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1.
Shock ; 2021 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33978606

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Glycemic control strategies for sepsis have changed significantly over the last decade, but their impact on dysglycemia and its associated outcomes has been poorly understood. In addition, there is controversy regarding the detrimental effects of hyperglycemia in sepsis. To evaluate the incidence and risks of dysglycemia under current strategy, we conducted a preplanned subanalysis of the sepsis cohort in a prospective, multicenter FORECAST study. A total of 1,140 patients with severe sepsis, including 259 patients with pre-existing diabetes, were included. Median blood glucose levels were approximately 140 mg/dL at 0 h and 72 h indicating that blood glucose was moderately controlled. The rate of initial and late hyperglycemia was 27.3% and 21.7%, respectively. The rate of early hypoglycemic episodes during the initial 24 h was 13.2%. Glycemic control was accompanied by a higher percentage of initial and late hyperglycemia but not with early hypoglycemic episodes, suggesting that glycemic control was targeted at excess hyperglycemia. In nondiabetic patients, late hyperglycemia (hazard ratio, 95% confidence interval; p-value: 1.816, 1.116-2.955, 0.016) and early hypoglycemic episodes (1.936, 1.180-3.175, 0.009) were positively associated with in-hospital mortality. Further subgroup analysis suggested that late hyperglycemia and early hypoglycemic episodes independently, and probably synergistically, affect the outcomes. In diabetic patients, however, these correlations were not observed. In conclusion, a significantly high incidence of dysglycemia was observed in our sepsis cohort under moderate glycemic control. Late hyperglycemia in addition to early hypoglycemia was associated with poor outcomes at least in nondiabetic patients. More sophisticated approaches are necessary to reduce the incidence of these serious complications.

2.
World J Emerg Surg ; 16(1): 19, 2021 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33926507

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Information on hyperoxemia among patients with trauma has been limited, other than traumatic brain injuries. This study aimed to elucidate whether hyperoxemia during resuscitation of patients with trauma was associated with unfavorable outcomes. METHODS: A post hoc analysis of a prospective observational study was carried out at 39 tertiary hospitals in 2016-2018 in adult patients with trauma and injury severity score (ISS) of > 15. Hyperoxemia during resuscitation was defined as PaO2 of ≥ 300 mmHg on hospital arrival and/or 3 h after arrival. Intensive care unit (ICU)-free days were compared between patients with and without hyperoxemia. An inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPW) analysis was conducted to adjust patient characteristics including age, injury mechanism, comorbidities, vital signs on presentation, chest injury severity, and ISS. Analyses were stratified with intubation status at the emergency department (ED). The association between biomarkers and ICU length of stay were then analyzed with multivariate models. RESULTS: Among 295 severely injured trauma patients registered, 240 were eligible for analysis. Patients in the hyperoxemia group (n = 58) had shorter ICU-free days than those in the non-hyperoxemia group [17 (10-21) vs 23 (16-26), p < 0.001]. IPW analysis revealed the association between hyperoxemia and prolonged ICU stay among patients not intubated at the ED [ICU-free days = 16 (12-22) vs 23 (19-26), p = 0.004], but not among those intubated at the ED [18 (9-20) vs 15 (8-23), p = 0.777]. In the hyperoxemia group, high inflammatory markers such as soluble RAGE and HMGB-1, as well as low lung-protective proteins such as surfactant protein D and Clara cell secretory protein, were associated with prolonged ICU stay. CONCLUSIONS: Hyperoxemia until 3 h after hospital arrival was associated with prolonged ICU stay among severely injured trauma patients not intubated at the ED. TRIAL REGISTRATION: UMIN-CTR, UMIN000019588 . Registered on November 15, 2015.

