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1.
Respirol Case Rep ; 9(12): e0880, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34853696

RESUMO

An 88-year-old bedridden man with Alzheimer's disease developed fever and hypoxaemia. Chest radiography showed obstructive pneumonia caused by a foreign body in the airway. Examination using a flexible bronchoscope revealed a silver-crowned molar, thought to have fallen out due to root caries, at the left lower lobe branch. Removal of the foreign body was unsuccessful with grasping or basket forceps, but successful with cryoadhesion using a cryoprobe. Removal of an airway foreign body by a cryoprobe depends on the nature of the foreign body, namely its water content. Therefore, cryoprobes are not inherently suitable for removing foreign bodies of aspirated teeth, but a tooth covered with mucus for a long time after aspiration can be cryoadhered with cryoprobes. Airway foreign bodies that remain in the airway for a long time should also be considered for removal by cryoprobe, regardless of the water content of the material.

2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 23430, 2021 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34873224

RESUMO

Diagnosis of pulmonary lymphoma using small tissue samples is difficult and often requires surgical procedures; thus, a less invasive sampling method is desirable. We previously showed that pulmonary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma can be diagnosed by detecting MALT lymphoma translocation gene 1 (MALT1) translocations in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) cells. Analysis of B-cell clonality based on immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH) gene rearrangements was also reportedly useful for diagnosing pulmonary lymphoma. The aim of this prospective multicenter study was to evaluate the yet unknown diagnostic potential of combined detection of MALT1 translocations and clonality using BALF. We analyzed B- and T-cell clonality based on IGH and T-cell receptor (TCR) rearrangements together with MALT1 translocations using BALF of patients with clinically suspected pulmonary lymphomas. In total, 39 patients were evaluated and categorized into three groups: B-cell lymphoma, lymphoproliferative disorders, and other diseases. IGH rearrangement detection for B-cell lymphoma diagnosis exhibited sensitivity and specificity of 88.9% and 90.0%, respectively. TCR rearrangements were not observed in patients with B-cell lymphomas. The presence of IGH rearrangements together with the absence of TCR rearrangements indicated 96.0% specificity for the diagnosis of B-cell lymphoma. The sensitivity and specificity of MALT1 translocations for diagnosing MALT lymphoma were 28.6% and 100%, respectively. The combined detection of lymphocyte clonality and MALT1 translocations using BALF is suitable for screening and diagnosis of B-cell lymphomas. Analysis of specific genes such as MALT1 should improve the precision of B-cell lymphoma diagnosis.

3.
Respir Med Case Rep ; 34: 101523, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34692398

RESUMO

A 60-year-old Japanese man with a history of heavy smoking came to our hospital for a detailed examination, suspecting interstitial pneumonia because of gradually increasing dyspnea on exertion over a period of one year. Chest high-resolution computed tomography revealed ground-glass shadows with emphysematous changes. Pathological analysis of samples obtained using transbronchial lung cryobiopsy revealed an accumulation of alveolar macrophages with abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm in the alveolar space. Following a multidisciplinary discussion, the patient was diagnosed with desquamative interstitial pneumonia. To our knowledge, this is the first detailed report of desquamative interstitial pneumonia diagnosed using transbronchial lung cryobiopsy.

4.
BMJ Open ; 11(9): e053325, 2021 09 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34548368

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic has emerged worldwide. Although several medications have been approved for treating moderate-to-severe COVID-19, very few treatment strategy has been established for patients with mild COVID-19 who do not require oxygen administration. Clarithromycin is a macrolide antimicrobial agent that has been widely used for bacterial respiratory infectious diseases. Clarithromycin also acts an immunomodulating drug and suppresses cytokine storms in viral respiratory diseases, including influenza. In this study, we aim to evaluate the efficacy of clarithromycin in patients with mild COVID-19. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This is an exploratory, multicentre, open-label, randomised controlled trial. This study was initiated in May 2021 and will end in July 2022. Patients with mild COVID-19 pneumonia who do not require oxygen administration will be enrolled and randomly assigned in a 1:1:1 ratio to group A (administration of clarithromycin 800 mg/day), group B (administration of clarithromycin 400 mg/day) or group C (standard treatment without clarithromycin). The planned number of enrolled patients is 60 (20 patients × three groups). The primary endpoint is the number of days required to improve the clinical symptoms as measured by the severity score. Secondary endpoints include days for recovery of the body temperature, proportion of patients with oxygen administration, inflammatory cytokines, viral load, serum immunoglobulins, peripheral blood lymphocytes, blood biomarkers and pneumonia infiltrations. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study protocol was approved by the Clinical Research Review Board of Nagasaki University in accordance with the Clinical Trials Act in Japan. The study will be conducted in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki, the Clinical Trials Act and other current legal regulations in Japan. Written informed consent will be obtained from all the participants. The results of this study will be reported as journal publications. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: jRCTs071210011.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Claritromicina , Humanos , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Oxigênio , Pandemias , Porfirinas , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , SARS-CoV-2 , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Respir Med ; 188: 106612, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34560351

