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1.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1232: 121-127, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31893403

RESUMO

Changes in NIRS signals are related to changes in local cerebral blood flow or oxy-Hb concentration. On the other hand, recent studies have revealed the effect of chewing gum on cognitive performance, stress control etc. which accompanied brain activity in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). However, these relationships are still controversial. To evaluate the chewing effect on PFC, NIRS seems to be a suitable method of imaging such results. When measuring NIRS on PFC, blood volume in superficial tissues (scalp, skin, muscle) might have some affect. The aim of the present study was to clarify the effect of the anterior temporal muscle on NIRS signals during gum chewing. Eight healthy volunteers participated. Two-channel NIRS (HOT-1000, NeU, Japan), which can distinguish total-Hb concentrations in deep tissue and superficial tissue layers, was used. In addition to a conventional optode separation distance of 3.0 cm, Hot 1000 has a short distance of 1.0 cm (NEAR channel) to measure NIRS signals that originate exclusively from surface tissues. NIRS probes were placed at Fp1 and Fp2 in the normal probe setting. The headset was displaced to the left in order to allow the left probe to be placed over the left anterior temporal muscle. In the normal setting, the superficial signal curve shows no notable change; however, the neural (calculated and defined in HOT-1000) and deep curves show an increase during the gum chewing task. At the deviated setting, all three signals show marked changes during the task. Total-Hb concentration in the deviated probe setting is significantly large (p < 0.05) than that of in the normal probe setting. When using gum chewing as a task, it would be better to consider a probe position carefully so that the influence of muscle activity on NIRS signal can be distinguished.


Assuntos
Mastigação , Córtex Pré-Frontal , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho , Adulto , Hemoglobinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Japão , Projetos Piloto , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
2.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1232: 323-329, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31893427

RESUMO

Recent guidelines on cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) have stressed the necessity to improve the quality of CPR. Our previous studies demonstrated the usefulness of monitoring cerebral blood oxygenation (CBO) during CPR by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). The present study evaluates whether the NIRO-CCR1, a new NIRS device, is as useful in the clinical setting as the NIRO-200NX. We monitored CBO in 20 patients with cardiac arrest by NIRS. On the arrival of patients at the emergency department, the attending physician immediately assessed whether the patient was eligible for this study after conventional advanced life support and, if eligible, measured CBO in the frontal lobe by NIRS. We found that in all patients, the cerebral blood flow waveform was in synchrony with the chest compressions. Moreover, the tissue oxygenation index increased following cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) in patients undergoing CPB, including one patient in whom CBO was monitored using the NIRO-CCR1. In addition, although the NIRO-CCR1 could display the pulse rate (Tempo) in real time, Tempo was not always detected, despite detection of the cerebral blood flow waveform. This suggested that chest compressions may not have been effective, indicating that the NIRO-CCR1 also seems useful to assess the quality of CPR. This study suggests that the NIRO-CCR1 can measure CBO during CPR in patients with cardiac arrest as effectively as the NIRO-200NX; in addition, the new NIRO-CCR1 may be even more useful, especially in prehospital fields (e.g. in an ambulance), since it is easy to carry.


Assuntos
Reanimação Cardiopulmonar , Circulação Cerebrovascular , Parada Cardíaca , Monitorização Fisiológica , Oximetria , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monitorização Fisiológica/instrumentação , Monitorização Fisiológica/normas , Oximetria/instrumentação , Oximetria/normas , Projetos Piloto , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho/instrumentação , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho/normas
3.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1232: 331-337, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31893428

