened, 202 patients met the inclusion criteria and were included in the analysis. The patients were aged 25-92 years, and 60.9% were male. The patients received nivolumab (n = 137), pembrolizumab (n = 45), ipilimumab (n = 17), atezolizumab (n = 2), and avelumab (n = 1). The prevalence of any grade and grade ≥ 3 irAE hepatitis was 8.4% (17/202) and 4.0% (8/202), respectively. irAE hepatitis occurred at a median duration of 42 days in any grade and 36 days in grade ≥ 3 after ICI initiation. The clinical course of grade ≥ 3 irAE hepatitis was generally favorable; however, 50% required corticosteroid treatment and two patients required additional mycophenolate mofetil. Female sex and history of ICI treatment were significantly associated with the incidence of grade ≥ 3 irAE hepatitis. CONCLUSIONS: Grade ≥ 3 irAE hepatitis was observed in 4.0% of the patients who were treated with ICI. Female sex and history of ICI treatment were significantly associated with the incidence of grade ≥ 3 irAE hepatitis.

6.
Ann Hematol ; 2020 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32130472

RESUMO

AIM:  To measure histological villous atrophy and to clarify the diagnostic accuracy of endoscopic villous atrophy in gastrointestinal graft-versus-host disease. METHODS:  Data for patients who underwent upper and/or lower endoscopic examinations after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation were retrospectively collected. In study 1, group A included 56 patients in whom GI-GVHD was histologically confirmed and group B included 60 patients in whom GI-GVHD was not histologically confirmed. Group C included 59 patients before HSCT. The lengths of villi and crypts in the duodenum and terminal ileum were histologically measured. In study 2, the diagnostic accuracies of villous atrophy of the duodenum and of the terminal ileum using magnifying endoscopy were evaluated. RESULTS:  In study 1, the lengths of villi and the villi/crypt (V/C) ratios of the duodenum and terminal ileum in group A were significantly smaller than those in the other groups (p < 0.05). V/C ratio was moderately correlated with clinical severity, histological grades, and endoscopic grades in the terminal ileum. In study 2, the diagnostic accuracies of magnified images for villous atrophy were 83.8% in the duodenum and 94.9% in the terminal ileum. CONCLUSION:  Magnifying endoscopy enables evaluation of villous atrophy and is useful for optical biopsy of GVHD.

9.
J Gastroenterol ; 2020 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32065330

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The efficacy, safety, and pharmacokinetics of the combination of three direct-acting antiviral (DAA) agents (adafosbuvir [also known as AL-335], odalasvir, and simeprevir) were investigated in DAA treatment-naïve Japanese patients with genotype (GT)1 or GT2 chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, with or without compensated cirrhosis. METHODS: In this Phase IIa, open-label, multicenter study-OMEGA-3 (NCT02993250)-patients received JNJ-4178 (adafosbuvir 800 mg once daily [QD], odalasvir 25 mg QD, and simeprevir 75 mg QD) for 8 (non-cirrhotic patients; Cohort 1) or 12 (cirrhotic patients; Cohort 2) weeks. Patients were followed-up to 24 weeks following the end of treatment (EOT). The primary endpoint was safety, including adverse events (AEs). RESULTS: Overall, 33 patients were enrolled into Cohort 1 (N = 22) or 2 (N = 11) and received combined treatment with JNJ-4178. During the treatment and follow-up phases, a higher percentage of patients in Cohort 2 (81.8%) experienced AEs compared with Cohort 1 (68.2%), but the incidence of treatment-related AEs was similar. Most AEs were mild-to-moderate in severity and no patients discontinued due to an AE. There was one serious AE (cataract) in a patient in Cohort 2, which was not considered related to treatment. All patients achieved sustained virologic response 12 weeks after EOT (SVR12). No incidences of viral relapse were observed during follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: In HCV GT1- and GT2-infected Japanese patients, treatment with JNJ-4178 was well tolerated and resulted in 100% of patients achieving SVR12.