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Pneumonia is a major cause of respiratory-related hospitalization and an important prognostic factor in patients with chronic interstitial lung disease (ILD). However, the relationship between the incidence of pneumonia and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) serotype has not been fully elucidated. Therefore, this study aimed to determine if there is a relationship between HLA serotype and the incidence of pneumonia in Japanese patients with ILD. METHODS: The medical records of patients with ILD treated at any of three centers in Japan were reviewed to determine their HLA-A and HLA-B serotypes. The characteristics of patients with and without pneumonia were compared. Cox regression analysis was performed to identify risk factors for pneumonia and death in these patients. RESULTS: One hundred and forty-four patients with ILD (pneumonia group, n = 27; non-pneumonia group, n = 117) and complete HLA serology data available were included. HLA-B54 positivity was significantly more common in the pneumonia group than in the non-pneumonia group (37.0% vs. 15.4%, p = 0.010). HLA-B54 positivity was also a significant risk factor for pneumonia (hazard ratio [HR] 4.166, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.862-9.320, p = 0.001) and death (HR 4.050, 95% CI 1.581-10.374, p = 0.004) in patients with ILD. Furthermore, HLA-B54 positivity was a significant risk factor for pneumonia (HR 3.964, 95% CI 1.392-11.090, p = 0.010) and death (HR 8.131, 95% CI 1.763-37.494, p = 0.007) in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. CONCLUSION: HLA-B54 positivity was a significant risk factor for pneumonia and death in patients with ILD, including those with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

6.
Respir Investig ; 2021 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34531175

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to clarify the involvement of anaerobes in aspiration pneumonia by measuring volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs), which are metabolites of anaerobic bacteria in the mouth. METHODS: This study included 84 older adult patients (mean age, 82.5 ± 7.34 years) who had dementia and were hospitalized for more than 6 months. We measured the VSCs in the patient's mouth with Oral Chroma and obtained the data of pneumonia development in the past 6 months. We also evaluated the association or correlation of VSCs and some factors which might be the risk factors of aspiration pneumonia. RESULTS: The development of pneumonia had no significant association with the VSCs in the patient's mouth. CONCLUSION: The present pilot study suggests that anaerobes might not be the main causative pathogens of aspiration pneumonia in older adult patients.

7.
Jpn J Infect Dis ; 2021 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34470963

RESUMO

Human coronaviruses (HCoVs) are globally distributed and cause a range of respiratory symptoms. Reports of the clinical features of HCoV infection are limited, especially in adults because of mild upper respiratory tract disease and no specific therapy available. Here we aim to evaluate the features of HCoV infection in clinical settings. Adult patients with respiratory symptoms from October 2014 to September 2019 at Nagasaki Genbaku Isahaya Hospital were enrolled. The multiplex reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed for 15 viruses including HCoVs and 8 bacterial species on their respiratory specimens. A total of 121 cases were recruited with HKU1, OC43, 229E and NL63 strains in 80, 21, 12 and 11 cases, respectively. The percent of HCoV-infected patients peaked (47.5%) in winter. Symptoms of fever (69.4%) and cough (47.9%), and comorbidities of asthma/cough variant asthma (34.7%) were frequently observed. Lymphocytopenia and increased C-reactive protein were observed on the laboratory test. Co-infection with other viruses was identified in 38.8% of cases. In the repeat-positive cases, 42% cases were repeat positive within 100 days. HCoV-infected patients showed winter seasonality with a high frequency of comorbidity with asthma, and co-infection. Re-infection within an early period was suspected but required further consideration.