3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(8): e24844, 2021 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33663106

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: This study aimed to identify prognostic factors for severe sepsis-related in-hospital mortality using the structural equation model (SEM) analysis with statistical causality. Sepsis data from the Focused Outcomes Research in Emergency Care in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Sepsis, and Trauma study (FORECAST), a multicenter cohort study, was used. Forty seven observed variables from the database were used to construct 4 latent variables. SEM analysis was performed on these latent variables to analyze the statistical causality among these data. This study evaluated whether the variables had an effect on in-hospital mortality. Overall, 1148 patients were enrolled. The SEM analysis showed that the 72-hour physical condition was the strongest latent variable affecting mortality, followed by physical condition before treatment. Furthermore, the 72-hour physical condition and the physical condition before treatment strongly influenced the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score with path coefficients of 0.954 and 0.845, respectively. The SOFA score was the strongest variable that affected mortality after the onset of severe sepsis. The score remains the most robust prognostic factor and can facilitate appropriate policy development on care.


Assuntos
Mortalidade Hospitalar , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Sepse/mortalidade , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Análise de Classes Latentes , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Escores de Disfunção Orgânica , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores de Tempo
4.
JACC Clin Electrophysiol ; 7(3): 292-304, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33516706

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to systematically evaluate the ability of a high-resolution mapping system (Rhythmia, Boston Scientific, Marlborough, Massachusetts) to rapidly and accurately localize residual endocardial and epicardial conduction after mitral isthmus (MI) ablation, facilitating MI block. BACKGROUND: Achieving conduction block across the mitral isthmus (MI) is challenging. METHODS: Fifty consecutive patients undergoing MI ablation after pulmonary vein isolation were enrolled. After initial endocardial radiofrequency (RF) ablation across the lateral MI, high-resolution activation mapping of the MI with simultaneous coronary sinus (CS) mapping was performed to verify block or localize residual conduction across the MI during left atrial (LA) appendage and CS pacing. Propagation maps were used to identify residual conduction across the MI as endocardial, via the CS or Marshall tract. RESULTS: In all 50 patients, after the initial endocardial ablation across the MI, repeat high-resolution mapping of the LA and CS was obtained (median: 3,329 mapped points; 4.0 min of mapping time). The initial endocardial MI ablation resulted in block in 9 of 50 patients (18%). In the remaining 41 patients, the propagation map identified residual conduction in 4 patterns: 1) only endocardial gap in 12 patients (29%); 2) only CS connection in 10 patients (24%); 3) both endocardial and CS connections in 14 patients (34%); and 4) Marshall tract connection in 5 patients (12%). In 8 patients, the propagation map revealed residual conduction, despite differential atrial pacing suggesting bidirectional block. Focal ablation at the identified residual conduction site (median: 0.7 min of RF) resulted in block in 49 of 50 (98%) patients. CONCLUSIONS: High-resolution propagation maps of the LA/CS rapidly and accurately localize residual endocardial and epicardial conduction across the MI. Focal ablation with short RF time at the identified gap(s) achieved complete block across MI in 98% of cases.

5.
Circ J ; 85(3): 264-271, 2021 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33431721

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronary artery spasms (CASs), which can cause angina attacks and sudden death, have been recently reported during catheter ablation. The aim of the present study was to report the incidence, characteristics, and prognosis of CASs related to atrial fibrillation (AF) ablation procedures.Methods and Results:The AF ablation records of 22,232 patients treated in 15 Japanese hospitals were reviewed. CASs associated with AF ablation occurred in 42 of 22,232 patients (0.19%). CASs occurred during ablation energy applications in 21 patients (50%). CASs also occurred before ablation in 9 patients (21%) and after ablation in 12 patients (29%). The initial change in the electrocardiogram was ST-segment elevation in the inferior leads in 33 patients (79%). Emergency coronary angiography revealed coronary artery stenosis and occlusions, which were relieved by nitrate administration. No air bubbles were observed. A comparison of the incidence of CASs during pulmonary vein isolation between the different ablation energy sources revealed a significantly higher incidence with cryoballoon ablation (11/3,288; 0.34%) than with radiofrequency catheter, hot balloon, or laser balloon ablation (8/18,596 [0.04%], 0/237 [0%], and 0/111 [0%], respectively; P<0.001). CASs most often occurred during ablation of the left superior pulmonary vein. All patients recovered without sequelae. CONCLUSIONS: CASs related to AF ablation are rare, but should be considered as a dangerous complication that can occur anytime during the periprocedural period.