10.
Hepatol Res ; 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32020702

RESUMO

AIM: Factors associated with improvement of liver fibrosis after successful hepatitis C virus (HCV) eradication by interferon (IFN)-free direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) have been not clarified well. Angiopoietin-2 (Ang2) is reported to be associated with vascular leak and inflammation observed in patients with advanced liver fibrosis. METHODS: In this retrospective study, patients treated with IFN-free DAAs who underwent transient elastography before and at 24-weeks post-treatment and achieved sustained viral response were enrolled. Baseline serum Ang2 was measured, and its relationship with other clinical factors was analyzed. Liver fibrosis stage was defined based on liver stiffness according to a previous report. Predictive factors for regression of liver fibrosis stage after DAA therapy were evaluated. RESULTS: Overall, 116 patients were analyzed. Baseline serum Ang2 levels were significantly associated with liver stiffness, spleen index, and liver stiffness-based liver fibrosis stage. Moreover, 75% of patients experienced regression of liver fibrosis stage after DAA therapy. Multivariate analysis revealed that advanced liver fibrosis stage and Ang2 levels were significantly associated with regression of liver fibrosis stage after DAA therapy. In patients with advanced liver fibrosis (F3/4), baseline Ang2 level alone could predict regression of liver fibrosis stage. A baseline Ang2 cut-off value (354 pg/ML) could predict regression of liver fibrosis stage after DAA therapy with high accuracy (sensitivity 0.882, specificity 0.733). CONCLUSIONS: Evaluation of serum Ang2 levels before DAA therapy is important. Our results provide a novel mechanistic insight into non-regression of liver stiffness after DAA therapy. Long-term and larger studies are required.

11.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 321, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31941930

RESUMO

Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a progressive form of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) that may lead to liver cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma. Here, we examined the diagnostic utility of tri-antennary tri-sialylated mono-fucosylated glycan of alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT-A3F), a non-invasive glycobiomarker identified in a previous study of NASH diagnosis. This study included 131 biopsy-proven Japanese patients with NAFLD. We evaluated the utility of AAT-A3F in NASH diagnosis, and conducted genetic analysis to analyse the mechanism of AAT-A3F elevation in NASH. Serum AAT-A3F concentrations were significantly higher in NASH patients than in NAFL patients, and in patients with fibrosis, lobular inflammation, and ballooning. Hepatic FUT6 gene expression was significantly higher in NASH than in NAFL. IL-6 expression levels were significantly higher in NASH than in NAFL and showed a positive correlation with FUT6 expression levels. The serum-AAT-A3F levels strongly correlated with hepatic FUT6 expression levels. AAT-A3F levels increased with fibrosis, pathological inflammation, and ballooning in patients with NAFLD and may be useful for non-invasive diagnosis of NASH from the early stages of fibrosis.

12.
BMC Cancer ; 20(1): 64, 2020 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31992267

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is still difficult to detect and diagnose early adenocarcinoma of the esophagogastric junction (EGJ) using conventional endoscopy or image-enhanced endoscopy. A glutamylprolyl hydroxymethyl rhodamine green (EP-HMRG) fluorescent probe that can be enzymatically activated to become fluorescent after the cleavage of a dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP)-IV-specific sequence has been developed and is reported to be useful for the detection of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck, and esophagus; however, there is a lack of studies that focuses on detecting EGJ adenocarcinoma by fluorescence molecular imaging. Therefore, we investigated the visualization of early EGJ adenocarcinoma by applying EP-HMRG and using clinical samples resected by endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD). METHODS: Fluorescence imaging with EP-HMRG was performed in 21 clinical samples resected by ESD, and the fluorescence intensity of the tumor and non-tumor regions of interest was prospectively measured. Immunohistochemistry was also performed to determine the expression of DPP-IV. RESULTS: Fluorescence imaging of the clinical samples showed that the tumor lesions were visualized within a few minutes after the application of EP-HMRG, with a sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 85.7, 85.7, and 85.7%, respectively. However, tumors with a background of intestinal metaplasia did not have a sufficient contrast-to-background ratio since complete intestinal metaplasia also expresses DPP-IV. Immunohistochemistry measurements revealed that all fluorescent tumor lesions expressed DPP-IV. CONCLUSIONS: Fluorescence imaging with EP-HMRG could be useful for the detection of early EGJ adenocarcinoma lesions that do not have a background of intestinal metaplasia.