8.
J Infect Chemother ; 27(12): 1716-1722, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34412981

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Reduced sensitivity of tuberculosis (TB) interferon-γ release assays (IGRAs) among the elderly has been reported, which is presumably due to diminished immune function. We evaluated the clinical performance of QuantiFERON®-TB Gold plus (QFT-Plus) compared with QuantiFERON®-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT-GIT) and T-Spot®.TB (T-SPOT) in the elderly. METHODS: Blood samples for all three IGRAs were drawn at the same time from all the participants. Both CD4 and CD8 T-cell counts in patients' peripheral blood were also measured. RESULTS: A total of 142 active pulmonary TB patients (median age: 84, interquartile range; 76-89 years) were recruited. The sensitivities of the tested IGRAs (excluding invalid/indeterminate cases) were as follows: QFT-Plus, 93.6%; QFT-GIT, 91.4%; and T-SPOT 68.1%. QFT-Plus displayed significantly higher sensitivity than T-SPOT (p < 0.00001). All three IGRAs exhibited the same specificity (100%), as assessed using blood samples from healthy, low TB-risk individuals (n = 118; median age: 39, IQR; 32-47 years). Positivity in 43 active TB patients with CD4 T-cell counts <200/µL, 39 of whom were ≥80 years of age, was as follows: QFT-Plus, 83.7%; QFT-GIT, 74.4%; and T-SPOT, 58.1%. The difference between TB2-TB1 of the QFT-Plus assay was statistically correlated with CD8 but not CD4 T-cell counts in blood (r = 0.193, p = 0.0298). CONCLUSIONS: QFT-Plus showed high performance in the detection of TB infection in patients irrespective of their advanced age (≥80 years) or lower CD4 counts. QFT-Plus can be useful for the diagnosis of TB infection in all patients, including those who are elderly and/or immunocompromised.


Assuntos
Tuberculose Latente , Tuberculose Pulmonar , Tuberculose , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos , Humanos , Testes de Liberação de Interferon-gama , Teste Tuberculínico , Tuberculose Pulmonar/diagnóstico
9.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 11(8)2021 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34441294

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: to evaluate the number of cases of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) that included histological features of connective tissue disease (CTD) and to check whether they demonstrated the clinical features of CTD, using a previously reported CTD-interstitial pneumonia (IP) index that histologically differentiates CTD-associated and idiopathic IP. METHODS: patients diagnosed with IPF following video-assisted thoracoscopic biopsy through multidisciplinary team diagnosis between 2014 and 2017 were selected. Pathological observation was made by four pathologists who scored eight observational items needed for the CTD-IP index. Cases determined as CTD, by the CTD-IP index, were extracted, and their clinical features were compared. RESULTS: a total of 94 cases of IPF were identified, of which 20 were classified into the CTD group using the CTD-IP index with reasonable interobserver agreement (k = 0.76). Cases pathologically classified into the CTD group were significantly associated with female sex, non-smoking history, autoantibody positivity, and CTD symptoms (p = 0.01, 0.03, 0.01, and 0.04, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: patients with IPF with pathological findings of CTD showed clinical characteristics similar to those of patients with CTD.

10.
J Clin Med ; 10(16)2021 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34441847

RESUMO

The relationship between microorganisms present in the lower respiratory tract and the subsequent incidence of pneumonia in patients with rheumatoid arthritis is unclear. A retrospective cohort study was designed to include a total of 121 patients with rheumatoid arthritis who underwent bronchoscopy at three hospitals between January 2008 and December 2017. Data on patient characteristics, microorganisms detected by bronchoscopy, and subsequent incidences of pneumonia were obtained from electronic medical records. Patients were divided into groups based on the microorganisms isolated from the lower respiratory tract. The cumulative incidence of pneumonia was assessed using the Kaplan-Meier method, and decision tree analysis was performed to analyze the relation between the presence of microorganisms and the occurrence of pneumonia. The most frequently isolated microbes were Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Haemophilus influenzae. Patients whose samples tested negative for bacteria or positive for normal oral flora were included in the control group. The rate of the subsequent incidence of pneumonia was higher in the P. aeruginosa group than in the control group (p = 0.026), and decision tree analysis suggested that P. aeruginosa and patient performance status were two important factors for predicting the incidence of pneumonia. In patients with rheumatoid arthritis, the presence of P. aeruginosa in the lower respiratory tract was associated with the subsequent incidence of pneumonia.