RESUMO

Obesity, a risk factor of coronary artery disease, is known to cause peripheral microcirculatory disturbances. This study evaluated the relationship between the degree of obesity and peripheral microcirculatory disturbances, using peripheral near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) with a vascular occlusion test (VOT). We compared correlations between the NIRS parameter changes induced by VOT and body mass index (BMI) in patients with and without statin therapy. A NIRS probe was set on the right thenar eminence, brachial artery blood flow was blocked for 3 min, and then released. Although total hemoglobin (ΔcHb), deoxyhemoglobin (ΔHHb) and tissue oxygenation index (ΔTOI) were not correlated with BMI, a significant negative correlation was found between oxyhemoglobin (ΔO2Hb) and BMI in the overall study population (r = -0.255, p-value 0.02). In addition, a significant negative correlation was found between ΔO2Hb and BMI in patients without statin therapy (r = -0.353, p-value 0.02) but not in patients with statin therapy (r = -0.181, p-value 0.27). These findings suggest that ΔO2Hb may be a useful indicator to assess peripheral microcirculation.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Microcirculação/fisiologia , Oxigênio , Consumo de Oxigênio , Oxiemoglobinas/metabolismo , Fatores de Risco , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho/normas
4.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1232: 355-360, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31893431

RESUMO

Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is associated with visceral fat and various cardiac disorders, such as atrial fibrillation and adverse cardiovascular events. Therefore, it is important to develop a simple and non-invasive inspection method to assess EAT, to prevent unfavorable cardiac events. This study assessed correlations between near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) changes induced by a vascular occlusion test (VOT) and EAT volume measured by cardiac computed tomography (CCT) in patients with suspected coronary artery disease. We also assessed correlations between body mass index (BMI) and EAT volume in the same population. In addition, these correlations were compared in patients treated with statin therapy and in those without statin therapy. A NIRS probe was set on the right thenar eminence, and brachial artery blood flow was blocked for 3 min before being released. A negative correlation was found between oxyhemoglobin (ΔO2Hb) and EAT volume in the overall study population (r = -0.236, p = 0.03). Interestingly, although a strong correlation was observed in patients without statin therapy (r = -0.488, p < 0.001), this correlation was not observed in patients with statin therapy (r = 0.157, p = 0.34). These findings suggest that NIRS measurements with VOT may be a useful method to identify patients with high EAT volume and high cardiovascular risks.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Oxiemoglobinas/metabolismo , Fatores de Risco
5.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1072: 145-150, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30178337

RESUMO

Time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy (TRS) enables assessment of baseline concentrations of hemoglobin (Hb) in the prefrontal cortex, which reflects regional cerebral blood flow and neuronal activity at rest. In a previous study, we demonstrated that baseline concentrations of oxy-Hb, deoxy-Hb, total-Hb, and oxygen saturation (SO2) measured by TRS were correlated with mini mental state examination (MMSE) scores. In the present study, we investigated whether Hb concentrations measured with TRS at rest can predict MMSE scores in aged people with various cognitive functions. A total of 202 subjects (87 males, 115 females, age 73.4 ± 13 years) participated. First, MMSE was conducted to assess cognitive function, and then baseline concentrations of oxy-Hb, deoxy-Hb, total-Hb, and SO2 in the bilateral prefrontal cortex were measured by TRS. Then, we employed the deep neural network (DNN) to predict the MMSE score. From the comparison results, the DNN showed 91.5% accuracy by leave-one-out cross validation. We found that not only the baseline concentration of SO2 but also optical path lengths contributed to prediction of the MMSE score. These results suggest that TRS with the DNN is useful as a screening test for cognitive impairment.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Hemoglobinas/análise , Testes de Estado Mental e Demência , Córtex Pré-Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Cognição/fisiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/irrigação sanguínea , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia
6.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 977: 199-204, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28685446

RESUMO

Aging often results in a decline in cognitive function, related to alterations in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) activation. Maintenance of this function in an aging society is an important issue. Some practices/drills, moderate exercise, mastication, and a cognitive task itself could enhance cognitive function. In this validation study, before evaluating the effects of some drills on the elderly, we examined the neural substrate of blood oxygenation changes by the use of four cognitive tasks and fNIRS. Seven healthy volunteers (mean age 25.3 years) participated in this study. Each task session was designed in a block manner; 4 periods of rests (30 s) and 3 blocks of four tasks (30 s). The tasks used were: a computerized Stroop test, a Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, a Sternberg working memory paradigm, and a semantic verbal fluency task. The findings of the study are that all four tasks activated PFC to some extent, without laterality except for the verbal fluency task. The results confirm that NIRS is suitable for measurement of blood oxygenation changes in frontal brain areas that are associated with all four cognitive tasks.