6.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 1615, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33452302

RESUMO

Current research regarding the association between body mass index (BMI) and altered clinical outcomes of sepsis in Asian populations is insufficient. We investigated the association between BMI and clinical outcomes using two Japanese cohorts of severe sepsis (derivation cohort, Chiba University Hospital, n = 614; validation cohort, multicenter cohort, n = 1561). Participants were categorized into the underweight (BMI < 18.5) and non-underweight (BMI ≥ 18.5) groups. The primary outcome was 28-day mortality. Univariate analysis of the derivation cohort indicated increased 28-day mortality trend in the underweight group compared to the non-underweight group (underweight 24.4% [20/82 cases] vs. non-underweight 16.0% [85/532 cases]; p = 0.060). In the primary analysis, multivariate analysis adjusted for baseline imbalance revealed that patients in the underweight group had a significantly increased 28-day mortality compared to those in the non-underweight group (p = 0.031, adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.91, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.06-3.46). In a repeated analysis using a multicenter validation cohort (underweight n = 343, non-underweight n = 1218), patients in the underweight group had a significantly increased 28-day mortality compared to those in the non-underweight group (p = 0.045, OR 1.40, 95% CI 1.00-1.97). In conclusion, patients with a BMI < 18.5 had a significantly increased 28-day mortality compared to those with a BMI ≥ 18.5 in Japanese cohorts with severe sepsis.

7.
Int Clin Psychopharmacol ; 36(1): 34-37, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32541381

RESUMO

Lithium, which is used for bipolar disorder, can cause toxicity. There are two categories of lithium toxicity, namely, overdose-related and not overdose-related. However, the treatment and prognosis of each type of toxicity are not clearly understood. We, therefore, compared the clinical characteristics of patients with overdose-related and not overdose-related lithium toxicity. Relevant data were obtained from the medical records of 16 patients with lithium toxicity, and renal function and concomitant medications were retrospectively compared between the two groups. We also compared the treatment for, manifestations of, and duration of hospitalization between the two types of lithium toxicity. The not overdose-related group more frequently had a low creatinine clearance (<50 mL/min) than did the overdose-related group (P = 0.01). Multivariable regression analysis demonstrated that creatinine clearance <50 mL/min was a significant predictor of lithium toxicity in the not overdose-related group (P = 0.01). Tremor and dysarthria occurred only in the not overdose-related group, and duration of hospitalization was significantly longer in the not overdose-related than overdose-related group (P = 0.01). Clinicians must monitor the renal function of patients taking lithium, even when in compliance with the prescribed dosage, because they are at long-term risk of lithium toxicity.

8.
Undersea Hyperb Med ; 47(4): 591-595, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33227835

RESUMO

Background: Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) therapy was introduced nearly 300 years ago. However, its effect on thrombus formation is unclear. This may be because platelet and coagulation functions are unstable, yielding variable results; hence, accurate measurement is difficult. Our study aimed to analyze changes in thrombus formation before and after HBO2 therapy by using a total thrombus formation analysis system (TTAS). Methods: Six patients were prescribed HBO2 therapy for skin and soft tissue ulcers, and necrotic fasciitis. Blood samples were collected immediately before and after treatment. Then samples were put into a reservoir that connected to AR-chip to assess changes in the thrombus formation ability of both platelets and coagulation factors. We examined the differences in the thrombus formation ability using T-TAS. Time until the onset of white thrombus formation (T10) and complete occlusion of the capillary (T80) were analyzed by a two-way repeated measure analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results: The duration to pressure increase of samples after HBO2 therapy was longer than the duration before HBO2 therapy (p<0.05). This suggests decreased clot adhesiveness to the inner surface of the simulated blood vessel and reduced clot formation ability. Conclusions: The results for T10 and T80 suggest that HBO2 therapy reduced thrombus formation ability in the enrolled patients. We believe that T-TAS is a promising method to predict the efficacy of HBO2 therapy.