11.
BMJ Open ; 11(6): e047249, 2021 06 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34187824

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a fibrotic disease of unknown aetiology with a poor prognosis. Several clinical trials of nintedanib in patients with IPF have reported its inhibitory effect on reduced lung function, incidence of acute exacerbation of IPF and worsened health-related quality of life. Although nintedanib has a manageable safety and tolerability profile over long-term use, it was discontinued in over 20% of patients because of adverse events such as diarrhoea and liver dysfunction. This might explain why nintedanib use in patients with IPF is not widespread, especially among patients with early-stage IPF. In the present study, we aimed to clarify the efficacy, safety and tolerability of nintedanib in patients with stage I/II IPF, based on the Japanese IPF disease severity staging classification system. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This is an ongoing, prospective, multicentre observational cohort study of patients with stage I/II IPF who will start receiving nintedanib. Totally, 215 patients at 35 sites in Kyushu and Okinawa, Japan will be enrolled and followed up for 3 years. Nintedanib therapy would be initiated at the discretion of the investigator. The primary endpoint, change in forced vital capacity (FVC) at 156 weeks, will be shown as the mean change in FVC from baseline to week 156 with 95% CIs estimated using the Wald method. The safety endpoint-occurrence of adverse events-will be assessed in each system organ class/preferred term. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study protocol and informed consent documents were approved by the Institutional Review Board at Nagasaki University Hospital (approval number 19102146) and each participating site. Written informed consent was obtained from all participants. Patient recruitment has begun. The results will be disseminated through scientific peer-reviewed publications and national and international conferences. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: UMIN000038192.


Assuntos
Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática , Qualidade de Vida , Humanos , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/tratamento farmacológico , Indóis , Japão , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Capacidade Vital
12.
ChemMedChem ; 16(16): 2515-2523, 2021 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33890415

RESUMO

Heat shock protein 47 (HSP47), a collagen-specific molecular chaperone, is causally related to fibrotic diseases, including idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. The identification of Compounds that interfere with the HSP47-collagen interaction is essential for the development of relevant therapeutics. Herein, we prepared human HSP47 as a soluble fusion protein expressed in E. coli and established an assay system for HSP47 inhibitor screening. We screened a natural and synthetic Compound library established at Nagasaki University. Among 1023 Compounds, 13 exhibited inhibitory activity against human HSP47, of which three inhibited its function in a dose-dependent manner. Epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate, one of these three Compounds, is a typical polyphenol Compound derived from tea leaves. Structurally related Compounds were synthesized and examined for their activity, revealing a hydroxyl group at A-ring position 5 as important for its activity. The present findings provide valuable insight for the development of natural product-derived therapeutics for fibrotic diseases, including idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

13.
Respir Res ; 22(1): 80, 2021 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33711988

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Short-term exposure to ozone and nitrogen dioxide is a risk factor for acute exacerbation (AE) of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (AE-IPF). The comprehensive roles of exposure to fine particulate matter in AE-IPF remain unclear. We aim to investigate the association of short-term exposure to fine particulate matter with the incidence of AE-IPF and to determine the exposure-risk time window during 3 months before the diagnosis of AE-IPF. METHODS: IPF patients were retrospectively identified from the nationwide registry in Japan. We conducted a case-control study to assess the correlation between AE-IPF incidence and short-term exposure to eight air pollutants, including particulate matter < 2.5 µm (PM2.5). In the time-series data, we compared monthly mean exposure concentrations between months with AE (case months) and those without AE (control months). We used multilevel mixed-effects logistic regression models to consider individual and institutional-level variables, and also adjusted these models for several covariates, including temperature and humidity. An additional analysis with different monthly lag periods was conducted to determine the risk-exposure time window for 3 months before the diagnosis of AE-IPF. RESULTS: Overall, 152 patients with surgically diagnosed IPF were analyzed. AE-IPF was significantly associated with an increased mean exposure level of nitric oxide (NO) and PM2.5 30 days prior to AE diagnosis. Adjusted odds ratio (OR) with a 10 unit increase in NO was 1.46 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.11-1.93], and PM2.5 was 2.56 (95% CI 1.27-5.15). Additional analysis revealed that AE-IPF was associated with exposure to NO during the lag periods lag 1, lag 2, lag 1-2, and lag 1-3, and PM2.5 during the lag periods lag 1 and lag 1-2. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that PM2.5 is a risk factor for AE-IPF, and the risk-exposure time window related to AE-IPF may lie within 1-2 months before the AE diagnosis. Further investigation is needed on the novel findings regarding the exposure to NO and AE-IPF.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/diagnóstico , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/epidemiologia , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Cross-Over , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/cirurgia , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Material Particulado/análise , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
14.
J Clin Med ; 10(3)2021 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33572558