13.
Oncol Rep ; 43(2): 581-590, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31789399

RESUMO

Gastric cancer (GC) is the third most common cause of cancer­related death in the world. Annexin A10 (ANXA10), a member of the Annexin family, is a calcium­/phospholipid­binding protein; however, little is known concerning its functions. It is still unclear what molecule is involved in the induction of ANXA10. In the present study, we performed immunohistochemistry to evaluate the expression of ANXA10, pancreatic and duodenal homeobox­1 (PDX1) and mucin phenotype markers in 130 GC samples. ANXA10 was detected in 63 (48%) of the 130 GC cases and loss of ANXA10 was significantly correlated with disease progression and poor clinical outcomes in GC. PDX1 was significantly correlated with ANXA10 in GC cases and cell lines. Although PDX1 was not significantly correlated with the GC cases with any of the mucin phenotypes, ANXA10 was preferentially detected in the GC cases with the gastric mucin phenotype. As a further investigation, we generated organoids derived from human GC and identified the duplication of the mucin phenotypes of GC by immunohistochemistry. The repression effect on cell growth that was observed in the ANXA10­knockdown cell lines was also clearly observed in the human gastric organoids. We demonstrated that the expression of ANXA10 was correlated with the gastric mucin phenotype and ANXA10 was involved in the induction of PDX1 expression in GC. We also provided evidence that GC organoids represent a powerful tool for scrutinizing the biology of GC, especially with regard to the mucin phenotype.

15.
Dig Endosc ; 32(1): 74-83, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31309632

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Evaluation of Helicobacter pylori infection status (non-infection, past infection, current infection) has become important. This study aimed to determine the usefulness of the Kyoto classification of gastritis for diagnosing H. pylori infection status by endoscopy. METHODS: In this prospective study, 498 subjects were recruited. Seven well-experienced endoscopists blinded to the history of eradication therapy performed the examinations. Endoscopic findings were assessed according to the Kyoto classification of gastritis: diffuse redness, regular arrangement of collecting venules (RAC), fundic gland polyp (FGP), atrophy, xanthoma, hyperplastic polyp, map-like redness, intestinal metaplasia, nodularity, mucosal swelling, white and flat elevated lesion, sticky mucus, depressive erosion, raised erosion, red streak, and enlarged folds. We established prediction models according to a machine learning procedure and compared them with general assessment by endoscopists using the Kyoto classification of gastritis. RESULTS: Significantly higher diagnostic odds were obtained for RAC (32.2), FGP (7.7), and red streak (4.7) in subjects with non-infection, map-like redness (12.9) in subjects with past infection, and diffuse redness (26.8), mucosal swelling (13.3), sticky mucus (10.2) and enlarged fold (8.6) in subjects with current infection. The overall diagnostic accuracy rate was 82.9% with the Kyoto classification of gastritis. The diagnostic accuracy of the prediction model was 88.6% for the model without H. pylori eradication history and 93.4% for the model with eradication history. CONCLUSIONS: The Kyoto classification of gastritis is useful for diagnosing H. pylori infection status based on endoscopic findings. Our prediction model is helpful for novice endoscopists. (UMIN000016674).

16.
Clin J Gastroenterol ; 13(1): 17-21, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31352645

RESUMO

While antiretroviral therapy has improved mortality in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections, deaths caused by non-acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-defining malignancies are increasing. A woman in her 70s with HIV infection who was receiving antiretroviral therapy presented with dysphagia. She was diagnosed with esophageal cancer (cT3N2M0, stage III). She received neoadjuvant chemotherapy (cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil) and radiotherapy. During treatment, we continued administering antiretroviral therapy and prophylaxis for opportunistic infections, with due attention to side effects and drug-drug interactions. No severe adverse events occurred. The primary lesion and metastatic lymph nodes decreased in size after treatment; however, 1 month later, her cancer spread to other organs; thus, surgery was canceled. Her general condition rapidly worsened. She eventually died of cancer cachexia and aspiration pneumonia. No previous reports have mentioned the treatment plan and management of esophageal cancer in HIV-positive patients. This report presents a case of esophageal cancer with HIV infection that progressed rapidly after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy.