9.
BMC Geriatr ; 20(1): 485, 2020 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33218303

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Frailty is associated with morbidity and mortality in patients admitted to intensive care units (ICUs). However, the characteristics of frail patients with suspected infection remain unclear. We aimed to investigate the characteristics and outcomes of frail patients with suspected infection in ICUs. METHODS: This is a secondary analysis of a multicenter cohort study, including 22 ICUs in Japan. Adult patients (aged ≥16 years) with newly suspected infection from December 2017 to May 2018 were included. We compared baseline patient characteristics and outcomes among three frailty groups based on the Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS) score: fit (score, 1-3), vulnerable (score, 4), and frail (score, 5-9). We conducted subgroup analysis of patients with sepsis defined as per Sepsis-3 criteria. We also produced Kaplan-Meier survival curves for 90-day survival. RESULTS: We enrolled 650 patients with suspected infection, including 599 (92.2%) patients with sepsis. Patients with a median CFS score of 3 (interquartile range [IQR] 3-5) were included: 337 (51.8%) were fit, 109 (16.8%) were vulnerable, and 204 (31.4%) were frail. The median patient age was 72 years (IQR 60-81). The Sequential Organ Failure Assessment scores for fit, vulnerable, and frail patients were 7 (IQR 4-10), 8 (IQR 5-11), and 7 (IQR 5-10), respectively (p = 0.59). The median body temperatures of fit, vulnerable, and frail patients were 37.5 °C (IQR 36.5 °C-38.5 °C), 37.5 °C (IQR 36.4 °C-38.6 °C), and 37.0 °C (IQR 36.3 °C-38.1 °C), respectively (p < 0.01). The median C-reactive protein levels of fit, vulnerable, and frail patients were 13.6 (IQR 4.6-24.5), 12.1 (IQR 3.9-24.9), 10.5 (IQR 3.0-21.0) mg/dL, respectively (p < 0.01). In-hospital mortality did not statistically differ among the patients according to frailty (p = 0.19). Kaplan-Meier survival curves showed little difference in the mortality rate during short-term follow-up. However, more vulnerable and frail patients died after 30-day than fit patients; this difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.25). Compared with the fit and vulnerable groups, the rate of home discharge was lower in the frail group. CONCLUSION: Frail and vulnerable patients with suspected infection tend to have poor disease outcomes. However, they did not show a statistically significant increase in the 90-day mortality risk.

10.
Int J Infect Dis ; 2020 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33221519

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is no one-size-fits-all empiric antimicrobial therapy for sepsis because the pathogens vary according to the site of infection and have changed over time. Therefore, updating the knowledge on the spectrum of pathogens is necessary for rapid administration of appropriate antimicrobials. OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the current spectrum of pathogens and its variation by site of infection in sepsis. METHODS: We used a prospective nationwide cohort comprising consecutive adult patients with sepsis in 59 intensive care units in Japan and evaluated the spectrum of pathogens in all patients and in subgroups by site of infection. We also conducted regression analyses to evaluate the association between the pathogens and mortality. RESULTS: The study cohort comprised 1184 patients. The most common pathogen was Escherichia coli (21.5%), followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (9.0%); however, these patterns varied widely by the site of infection. For example, Gram-positive bacteria were the dominant pathogen in bone/soft tissue (55.7%) and cardiovascular infection (52.6%) but were rarely identified in urinary tract infection (6.4%). In contrast, Gram-negative bacteria were in the majority in abdominal infection (38.4%) and urinary tract infection (72.0%). The highest mortality of 47.5% was observed in patients infected with methicillin-resistant S. aureus, which was significantly associated with an increased risk of death (odds ratio 1.88; 95% confidence interval 1.22-2.91). CONCLUSIONS: The present study revealed the current spectrum of pathogens and its variation based on the site of infection, which is essential for empiric antimicrobial therapy against sepsis.