Assuntos
Circulação Cerebrovascular/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Córtex Pré-Frontal/irrigação sanguínea , Córtex Pré-Frontal/metabolismo , Adulto , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Lateralidade Funcional/fisiologia , Humanos , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Semântica , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho , Fala/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 977: 269-276, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28685456

RESUMO

We evaluated relationship between cognitive function and cerebral blood oxygenation (CBO) of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) at rest in 113 adults (age 72.3 ± 12.0 years). We employed a two channel time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy (TRS), which allows non-invasive measurements of baseline concentrations of oxyhemoglobin (oxy-Hb), deoxyhemoglobin (deoxy-Hb), total-hemoglobin (t-Hb) (µM) and oxygen saturation (SO2, %) of the bilateral PFC without any tasks. We examined cognitive functions using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) (range from 0 to 30) and the Touch M which evaluates working memory function semi-automatically on a touchscreen (range from 0 to 100); the mean MMSE and Touch M scores of all subjects were 24.8 ± 4.6 (mean ± SD; range 11-30) and 41.3 ± 22.1 (range 1-100), respectively. Employing Pearson's correlation analysis, we evaluated correlation between the TRS parameters and cognitive function. We found a significant positive correlation between the MMSE scores and SO2 (r = 0.24, p < 0.02). In addition, we observed significant positive correlations between Touch M scores and baseline concentrations of oxy-Hb (r = 0.26, p < 0.02), total-Hb (r = 0.23, p < 0.05), and SO2 (r = 0.23, p < 0.05). TRS allowed us to evaluate the relation between CBO in the PFC at rest and cognitive function.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Cognição/fisiologia , Hemoglobinas/análise , Hemoglobinas/metabolismo , Córtex Pré-Frontal/metabolismo , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho/métodos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento/psicologia , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oxigênio/análise , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Oxiemoglobinas/metabolismo , Córtex Pré-Frontal/química
8.
Int J Psychophysiol ; 114: 38-46, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28174110

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to assess the interrelation between cortical, cardiovascular, behavioural, and psychological responses to acute stressors in a large sample of healthy individuals. To date, there are only preliminary evidences for a significant association among these psychophysiological indexes during a stress task. 65 participants completed psychological questionnaires (Beck Depression Inventory and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory) and underwent a psychosocial math stress task, consisting of a control and an experimental (i.e. stressful) condition. Prefrontal and autonomic activities were recorded using respectively a 2-channel near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) device and a portable ECG monitoring system. Results evidenced an increased activation of both frontal areas assessed by NIRS, and a positive association between the right NIRS channel and heart rate changes from baseline, during both control and experimental conditions. Subjective stress increased during the procedure, reaching its maximum during the experimental condition. Behavioural performances during the task (e.g. response time) did not correlate with anxiety or depression. Autonomic data evidenced, as expected, an overall reduction of vagal tone during the experimental condition. Finally, severity of depressive and anxious symptoms predicted an increase in parasympathetic activity both at rest and during the task, even when controlling for respiration rate. Results support the hypothesis of an integration between right sectors of frontopolar or dorsolateral PFC and cardiac regulation. Trait anxiety and depression predicted an increase in vagal tone during the entire procedure. The implication of these findings is discussed.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/fisiopatologia , Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/fisiologia , Depressão/fisiopatologia , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/fisiopatologia , Eletrocardiografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiopatologia , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho , Adulto Jovem
9.
IEEE J Biomed Health Inform ; 21(5): 1194-1205, 2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28113527