17.
J Infect Chemother ; 26(3): 245-250, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31822452

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: A significant feature of tuberculosis (TB) in Japan is the fact that a high proportion of cases belong to the elderly population. Furthermore, previous reports have pointed out the delayed diagnosis of pulmonary TB in acute-care settings. We aimed to examine the clinical characteristics of pulmonary TB patients in an acute-care general hospital, particularly focusing on the elderly population. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients with pulmonary TB who presented at our institution between May 2005 and December 2016. We described the overall clinical characteristics of these patients and compared them according to age. RESULTS: Overall, 289 patients were eligible for the analysis, with a median age of 58 [42-73] years, and 29.4% being older than 70 years. Among the elderly patients, 42.4% were characterized by atypical presentation. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that the elderly population tends to present as atypical cases lacking respiratory complaints, thereby being at a risk of misdiagnosis.

19.
BMC Gastroenterol ; 19(1): 206, 2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31791254

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Heparin bridging therapy (HBT) is indeed related to a high frequency of bleeding after endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR). In this study, our aim was to investigate clinical impact of management of oral anticoagulants without HBT in bleeding after colonic EMR. METHODS: From data for patients who underwent consecutive colonic EMR, the relationships of patient factors and procedural factors with the risk of bleeding were analysed. Our management of antithrombotic agents was based on the shortest cessation as follows: the administration of warfarin was generally continued within the therapeutic range, and direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) were not administered on the day of the procedure. We calculated bleeding risks after EMR in patients who used antithrombotic agents and evaluated whether perioperative management of anticoagulants without HBT was beneficial for bleeding. RESULTS: A total of 1734 polyps in 825 EMRs were analysed. Bleeding occurred in 4.0% of the patients and 1.9% of the polyps. The odds ratios for bleeding using multivariate logistic regression analysis were 3.67 in patients who used anticoagulants and 4.95 in patients who used both anticoagulants and antiplatelet agents. In patients with one-day skip of DOACs, bleeding occurred in 6.5% of the polyps, and there were no significant differences in bleeding risk between HBT and continuous warfarin or one-day skip DOACs. CONCLUSIONS: The use of oral anticoagulants was related to bleeding after colonic EMR, and perioperative management of oral anticoagulants based on the shortest cessation without HBT would be clinically acceptable.

20.
Anticancer Res ; 39(12): 6567-6573, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31810922

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: The KIAA1199 gene has been associated with cancer-cell proliferation, but its functions remain poorly studied. Here, we examined the clinical significance of the KIAA1199 mRNA levels in locally advanced gastric cancer (GC). Materials and Methods/Results: Using samples from 254 patients with stage II/III GC, we found significantly higher KIAA1199 levels in cancerous tissues compared to adjacent normal mucosa (ANM). There was no significant relationship between KIAA1199 expression and clinical features. Although overall survival rates (OSR) of patients, who underwent surgery did not correlate with KIAA1199 expression, patients who underwent adjuvant chemotherapy with S-1 and had high KIAA1199 levels displayed significantly lower OSR. KIAA1199 knock down (KIAA1199-KD) suppressed proliferation, invasiveness, and sensitivity of GC cells to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). CONCLUSION: KIAA1199 expression appears to be a promising prognostic marker in patients with locally advanced GC, who underwent postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy with S-1. KIAA1199 may represent a novel target for GC pharmacotherapy.


Assuntos
Hialuronoglucosaminidase/genética , Ácido Oxônico/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Gástricas/terapia , Tegafur/uso terapêutico , Regulação para Cima , Idoso , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos do Sistema Digestório , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Invasividade Neoplásica , Prognóstico , Neoplasias Gástricas/genética , Neoplasias Gástricas/mortalidade , Análise de Sobrevida
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