11.
Int J Clin Pract ; : e13820, 2020 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33164319

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The MINERVA trial showed that in pacemaker patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) history, DDDRP pacing combining three algorithms - (a) atrial antitachycardia pacing with Reactive ATP enabled, (b) atrial preventive pacing and (c) managed ventricular pacing (MVP)-may effectively delay progression to persistent/permanent AF compared with standard DDDR pacing. We performed a comparative non-randomised evaluation to evaluate if Reactive ATP can be the main driver of persistent/permanent AF reduction independently on preventive pacing. METHODS: Thirty-one centres included consecutive dual-chamber pacemaker patients with AF history. Reactive ATP was programmed in all patients while preventive atrial pacing was not enabled. These patients were compared with the three groups of MINERVA randomised trial (Control DDDR, MVP, and DDDRP). The main endpoint was the incidence of AF longer than 7 consecutive days. RESULTS: A total of 146 patients (73 years old, 54% male) were included and followed for a median observation period of 31 months. The 2-year incidence of AF > 7 days was 12% in the Reactive ATP group, very similar to that found in the DDDRP arm of the MINERVA trial (13.8%, P = .732) and significantly lower than AF incidence found in the MINERVA Control DDDR arm (25.8%, P = .012) and in the MINERVA MVP arm (25.9%, P = .025). CONCLUSIONS: In a real-world population of dual-chamber pacemaker patients with AF history, the use of Reactive ATP is associated with a low incidence of persistent AF, highlighting that the positive results of the MINERVA trial were related to the effectiveness of Reactive ATP rather than to preventive pacing.

12.
Clin Case Rep ; 8(9): 1809-1813, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32983501

RESUMO

Most cases of swallowing-induced atrial tachycardia require radiofrequency catheter ablation for a permanent cure; however, the arrhythmia subsided after temporary prescription of verapamil in a patient with genotyped hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

13.
J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio) ; 30(5): 534-542, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32652875

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The perfusion index (PI) derived from plethysmographic signals provides a noninvasive indication of peripheral perfusion. This study aimed to investigate changes in PI and other hemodynamic variables in pigs subjected to endotoxemia. DESIGN: Prospective experimental study. SETTING: University teaching hospital. ANIMALS: Twelve healthy pigs weighing a mean (± standard deviation [SD]) of 31.7 ± 2.0 kg. INTERVENTIONS: Pigs were divided into control and endotoxin groups (n = 6 each). Endotoxemia was induced by IV infusion of lipopolysaccharide. Heart rate, mean arterial pressure, cardiac index (CI), central venous pressure, systemic vascular resistance index (SVRI), extravascular lung water index (ELWI), Global end-diastolic volume (GEDV) index, and pulmonary permeability index were measured using a transpulmonary thermodilution monitor in all pigs. PI was measured using a pulse oximeter probe attached to the tail. Pao2 , Paco2 , and plasma lactate concentration were measured by blood gas analysis. Measurements were taken at baseline (T0 ). Saline or lipopolysaccharide was then administered for 30 min to all pigs (control or endotoxemia group, respectively), and each parameter was measured every 30 min up to 270 min. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance and Student's t-tests. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: There were no significant changes in any variables in the control group, but CI, SVRI, PI, ELWI, blood lactate concentration, and Pao2 changed significantly from baseline in the endotoxin group (P < 0.001, P = 0.0048, P < 0.001, P = 0.0064, P < 0.001, and P = 0.0220, respectively). In the endotoxin group, mean (± SD) %PI increased from T0 to 154 ± 34% at T60 (P = .001) and 135 ± 50% at T90 (P =0 .004), which mirrored significant changes in %CI and %SVRI. CONCLUSION: The PI may be useful to detect changes in CI and SVRI.