RESUMO

In this paper, we present an unobtrusive cuffless blood pressure (BP) monitoring system based on pulse arrival time (PAT) for facilitating long-term home BP monitoring. The proposed system consists of an electrocardiograph (ECG), a photoplethysmograph (PPG), and a control circuit with a Bluetooth module, all of which are mounted on a common armchair to measure ECG and PPG signals from users while sitting on the armchair in order to calculate continuous PAT. Considering the good linear correlation of systolic BP (SBP) and the nonlinear correlation of diastolic BP (DBP) with PAT, a new BP estimation method was proposed. Ten subjects underwent BP monitoring experiments involving stationary sitting on a chair, lying on a bed, and pedaling using an ergometer in order to assess the accuracy of the estimated BP. A cuff-type BP monitor was used as reference in the experiments. Results showed that the mean difference of the estimated SBP and DBP was within 0.2 ± 5.8 mmHg ( p < 0.00001) and 0.4 ± 5.7 mmHg ( p < 0.00001), respectively, and the mean absolute difference of the estimated SBP and DBP were 4.4 and 4.6 mmHg, respectively, compared to references. Additionally, five subjects participated in data collections consisting of sitting on a chair twice a day for one month. Compared to the reference, the difference did not obviously increase along with time, even though individualized calibration was executed only once at the beginning. These results suggest that the proposed system has quite the potential for long-term home BP monitoring.


Assuntos
Determinação da Pressão Arterial/métodos , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Processamento de Sinais Assistido por Computador , Algoritmos , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Eletrocardiografia/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fotopletismografia/métodos
10.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 923: 209-214, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27526145

RESUMO

In order to clarify the central mechanism controlling respiratory rate during mental stress, we examined the relation between prefrontal cortex (PFC) activity and respiratory rate during mental arithmetic (MA) tasks. Employing two-channel near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), we measured hemoglobin (Hb) concentration changes in the bilateral PFC during MA tasks in normal adults. To evaluate asymmetry of the PFC activity, we calculated the laterality index (LI); (R-L)/(R + L) of oxy-Hb concentration changes (R = right, L = left); positive LI scores indicate right-dominant activity, while negative scores indicate left-dominant activity. For measurements of respiratory rate, we employed a Kinect motion sensor (Microsoft). The MA tasks increased both oxy-Hb in the bilateral PFC and respiratory rate (p < 0.001). In addition, there was a significant correlation between LI and respiratory rate (r = 0.582, p < 0.02). These results indicate that the MA-induced activity in the right PFC was greater than that in the left PFC in subjects with large increases of respiratory rate, suggesting that the right PFC has a greater role in cerebral regulation of respiratory rate during mental stress.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Pulmão/inervação , Conceitos Matemáticos , Oximetria/métodos , Consumo de Oxigênio , Oxigênio/sangue , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Taxa Respiratória , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho , Estresse Psicológico , Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/fisiologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Lateralidade Funcional , Hemoglobinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Oxiemoglobinas/metabolismo , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Córtex Pré-Frontal/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
11.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 923: 215-222, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27526146

RESUMO

Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) is a quinone compound originally identified in methanol-utilizing bacteria and is a cofactor for redox enzymes. At the Meeting of the International Society on Oxygen Transport to Tissue (ISOTT) 2014, we reported that PQQ disodium salt (BioPQQ™) improved cognitive function in humans, as assessed by the Stroop test. However, the physiological mechanism of PQQ remains unclear. In the present study, we measured regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and oxygen metabolism in prefrontal cortex (PFC), before and after administration of PQQ, using time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy (tNIRS). A total of 20 healthy subjects between 50 and 70 years of age were administered BioPQQ™ (20 mg) or placebo orally once daily for 12 weeks. Hemoglobin (Hb) concentration and absolute tissue oxygen saturation (SO2) in the bilateral PFC were evaluated under resting conditions using tNIRS. We found that baseline concentrations of hemoglobin and total hemoglobin in the right PFC significantly increased after administration of PQQ (p < 0.05). In addition, decreases in SO2 level in the PFC were more pronounced in the PQQ group than in the placebo group (p < 0.05). These results suggest that PQQ causes increased activity in the right PFC associated with increases in rCBF and oxygen metabolism, resulting in enhanced cognitive function.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Circulação Cerebrovascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Consumo de Oxigênio/efeitos dos fármacos , Oxigênio/sangue , Cofator PQQ/administração & dosagem , Córtex Pré-Frontal/irrigação sanguínea , Córtex Pré-Frontal/efeitos dos fármacos , Administração Oral , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Velocidade do Fluxo Sanguíneo , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oximetria/métodos , Oxiemoglobinas/metabolismo , Córtex Pré-Frontal/metabolismo , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho , Tóquio
12.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 923: 223-229, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27526147

