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1.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 2022 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35368066

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The relationship between cigarette smoking status and SARS-CoV-2 infection and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) severity is highly debated. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of >2.4 million adults in a large healthcare system to evaluate whether smoking is associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection and disease severity. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study of 2,427,293 adults in KPNC from 3/5/2020 (baseline) to 12/31/2020 (pre-vaccine) included smoking status (current, former, never), socio-demographics, and comorbidities from the electronic health record. SARS-CoV-2 infection (identified by a positive PCR test) and COVID-19 severity (hospitalization, ICU admission or death ≤30 days of COVID-19 diagnosis) were estimated in time-to-event analyses using Cox proportional hazard regression models adjusting for covariates. Secondary analyses examined COVID-19 severity among patients with COVID-19 using logistic regression. RESULTS: During the study, 44,270 patients had SARS-CoV-2 infection. Current smoking was associated with lower adjusted rates of SARS-CoV-2 infection (aHR=0.64 95%CI:0.61-0.67), COVID-19-related hospitalization (aHR=0.48 95%CI:0.40-0.58), ICU admission (aHR=0.62 95%CI:0.42-0.87), and death (aHR=0.52 95%CI:0.27-0.89) than never-smoking. Former smoking was associated with a lower adjusted rate of SARS-CoV-2 infection (aHR=0.96 95%CI:0.94-0.99) and higher rates of hospitalization (aHR=1.10 95%CI:1.03-1.08) and death (aHR=1.32 95%CI:1.11-1.56) than never-smoking. Logistic regression analyses among patients with COVID-19 found lower odds of hospitalization for current versus never-smoking and higher odds of hospitalization and death for former versus never-smoking. CONCLUSIONS: In the largest US study to date on smoking and COVID-19, current and former smoking showed lower risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection than never-smoking, while a history of smoking was associated with higher risk of severe COVID-19. IMPLICATIONS: In this cohort study of 2.4 million adults, adjusting for socio-demographics and medical comorbidities, current cigarette smoking was associated with a lower risk of both COVID-19 infection and severe COVID-19 illness compared to never-smoking. A history of smoking was associated with a slightly lower risk of COVID-19 infection and a modestly higher risk of severe COVID-19 illness compared to never-smoking. The lower observed COVID-19 risk for current versus never-smoking deserves further investigation. Results support prioritizing individuals with smoking-related comorbidities for vaccine outreach and treatments as they become available.

2.
Chest ; 161(5): 1155-1166, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35104449

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Some people have characteristics of both asthma and COPD (asthma-COPD overlap), and evidence suggests they experience worse outcomes than those with either condition alone. RESEARCH QUESTION: What is the genetic architecture of asthma-COPD overlap, and do the determinants of risk for asthma-COPD overlap differ from those for COPD or asthma? STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: We conducted a genome-wide association study in 8,068 asthma-COPD overlap case subjects and 40,360 control subjects without asthma or COPD of European ancestry in UK Biobank (stage 1). We followed up promising signals (P < 5 × 10-6) that remained associated in analyses comparing (1) asthma-COPD overlap vs asthma-only control subjects, and (2) asthma-COPD overlap vs COPD-only control subjects. These variants were analyzed in 12 independent cohorts (stage 2). RESULTS: We selected 31 independent variants for further investigation in stage 2, and discovered eight novel signals (P < 5 × 10-8) for asthma-COPD overlap (meta-analysis of stage 1 and 2 studies). These signals suggest a spectrum of shared genetic influences, some predominantly influencing asthma (FAM105A, GLB1, PHB, TSLP), others predominantly influencing fixed airflow obstruction (IL17RD, C5orf56, HLA-DQB1). One intergenic signal on chromosome 5 had not been previously associated with asthma, COPD, or lung function. Subgroup analyses suggested that associations at these eight signals were not driven by smoking or age at asthma diagnosis, and in phenome-wide scans, eosinophil counts, atopy, and asthma traits were prominent. INTERPRETATION: We identified eight signals for asthma-COPD overlap, which may represent loci that predispose to type 2 inflammation, and serious long-term consequences of asthma.