14.
Crit Care ; 24(1): 387, 2020 06 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32605659

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Elderly patients have a blunted host response, which may influence vital signs and clinical outcomes of sepsis. This study was aimed to investigate whether the associations between the vital signs and mortality are different in elderly and non-elderly patients with sepsis. METHODS: This was a retrospective observational study. A Japanese multicenter sepsis cohort (FORECAST, n = 1148) was used for the discovery analyses. Significant discovery results were tested for replication using two validation cohorts of sepsis (JAAMSR, Japan, n = 624; SPH, Canada, n = 1004). Patients were categorized into elderly and non-elderly groups (age ≥ 75 or < 75 years). We tested for association between vital signs (body temperature [BT], heart rate, mean arterial pressure, systolic blood pressure, and respiratory rate) and 90-day in-hospital mortality (primary outcome). RESULTS: In the discovery cohort, non-elderly patients with BT < 36.0 °C had significantly increased 90-day mortality (P = 0.025, adjusted hazard ratio 1.70, 95% CI 1.07-2.71). In the validation cohorts, non-elderly patients with BT < 36.0 °C had significantly increased mortality (JAAMSR, P = 0.0024, adjusted hazard ratio 2.05, 95% CI 1.29-3.26; SPH, P = 0.029, adjusted hazard ratio 1.36, 95% CI 1.03-1.80). These differences were not observed in elderly patients in the three cohorts. Associations between the other four vital signs and mortality were not different in elderly and non-elderly patients. The interaction of age and hypothermia/fever was significant (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: In septic patients, we found mortality in non-elderly sepsis patients was increased with hypothermia and decreased with fever. However, mortality in elderly patients was not associated with BT. These results illuminate the difference in the inflammatory response of the elderly compared to non-elderly sepsis patients.

15.
J Intensive Care ; 8: 44, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32612839

RESUMO

Background: Diagnosing sepsis remains difficult because it is not a single disease but a syndrome with various pathogen- and host factor-associated symptoms. Sepsis-3 was established to improve risk stratification among patients with infection based on organ failures, but it has been still controversial compared with previous definitions. Therefore, we aimed to describe characteristics of patients who met sepsis-2 (severe sepsis) and sepsis-3 definitions. Methods: This was a multicenter, prospective cohort study conducted by 22 intensive care units (ICUs) in Japan. Adult patients (≥ 16 years) with newly suspected infection from December 2017 to May 2018 were included. Those without infection at final diagnosis were excluded. Patient's characteristics and outcomes were described according to whether they met each definition or not. Results: In total, 618 patients with suspected infection were admitted to 22 ICUs during the study, of whom 530 (85.8%) met the sepsis-2 definition and 569 (92.1%) met the sepsis-3 definition. The two groups comprised different individuals, and 501 (81.1%) patients met both definitions. In-hospital mortality of study population was 19.1%. In-hospital mortality among patients with sepsis-2 and sepsis-3 patients was comparable (21.7% and 19.8%, respectively). Patients exclusively identified with sepsis-2 or sepsis-3 had a lower mortality (17.2% vs. 4.4%, respectively). No patients died if they did not meet any definitions. Patients who met sepsis-3 shock definition had higher in-hospital mortality than those who met sepsis-2 shock definition. Conclusions: Most patients with infection admitted to ICU meet sepsis-2 and sepsis-3 criteria. However, in-hospital mortality did not occur if patients did not meet any criteria. Better criteria might be developed by better selection and combination of elements in both definitions. Trial registration: UMIN000027452.