RESUMO

Simultaneous monitoring of brain activity with near-infrared spectroscopy and electroencephalography allows spatiotemporal reconstruction of the hemodynamic response regarding the concentration changes in oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin that are associated with recorded brain activity such as cognitive functions. However, the accuracy of state estimation during mental arithmetic tasks is often different depending on the length of the segment for sampling of NIRS and EEG signals. This study compared the results of a self-organizing map and ANOVA, which were both used to assess the accuracy of state estimation. We conducted an experiment with a mental arithmetic task performed by 10 participants. The lengths of the segment in each time frame for observation of NIRS and EEG signals were compared with the 30-s, 1-min, and 2-min segment lengths. The optimal segment lengths were different for NIRS and EEG signals in the case of classification of feature vectors into the states of performing a mental arithmetic task and being at rest.


Assuntos
Ondas Encefálicas , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Eletroencefalografia , Conceitos Matemáticos , Oximetria/métodos , Consumo de Oxigênio , Oxigênio/sangue , Processamento de Sinais Assistido por Computador , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho , Estresse Psicológico , Análise de Variância , Biomarcadores , Análise por Conglomerados , Hemoglobinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Oxiemoglobinas/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo
13.
Brain Res ; 1646: 297-303, 2016 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27312091

RESUMO

We examined the effects of silymarin, which was extracted from Silybum marianum, on delayed neuronal cell death in the rat hippocampus. Rats were divided into four groups: sham-operated rats (sham group), rats which underwent ischemic surgery (control group), rats which were treated with silymarin before and after ischemic surgery (pre group), and rats which were treated with silymarin after ischemic surgery only (post group). We performed the ischemic surgery by occluding the bilateral carotid arteries for 20min and sacrificed the rats one week after the surgery. Silymarin was administered orally at 200mg/kg body weight. Smaller numbers of delayed cell deaths were noted in the rat CA1 region of the pre- and post-groups, and no significant difference was observed between these groups. There were few apoptotic cell deaths in all groups. Compared to the control group, significantly fewer cell deaths by autophagy were found in the pre- and post-group. We concluded that silymarin exerts a preservation effect on delayed neuronal cell death in the rat hippocampus and this effect has nothing to do with the timing of administering of silymarin.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Isquemia Encefálica/prevenção & controle , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/administração & dosagem , Silimarina/administração & dosagem , Animais , Hipocampo/patologia , Hipocampo/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Cardo Mariano , Neurônios/patologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Silimarina/isolamento & purificação
15.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 876: 151-157, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26782207

RESUMO

Return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) during chest compression is generally detected by arterial pulse palpation and end-tidal CO2 monitoring; however, it is necessary to stop chest compression during pulse palpation, and to perform endotracheal intubation for monitoring end-tidal CO2. In the present study, we evaluated whether near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) allows the detection of ROSC during chest compression without interruption. We monitored cerebral blood oxygenation in 19 patients with cardiac arrest using NIRS (NIRO-200NX, Hamamatsu Photonics, Japan). On arrival at the emergency room, the attending physicians immediately assessed whether a patient was eligible for this study after conventional advanced life support (ALS) and employed NIRS to measure cerebral blood oxygenation (CBO) in the bilateral frontal lobe in patients. We found cerebral blood flow waveforms in synchrony with chest compressions in all patients. In addition, we observed abrupt increases of oxy-hemoglobin concentration and tissue oxygen index (TOI), which were associated with ROSC detected by pulse palpation. The present findings indicate that NIRS can be used to assess the quality of chest compression in patients with cardiac arrest as demonstrated by the detection of synchronous waveforms during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). NIRS appears to be applicable for detection of ROSC without interruption of chest compression and without endotracheal intubation.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/metabolismo , Parada Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Reanimação Cardiopulmonar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto
16.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 876: 303-309, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26782226