Assuntos
Asma , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Asma/diagnóstico , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Pulmão , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/complicações , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Fumar/genética
3.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 31(3): 679-687, 2022 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35027437

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Somatic EGFR mutations define a subset of non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) that have clinical impact on NSCLC risk and outcome. However, EGFR-mutation-status is often missing in epidemiologic datasets. We developed and tested pragmatic approaches to account for EGFR-mutation-status based on variables commonly included in epidemiologic datasets and evaluated the clinical utility of these approaches. METHODS: Through analysis of the International Lung Cancer Consortium (ILCCO) epidemiologic datasets, we developed a regression model for EGFR-status; we then applied a clinical-restriction approach using the optimal cut-point, and a second epidemiologic, multiple imputation approach to ILCCO survival analyses that did and did not account for EGFR-status. RESULTS: Of 35,356 ILCCO patients with NSCLC, EGFR-mutation-status was available in 4,231 patients. A model regressing known EGFR-mutation-status on clinical and demographic variables achieved a concordance index of 0.75 (95% CI, 0.74-0.77) in the training and 0.77 (95% CI, 0.74-0.79) in the testing dataset. At an optimal cut-point of probability-score = 0.335, sensitivity = 69% and specificity = 72.5% for determining EGFR-wildtype status. In both restriction-based and imputation-based regression analyses of the individual roles of BMI on overall survival of patients with NSCLC, similar results were observed between overall and EGFR-mutation-negative cohort analyses of patients of all ancestries. However, our approach identified some differences: EGFR-mutated Asian patients did not incur a survival benefit from being obese, as observed in EGFR-wildtype Asian patients. CONCLUSIONS: We introduce a pragmatic method to evaluate the potential impact of EGFR-status on epidemiological analyses of NSCLC. IMPACT: The proposed method is generalizable in the common occurrence in which EGFR-status data are missing.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/epidemiologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Receptores ErbB/genética , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Mutação , Análise de Sobrevida
4.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 114(4): 528-539, 2022 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35026030

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) among individuals aged younger than 50 years has been increasing. As screening guidelines lower the recommended age of screening initiation, concerns including the burden on screening capacity and costs have been recognized, suggesting that an individualized approach may be warranted. We developed risk prediction models for early-onset CRC that incorporate an environmental risk score (ERS), including 16 lifestyle and environmental factors, and a polygenic risk score (PRS) of 141 variants. METHODS: Relying on risk score weights for ERS and PRS derived from studies of CRC at all ages, we evaluated risks for early-onset CRC in 3486 cases and 3890 controls aged younger than 50 years. Relative and absolute risks for early-onset CRC were assessed according to values of the ERS and PRS. The discriminatory performance of these scores was estimated using the covariate-adjusted area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. RESULTS: Increasing values of ERS and PRS were associated with increasing relative risks for early-onset CRC (odds ratio per SD of ERS = 1.14, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.08 to 1.20; odds ratio per SD of PRS = 1.59, 95% CI = 1.51 to 1.68), both contributing to case-control discrimination (area under the curve = 0.631, 95% CI = 0.615 to 0.647). Based on absolute risks, we can expect 26 excess cases per 10 000 men and 21 per 10 000 women among those scoring at the 90th percentile for both risk scores. CONCLUSIONS: Personal risk scores have the potential to identify individuals at differential relative and absolute risk for early-onset CRC. Improved discrimination may aid in targeted CRC screening of younger, high-risk individuals, potentially improving outcomes.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Idoso , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
5.
Clin Pharmacol Ther ; 111(1): 283-292, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34664259