RESUMO

Influenza pneumonia, which causes acute respiratory distress syndrome and multiple organ failure, has no established management protocol. Recently, corticosteroid therapy was used to treat coronavirus disease 2019 with respiratory failure; however, its effectiveness as a treatment for influenza pneumonia remains controversial. To investigate the impact of corticosteroid therapy for the early phase of severe influenza pneumonia, we compared influenza pneumonia patients with respiratory failure treated with or without corticosteroids within 7 days after hospital admission using a Japanese nationwide administrative database. The primary endpoint was the mortality rate. The secondary endpoints were duration of intensive-care unit management, invasive mechanical ventilation, and hospital stay. The inverse probability weighting method with estimated propensity scores was used to minimize the data collection bias. We included 3519 patients with influenza pneumonia with respiratory failure. Of these, 875 were treated with corticosteroids. There was no significant difference between the groups regarding 30-day and 90-day mortality, duration of intensive-care unit management, invasive mechanical ventilation, and hospital stay. However, the in-hospital mortality rate was higher in the corticosteroid group. The use of systematic corticosteroid therapy in patients with influenza pneumonia was associated with a higher in-hospital mortality rate.

15.
Thorac Cancer ; 12(7): 1126-1130, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33605089

RESUMO

Pulmonary sarcomatoid carcinoma (SC) is an aggressive subtype of lung cancer that exhibits resistance to cytotoxic chemotherapy. Although programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) inhibitors have been reported to show antitumor effects in patients with high programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expressing SC, the efficacy of combined therapy with PD-1 inhibitor plus cytotoxic chemotherapy has not previously been clarified. We herein report a case of SC with low expression of PD-L1 and few pre-existing tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes which showed a remarkable response to pembrolizumab plus cytotoxic chemotherapy as first-line treatment. Our findings suggest that combined treatment might enhance the immunogenic response, even in immunologically ignored SCs.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Imunoterapia/métodos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Platina/uso terapêutico , Sarcoma/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/farmacologia , Humanos , Masculino , Platina/farmacologia
16.
Clin Case Rep ; 9(2): 707-710, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33598229

RESUMO

The treatment duration for candidemia with septic pulmonary embolism should be determined based on the clearance of fungus from the bloodstream and improvement of symptoms. The remaining lung nodules may not necessarily indicate persistent infection.

17.
Thorac Cancer ; 12(2): 272-276, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33215864

RESUMO

Dabrafenib and trametinib therapy for BRAF V600E-mutant non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has demonstrated strong antitumor effects in clinical trials and has been approved for use in clinical practice. However, the efficacy and safety of this combination therapy in elderly patients remain unclear. An 86-year-old male patient, who had been diagnosed with lung adenocarcinoma with the BRAF V600E mutation, received dabrafenib and trametinib combination chemotherapy. The tumor shrunk rapidly; however, therapy was discontinued after 40 days because adverse events (hypoalbuminemia, peripheral edema, and pneumonia) developed. Although this targeted combination therapy seemed to cause relatively severe adverse events compared with single-agent targeted therapy in this "oldest old" elderly patient, the marked tumor shrinkage prolonged the patient's life and helped him to maintain a good general condition. Active targeted therapy may therefore be considered with appropriate drug dose reduction instead of conservative treatment, even if a patient is extremely old.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Imidazóis/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Oximas/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/metabolismo , Piridonas/uso terapêutico , Pirimidinonas/uso terapêutico , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Humanos , Imidazóis/farmacologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Mutação , Oximas/farmacologia , Piridonas/farmacologia , Pirimidinonas/farmacologia
18.
Med Mycol ; 2020 Dec 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33369648

RESUMO

Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) is an opportunistic and life-threatening pulmonary infection with an increasing prevalence among individuals who are human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative. Evidence regarding diagnostic testing of PCP in this patient population is insufficient. We evaluated the performance of serum (1, 3)-ß-d-glucan (BDG) using the Fungitec G-test MK kit for diagnosing PCP in non-HIV patients. We retrospectively analyzed data from 219 non-HIV adult patients who underwent bronchoscopy and were tested for P. jirovecii DNA by PCR using lavage samples from the lower respiratory tract. Fifty PCP patients and 125 non-PCP patients were included. The most common underlying diseases were malignancies and systemic autoimmune diseases. Using the serum BDG Fungitec G-test MK test to diagnose PCP, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was 0.924, whereas the modified cut-off value of 36.6 pg/mL had a sensitivity and specificity of 92.0% and 84.8%, respectively. The AUC for patients with systemic autoimmune diseases was 0.873, and the accuracy of serum BDG test declined when using methotrexate (MTX). In conclusion, the serum BDG test was useful for diagnosing PCP in non-HIV patients; however, the results should be carefully interpreted in case of MTX administration. LAY SUMMARY: The Fungitec G-test MK kit for measuring serum (1, 3)-ß-d-glucan (BDG) levels had a sufficient diagnostic performance for Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) in human immunodeficiency virus-negative patients. However, the results should be carefully interpreted in case of MTX administration.