RESUMO

The prefrontal cortex (PFC) plays an important role in emotion and emotional regulation. The valence asymmetry hypothesis, proposes that the left/right asymmetry of the PFC activity is correlated with specific emotional responses to stressors. However, this hypothesis still seems to leave room for clarifying neurophysiological mechanisms. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of stimuli with positive and negative valence sounds (hereafter PS, NS) selected from the International Affective Digitized Sounds-2 on physiological and physiological responses, including PFC activity in normal participants. We studied the effect of both stimuli using 12 normal subjects (mean age 26.8 years) on cerebral blood oxygenation in the bilateral PFC by a multi-channel NIRS, alpha wave appearance rate in theta, alpha, beta by EEG, autonomic nervous function by heart rate, and emotional conditions by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and the visual analogue scale (VAS). PS was selected over 7.00 and NS were fewer than 3.00 in the Pleasure values. Sounds were recorded during 3 s and reproduced at random using software. Every task session was designed in a block manner: seven rests with Brown Noise (30 s) and six tasks (30 s) blocks. All participants performed each session in random order with eyes closed. A paired Student's t-test was used for comparisons (P<0.05). PFC activity showed increases bilaterally during both stimuli with a greater activation of the left side in PS and a tendency of more activation by NS in the right PFC. Significantly greater alpha wave intensity was obtained in PS. Heart rate tended to show smaller values in PS. The STAI level tended to show smaller values in PS, and a significantly greater VAS score was obtained in PS which indicated 'pleasant'. Despite the limitations of this study such as the low numbers of the subjects, the present study indicated that PS provided pleasant psychological and physiological responses and NS unpleasant responses. The PFC was activated bilaterally, implying a valence effect with the possibility of a dominant side.


Assuntos
Estimulação Acústica , Circulação Cerebrovascular , Adulto , Humanos , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Escala Visual Analógica
17.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 876: 319-325, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26782228

RESUMO

Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) is a quinone compound first identified in 1979. It has been reported that rats fed a PQQ-supplemented diet showed better learning ability than controls, suggesting that PQQ may be useful for improving memory in humans. In the present study, a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded study to examine the effect of PQQ disodium salt (BioPQQ™) on cognitive functions was conducted with 41 elderly healthy subjects. Subjects were orally given 20 mg of BioPQQ™ per day or placebo, for 12 weeks. For cognitive functions, selective attention by the Stroop and reverse Stroop test, and visual-spatial cognitive function by the laptop tablet Touch M, were evaluated. In the Stroop test, the change of Stroop interference ratios (SIs) for the PQQ group was significantly smaller than for the placebo group. In the Touch M test, the stratification analyses dividing each group into two groups showed that only in the lower group of the PQQ group (initial score<70), did the score significantly increase. Measurements of physiological parameters indicated no abnormal blood or urinary adverse events, nor adverse internal or physical examination findings at any point in the study. The preliminary experiment using near-infrared spectrometry (NIRS) suggests that cerebral blood flow in the prefrontal cortex was increased by the administration of PQQ. The results suggest that PQQ can prevent reduction of brain function in aged persons, especially in attention and working memory.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Cognição/efeitos dos fármacos , Cofator PQQ/farmacologia , Idoso , Circulação Cerebrovascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho
18.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 876: 343-349, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26782231

RESUMO

Studies have shown that chewing is thought to affect stress modification in humans. Also, studies in animals have demonstrated that active chewing of a wooden stick during immobilization stress ameliorates the stress-impaired synaptic plasticity and prevents stress-induced noradrenaline release in the amygdala. On the other hand, studies have suggested that the right prefrontal cortex (PFC) dominates the regulation of the stress response system, including the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. The International Affective Digitized Sounds-2 (IADS) is widely used in the study of emotions and neuropsychological research. Therefore, in this study, the effects of gum-chewing on physiological and psychological (including PFC activity measured by NIRS) responses to a negative stimulus selected from the IADS were measured and analyzed. The study design was approved by the Ethics Committee of Tokyo Dental College (No. 436). We studied 11 normal adults using: cerebral blood oxygenation in the right medial PFC by multi-channel NIRS; alpha wave intensity by EEG; autonomic nervous function by heart rate; and emotional conditions by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) test and the 100-mm visual analogue scale (VAS). Auditory stimuli selected were fewer than 3.00 in Pleasure value. Sounds were recorded in 3 s and reproduced at random using software. Every task session was designed in a block manner; seven rests: Brown Noise (30 s) and six task blocks: auditory stimuli or auditory stimuli with gum-chewing (30 s). During the test, the participants' eyes were closed. Paired Student's t-test was used for the comparison (P<0.05). Gum-chewing showed a significantly greater activation in the PFC, alpha wave appearance rate and HR. Gum-chewing also showed a significantly higher VAS score and a smaller STAI level indicating 'pleasant'. Gum-chewing affected physiological and psychological responses including PFC activity. This PFC activation change might influence the HPA axis and ANS activities. In summary, within the limitations of this study, the findings suggest that gum-chewing reduced stress-related responses. Gum-chewing might have a possible effect on stress coping.