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential collective opportunities and challenges of transforming real-world data (RWD) to real-world evidence for clinical effectiveness by focusing on aligning analytic definitions of oncology end points. Patients treated with a qualifying therapy for advanced non-small cell lung cancer in the frontline setting meeting broad eligibility criteria were included to reflect the real-world population. Although a trend toward improved outcomes in patients receiving PD-(L)1 therapy over standard chemotherapy was observed in RWD analyses, the magnitude and consistency of treatment effect was more heterogeneous than previously observed in controlled clinical trials. The study design and analysis process highlighted the identification of pertinent methodological issues and potential innovative approaches that could inform the development of high-quality RWD studies.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Medicina Baseada em Evidências/métodos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Oncologia/métodos , Projetos de Pesquisa , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/uso terapêutico , Colaboração Intersetorial , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Estudos Retrospectivos , Participação dos Interessados , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Int J Cancer ; 150(9): 1447-1454, 2022 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34888857

RESUMO

Elevated blood levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) have been linked to colorectal cancer (CRC) survival. We evaluated genetic variants associated with CRP levels and their interactions with sex and lifestyle factors in association with CRC-specific mortality. Our study included 16 142 CRC cases from the International Survival Analysis in Colorectal Cancer Consortium. We identified 618 common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with CRP levels from the NHGRI-EBI GWAS Catalog. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations between SNPs and CRC-specific mortality adjusting for age, sex, genotyping platform/study and principal components. We investigated their interactions with sex and lifestyle factors using likelihood ratio tests. Of 5472 (33.9%) deaths accrued over up to 10 years of follow-up, 3547 (64.8%) were due to CRC. No variants were associated with CRC-specific mortality after multiple comparison correction. We observed strong evidence of interaction between variant rs1933736 at FRK gene and sex in relation to CRC-specific mortality (corrected Pinteraction  = .0004); women had higher CRC-specific mortality associated with the minor allele (HR = 1.11, 95% CI = 1.04-1.19) whereas an inverse association was observed for men (HR = 0.88, 95% CI = 0.82-0.94). There was no evidence of interactions between CRP-associated SNPs and alcohol, obesity or smoking. Our study observed a significant interaction between sex and a CRP-associated variant in relation to CRC-specific mortality. Future replication of this association and functional annotation of the variant are needed.


Assuntos
Proteína C-Reativa , Neoplasias Colorretais , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Proteína C-Reativa/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco , Análise de Sobrevida
7.
JNCI Cancer Spectr ; 5(5)2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34738070

RESUMO

Background: Smoking has been associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality in previous studies, but current evidence on smoking in association with survival after CRC diagnosis is limited. Methods: We pooled data from 12 345 patients with stage I-IV CRC from 11 epidemiologic studies in the International Survival Analysis in Colorectal Cancer Consortium. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to evaluate the associations of prediagnostic smoking behavior with overall, CRC-specific, and non-CRC-specific survival. Results: Among 12 345 patients with CRC, 4379 (35.5%) died (2515 from CRC) over a median follow-up time of 7.5 years. Smoking was strongly associated with worse survival in stage I-III patients, whereas no association was observed among stage IV patients. Among stage I-III patients, clear dose-response relationships with all survival outcomes were seen for current smokers. For example, current smokers with 40 or more pack-years had statistically significantly worse overall, CRC-specific, and non-CRC-specific survival compared with never smokers (hazard ratio [HR] =1.94, 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.68 to 2.25; HR = 1.41, 95% CI = 1.12 to 1.78; and HR = 2.67, 95% CI = 2.19 to 3.26, respectively). Similar associations with all survival outcomes were observed for former smokers who had quit for less than 10 years, but only a weak association with non-CRC-specific survival was seen among former smokers who had quit for more than 10 years. Conclusions: This large consortium of CRC patient studies provides compelling evidence that smoking is strongly associated with worse survival of stage I-III CRC patients in a clear dose-response manner. The detrimental effect of smoking was primarily related to noncolorectal cancer events, but current heavy smoking also showed an association with CRC-specific survival.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/mortalidade , Fumar/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Intervalos de Confiança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Tempo
8.
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; : 1945998211057852, 2021 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34752163