19.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 56(11)2020 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33266389

RESUMO

Background: Chronic beryllium disease (CBD) is a granulomatous disease that resembles sarcoidosis but is caused by beryllium. Clinical manifestations similar to those observed in CBD have occasionally been reported in exposure to dusts of other metals. However, reports describing the clinical, radiographic, and pathological findings in conditions other than beryllium-induced granulomatous lung diseases, and detailed information on mineralogical analyses of metal dusts, are limited. Case presentation: A 51-year-old Japanese man with rapidly progressing nodular shadows on chest radiography, and a 10-year occupation history of underground construction without beryllium exposure, was referred to our hospital. High-resolution computed tomography showed well-defined multiple centrilobular and perilobular nodules, and thickening of the intralobular septa in the middle and lower zones of both lungs. No extrathoracic manifestations were observed. Pathologically, the lung specimens showed 5-12 mm nodules with dust deposition and several non-necrotizing granulomas along the lymphatic routes. X-ray analytical electron microscopy of the same specimens revealed aluminum, iron, titanium, and silica deposition in the lung tissues. The patient stopped smoking and changed his occupation to avoid further dust exposure; the chest radiography shadows decreased 5 years later. Conclusion: The radiological appearances of CBD and sarcoidosis are similar, although mediastinal or hilar lymphadenopathy is less common in CBD and is usually seen in the presence of parenchymal opacities. Extrathoracic manifestations are also rare. Despite limited evidence, these findings are similar to those observed in pneumoconiosis with a sarcoid-like reaction due to exposure to dust other than of beryllium. Aluminum is frequently detected in patients with pneumoconiosis with a sarcoid-like reaction and is listed as an inorganic agent in the etiology of sarcoidosis. It was also detected in our patient and may have contributed to the etiology. Additionally, our case suggests that cessation of dust exposure may contribute to improvement under the aforementioned conditions.


Assuntos
Beriliose , Pneumoconiose , Sarcoidose , Beriliose/diagnóstico por imagem , Berílio/toxicidade , Poeira , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumoconiose/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumoconiose/etiologia , Sarcoidose/diagnóstico por imagem
20.
Respir Med ; 174: 106184, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33086134

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) patients receiving steroid treatment tend to be immobilized by dyspnea and muscle weakness as the disease progresses. We therefore expected that steroid treatment for ILDs would have a greater effect on muscle function under severe dyspnea. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated whether the effect of corticosteroid treatment on peripheral muscle force and exercise capacity varied according to patients' dyspnea severity. METHODS: In this retrospective cross-sectional study of 87 ILD patients enrolled between 2008 and 2017, quadriceps force (QF), handgrip force (HF), and 6-min walk distance (6 MWD) were compared between a low (grades 0-2) and a high (grades 3-4) modified-Medical Research Council (mMRC) dyspnea scale score group. RESULTS: In patients with lower levels of dyspnea, corticosteroid treatments were associated with lower QF and HF (20.0 vs. 30.0 kgf, p = 0.01; 22.5 vs. 28.4 kgf, p = 0.03, respectively) values; however, no significant differences were observed between the corticosteroid and control subgroups in the high mMRC group (QF: 18.5 vs. 17.3 kgf, p = 0.64; HF: 21.0 vs. 17.1 kgf, p = 0.24, respectively). Analysis of covariance indicated that both corticosteroid treatment and mMRC dyspnea scale interacted with QF, HF, and 6 MWD. The effects of the corticosteroid treatment varied according to the level of dyspnea (interaction ß = 7.52, p = 0.034; interaction ß = 8.78, p = 0.048; interaction ß = 131.08, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Muscle weakness and exercise capacity in ILD patients in the low mMRC group were associated with corticosteroid treatment.


Assuntos
Corticosteroides/efeitos adversos , Dispneia/etiologia , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/tratamento farmacológico , Força Muscular/efeitos dos fármacos , Debilidade Muscular/induzido quimicamente , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Esquelético/fisiopatologia , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Tolerância ao Exercício/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/complicações , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
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