Assuntos
Goma de Mascar , Estresse Psicológico , Adaptação Psicológica , Adulto , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/fisiologia , Masculino , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/fisiologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Escala Visual Analógica
19.
J Huazhong Univ Sci Technolog Med Sci ; 34(5): 663-671, 2014 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25318875

RESUMO

It remains unclear whether language tasks in one's first (L1) or second (L2) language can cause stress responses and whether frontal, autonomic and behavioral responses to stressful tasks are correlated. In this study, we studied 22 Chinese subjects whose L2 was English and measured the cerebral blood oxygenation in their frontal lobe by using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) as participants engaged in a mental arithmetic task (MAT) and verbal fluency tasks (VFTs) in L1 (Chinese) and L2 (English). To examine the activated cortical areas, we estimated the channel location based on Montreal Neurological Institute (MNI) standard brain space by using a probabilistic estimation method. We evaluated heart rate (HR) changes to analyze autonomic nervous system (ANS) functioning. We found that the MAT and VFTs induced greater increases in HR than did the control (Ctrl) task. Furthermore, subjects developed greater increases in HR in the MAT and VFTL2 than they did in the VFTL1. Compared with the Ctrl task, the MAT and both VFTL1 and VFTL2 produced robust and widespread bilateral activation of the frontal cortex. Interestingly, partial correlation analysis indicated that the activity in the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) [Brodmann's area (BA) 47] was consistently correlated with the increases in HR across the three tasks (MAT, VFTL2, and VFTL1), after controlling for the performance data. The present results suggested that a VFT in L2 may be more stressful than in L1. The LIFG may affect the activation of the sympathetic system induced by stressful tasks, including MATs and VFTs.


Assuntos
Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/fisiologia , Linguagem , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Adulto , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Feminino , Lateralidade Funcional , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Oxiemoglobinas/metabolismo , Córtex Pré-Frontal/metabolismo , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho/métodos , Estresse Psicológico
20.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 812: 203-208, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24729234

RESUMO

Enriched environments reportedly show neuroprotective effects. Here, we evaluated the effect of an enriched environment prior to cerebral ischemia on neuronal cell death and neurogenesis in rats. Male SD rats were housed under standard conditions (SC) or in an enriched environment (EE), then subjected to global ischemia. The Y-maze test and novel object cognition test were used to evaluate cognitive function before and after ischemia. At 7 days post-ischemia, we evaluated hippocampal neuronal cell death with Fluoro-Jade B staining and neurogenesis with BrdU staining. Phosphorylated cAMP response element-binding protein (phospho-CREB) was also evaluated immunohistochemically. The EE + ischemia group showed a significant decrease of cell death post-ischemia compared with the SC + ischemia group. There was no difference in neurogenesis post-ischemia between SC + ischemia and EE + ischemia. The EE + ischemia group showed a significant increase of performance before and after ischemia compared with the SC + ischemia group. Phospho-CREB-positive cells were significantly increased post-ischemia in EE + ischemia compared with SC + ischemia. EE suppressed hippocampal cell death due to global ischemia. Additionally, enhancement of cognitive function before and after ischemia and prevention of cognitive impairment associated with ischemia were observed compared with the controls (rats housed in SC without ischemia). The CREB pathway may play an important role in protection of cognitive ability.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/patologia , Morte Celular , Hipocampo/patologia , Neurogênese , Neurônios/patologia , Animais , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
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