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare survival among patients with head and neck cancer before and after implementing a weekly multidisciplinary clinic and case conference. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study with chart review was conducted of 3081 patients (1431 preimplementation, 1650 postimplementation) diagnosed with stage I-IVB tumors in the oral cavity, oropharynx, hypopharynx, nasopharynx, or larynx. Pre- and postimplementation differences in overall and disease-specific survival 1, 2, and 3 years after diagnosis were assessed with unadjusted Kaplan-Meier curves and multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression models adjusted for demographic characteristics, comorbidity burden, smoking status, tumor site and stage, p16 status for oropharyngeal squamous cell cancer, and initial treatment modality. RESULTS: Patients less commonly presented with oropharyngeal squamous cell cancer and advanced tumors (III-IVB) and received primary treatment with surgery alone or with adjuvant therapy preimplementation than postimplementation. Overall survival at 3 years was 77.1% and 79.9% (P = .07) and disease-specific survival was 84.9% and 87.5% (P = .05) among pre- and postimplementation patients, respectively. At 3 years, preimplementation patients had slightly poorer overall (hazard ratio, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.02-1.40) and disease-specific (hazard ratio, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.03-1.54) adjusted survival than postimplementation patients. In unadjusted and adjusted analyses, survival improvements were more pronounced among patients with advanced disease. DISCUSSION: A multidisciplinary clinic and case conference were associated with improved outcomes among patients with head and neck cancer, especially those with advanced tumors. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: All patients with head and neck cancer should receive multidisciplinary team management, especially those with advanced tumors.

9.
Nutrients ; 13(11)2021 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34836419

RESUMO

Salicylic acid (SA) has observationally been shown to decrease colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid, that rapidly deacetylates to SA) is an effective primary and secondary chemopreventive agent. Through a Mendelian randomization (MR) approach, we aimed to address whether levels of SA affected CRC risk, stratifying by aspirin use. A two-sample MR analysis was performed using GWAS summary statistics of SA (INTERVAL and EPIC-Norfolk, N = 14,149) and CRC (CCFR, CORECT, GECCO and UK Biobank, 55,168 cases and 65,160 controls). The DACHS study (4410 cases and 3441 controls) was used for replication and stratification of aspirin-use. SNPs proxying SA were selected via three methods: (1) functional SNPs that influence the activity of aspirin-metabolising enzymes; (2) pathway SNPs present in enzymes' coding regions; and (3) genome-wide significant SNPs. We found no association between functional SNPs and SA levels. The pathway and genome-wide SNPs showed no association between SA and CRC risk (OR: 1.03, 95% CI: 0.84-1.27 and OR: 1.08, 95% CI: 0.86-1.34, respectively). Results remained unchanged upon aspirin use stratification. We found little evidence to suggest that an SD increase in genetically predicted SA protects against CRC risk in the general population and upon stratification by aspirin use.


Assuntos
Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Ácido Salicílico/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias Colorretais/sangue , Neoplasias Colorretais/prevenção & controle , Dieta , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Humanos , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco , Ácido Salicílico/administração & dosagem
10.
JNCI Cancer Spectr ; 5(4)2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34377935

RESUMO

Background: Smoking is associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. Previous studies suggested this association may be restricted to certain molecular subtypes of CRC, but large-scale comprehensive analysis is lacking. Methods: A total of 9789 CRC cases and 11 231 controls of European ancestry from 11 observational studies were included. We harmonized smoking variables across studies and derived sex study-specific quartiles of pack-years of smoking for analysis. Four somatic colorectal tumor markers were assessed individually and in combination, including BRAF mutation, KRAS mutation, CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP), and microsatellite instability (MSI) status. A multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association between smoking and risk of CRC subtypes by molecular characteristics, adjusting for age, sex, and study. All statistical tests were 2-sided and adjusted for Bonferroni correction. Results: Heavier smoking was associated with higher risk of CRC overall and stratified by individual markers (P trend < .001). The associations differed statistically significantly between all molecular subtypes, which was the most statistically significant for CIMP and BRAF. Compared with never-smokers, smokers in the fourth quartile of pack-years had a 90% higher risk of CIMP-positive CRC (odds ratio = 1.90, 95% confidence interval = 1.60 to 2.26) but only 35% higher risk for CIMP-negative CRC (odds ratio = 1.35, 95% confidence interval = 1.22 to 1.49; P difference = 2.1 x 10-6). The association was also stronger in tumors that were CIMP positive, MSI high, or KRAS wild type when combined (P difference < .001). Conclusion: Smoking was associated with differential risk of CRC subtypes defined by molecular characteristics. Heavier smokers had particularly higher risk of CRC subtypes that were CIMP positive and MSI high in combination, suggesting that smoking may be involved in the development of colorectal tumors via the serrated pathway.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Instabilidade de Microssatélites , Mutação , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fatores Etários , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Ilhas de CpG/genética , Feminino , Genes ras/genética , Marcadores Genéticos/genética , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Metilação , não Fumantes , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Fenótipo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Fatores Sexuais , Fumantes
12.
JNCI Cancer Spectr ; 5(3)2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34222791