16.
Acute Med Surg ; 7(1): e513, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32489668

RESUMO

Aim: Combined detailed analysis of patient characteristics and treatment as well as bacterial virulence factors, which all play a central role in the cause of infections leading to severe illness, has not been reported. We aimed to describe the patient characteristics (Charlson comorbidity index [CCI]), treatment (3-h bundle), and outcomes in relation to bacterial virulence of Streptococcus pneumoniae and beta-hemolytic Streptococcus (BHS). Methods: This sepsis primary study is part of the larger Focused Outcomes Research in Emergency Care in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Sepsis and Trauma (FORECAST) study, a multicenter, prospective cohort study. We included patients diagnosed with S. pneumoniae and BHS sepsis and examined virulence, defining the high-virulence factor as follows: S. pneumoniae serotype 3, 31, 11A, 35F, and 17F; Streptococcus pyogenes, emm 1; Streptococcus agalactiae, III; and Streptococcus dysgalactiae ssp. equisimilis, emm typing pattern stG 6792. Included patients were divided into high and normal categories based on the virulence factor. Results: Of 1,184 sepsis patients enrolled in the Japanese Association for Acute Medicine's FORECAST study, 62 were included in the current study (29 cases with S. pneumoniae sepsis and 33 with BHS). The CCI and completion of a 3-h bundle did not differ between normal and high virulence groups. Risk of 28-day mortality was significantly higher for high-virulence compared to normal-virulence when adjusted for CCI and completion of a 3-h bundle (Cox proportional hazards regression analysis, hazard ratio 3.848; 95% confidence interval, 1.108-13.370; P = 0.034). Conclusion: The risk of 28-day mortality was significantly higher for patients with high-virulence compared to normal-virulence bacteria.

17.
Heart Rhythm ; 17(9): 1500-1507, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32353585

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Successful bipolar radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA) of refractory ventricular arrhythmias (VAs) has been reported. However, the efficacy, safety, and long-term outcomes of bipolar RFCA of VAs are not fully determined. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of bipolar RFCA in treating refractory VAs during long-term follow-up. METHODS: Eighteen patients who underwent bipolar RFCA for ventricular tachycardia (VT) at 7 institutions were retrospectively investigated. Underlying heart diseases included remote myocardial infarction (n = 3 [17%]) and nonischemic cardiomyopathy (n = 15 [83%]). Although unipolar RFCA was performed in all patients, either it failed to suppress VT or VT recurred. The interventricular septum, left ventricular free wall, and left ventricular summit were targeted for bipolar RFCA. RESULTS: Acute success (VT termination and/or noninducibility) was achieved with bipolar RFCA in 16 patients (89%). Complications during the procedure included complete atrioventricular block (n = 2) and coronary artery stenosis (n = 1). One patient underwent chemical ablation after bipolar RFCA failure. At 12-month follow-up, VT reoccurred in 8 patients (44%). However, in patients with recurrence, VT burden had decreased: only 4 patients underwent re-RFCA, and only 1 of the 4 required chemical ablation. In the remaining 4 patients, re-RFCA was not required, as VT was controlled by medication or an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator. CONCLUSION: Bipolar RFCA is useful for acute suppression of refractory VT. Although VT recurrence rates during long-term follow-up were relatively high, we observed a significant reduction in VT burden.

18.
Thromb Res ; 191: 15-21, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32353745

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) is a predominant cause of death in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is recognized as a syndrome that frequently develops MODS. To test the hypothesis that DIC scores are useful for predicting MODS development and that DIC is associated with MODS, we retrospectively analyzed the data of a prospective, multicenter study on ARDS. METHODS: Patients who met the Berlin definition of ARDS were included. DIC scores as well as the disease severity and the development of MODS on the day of the diagnosis of ARDS (day 0) and day 3 were evaluated. The primary and secondary outcomes were the development of MODS and the hospital mortality. RESULTS: In the 129 eligible patients, the prevalence of DIC was 45.7% (59/129). DIC patients were more seriously ill and exhibited a higher prevalence of MODS on days 0 and 3 than non-DIC patients. The DIC scores on day 0 detected the development of MODS with good area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (0.714, p<.001). DIC on day 0 was significantly associated with MODS on days 0 and 3 (odds ratio 1.53 and 1.34, respectively). Patients with persistent DIC from days 0 to 3 had higher rates of both MODS on day 3 (p=.035) and hospital mortality (p=.031) than the other patients. CONCLUSIONS: DIC scores were able to predict MODS, and DIC was associated with MODS during the early stage of ARDS. Persistent DIC may also have role in this association.

19.
J Nippon Med Sch ; 87(4): 227-232, 2020 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32350188

RESUMO

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) often results in coagulopathy, which increases mortality risk. The Clinical Randomization of an Antifibrinolytic in Significant Head injury (CRASH)-2 and CRASH-3 trials confirmed that tranexamic acid (TXA) was effective after trauma. Herein, we report a unique coagulation change in a patient with TBI given TXA after point-of-care assessment. Coagulation functions were impaired on admission. At 1 hour after TXA administration, clotting time was further prolonged in the extrinsic coagulation pathway but shortened in the intrinsic coagulation system. The results of a test of the total thrombus-formation analysis system showed improved blood clot formation ability. Intrinsic coagulation and clot formation improved after TXA administration in a TBI patient with coagulopathy.


Assuntos
Antifibrinolíticos/administração & dosagem , Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/etiologia , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/complicações , Ácido Tranexâmico/administração & dosagem , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Coagulação Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/sangue , Humanos , Masculino , Trombose/etiologia , Trombose/prevenção & controle , Ácido Tranexâmico/farmacologia , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0229919, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32160234

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dysglycemia is frequently observed in patients with sepsis. However, the relationship between dysglycemia and outcome is inconsistent. We evaluate the clinical characteristics, glycemic abnormalities, and the relationship between the initial glucose level and mortality in patients with sepsis. METHODS: This is a retrospective sub-analysis of a multicenter, prospective cohort study. Adult patients with severe sepsis (Sepsis-2) were divided into groups based on blood glucose categories (<70 (hypoglycemia), 70-139, 140-179, and ≥180 mg/dL), according to the admission values. In-hospital mortality and the relationship between pre-existing diabetes and septic shock were evaluated. RESULTS: Of 1158 patients, 69, 543, 233, and 313 patients were categorized as glucose levels <70, 70-139, 140-179, ≥180 mg/dL, respectively. Both the Acute Physiological and Chronic Health Evaluation II and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) scores on the day of enrollment were higher in the hypoglycemic patients than in those with 70-179 mg/dL. The hepatic SOFA scores were also higher in hypoglycemic patients. In-hospital mortality rates were higher in hypoglycemic patients than in those with 70-139 mg/dL (26/68, 38.2% vs 43/221, 19.5%). A significant relationship between mortality and hypoglycemia was demonstrated only in patients without known diabetes. Mortality in patients with both hypoglycemia and septic shock was 2.5-times higher than that in patients without hypoglycemia and septic shock. CONCLUSIONS: Hypoglycemia may be related to increased severity and high mortality in patients with severe sepsis. These relationships were evident only in patients without known diabetes. Patients with both hypoglycemia and septic shock had an associated increased mortality rate.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus/fisiopatologia , Hipoglicemia/fisiopatologia , Sepse/fisiopatologia , Choque Séptico/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Glicemia , Diabetes Mellitus/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus/mortalidade , Feminino , Glucose/metabolismo , Humanos , Hipoglicemia/sangue , Hipoglicemia/complicações , Hipoglicemia/mortalidade , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Estudos Prospectivos , Sepse/sangue , Sepse/complicações , Sepse/mortalidade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Choque Séptico/sangue , Choque Séptico/mortalidade
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