RESUMO

Background: Observational studies indicate that periodontal disease may increase the risk of colorectal, lung, and pancreatic cancers. Using a 2-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis, we assessed whether a genetic predisposition index for periodontal disease was associated with colorectal, lung, or pancreatic cancer risks. Methods: Our primary instrument included single nucleotide polymorphisms with strong genome-wide association study evidence for associations with chronic, aggressive, and/or severe periodontal disease (rs729876, rs1537415, rs2738058, rs12461706, rs16870060, rs2521634, rs3826782, and rs7762544). We used summary-level genetic data for colorectal cancer (n = 58 131 cases; Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium, Colon Cancer Family Registry, and Colorectal Transdisciplinary Study), lung cancer (n = 18 082 cases; International Lung Cancer Consortium), and pancreatic cancer (n = 9254 cases; Pancreatic Cancer Consortia). Four MR approaches were employed for this analysis: random-effects inverse-variance weighted (primary analyses), Mendelian Randomization-Pleiotropy RESidual Sum and Outlier, simple median, and weighted median. We conducted secondary analyses to determine if associations varied by cancer subtype (colorectal cancer location, lung cancer histology), sex (colorectal and pancreatic cancers), or smoking history (lung and pancreatic cancer). All statistical tests were 2-sided. Results: The genetic predisposition index for chronic or aggressive periodontitis was statistically significantly associated with a 3% increased risk of colorectal cancer (per unit increase in genetic index of periodontal disease; P = .03), 3% increased risk of colon cancer (P = .02), 4% increased risk of proximal colon cancer (P = .01), and 3% increased risk of colorectal cancer among females (P = .04); however, it was not statistically significantly associated with the risk of lung cancer or pancreatic cancer, overall or within most subgroups. Conclusions: Genetic predisposition to periodontitis may be associated with colorectal cancer risk. Further research should determine whether increased periodontitis prevention and increased cancer surveillance of patients with periodontitis is warranted.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana/métodos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Doenças Periodontais/genética , Doença Crônica , Neoplasias do Colo/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Colo/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/epidemiologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Neoplasias Retais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Retais/genética , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Fumar
13.
Perm J ; 252021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33970070

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The incidence of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) has increased in recent decades, but data from community-based settings are limited. This study characterizes PTC trends in a large, integrated healthcare system over 10 years. METHODS: The annual incidence of PTC (2006-2015) was examined among Kaiser Permanente Northern California adults aged 21 to 84 years using Cancer Registry data, including tumor size and stage. Incidence estimates were age-adjusted using the 2010 US Census. RESULTS: Of 2990 individuals newly diagnosed with PTC (76.8% female, 52.7% non-Hispanic White), 38.5% and 61.5% were aged < 45 and < 55 years, respectively. At diagnosis, 60.9% had PTC tumors ≤ 2 cm, 9.2% had tumors > 4 cm, and 66.1% had Stage I disease. The annual age-adjusted incidence of PTC increased from 9.4 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 8.1-10.7) to 14.5 (95% CI = 13.1-16.0) per 100,000 person-years and was higher for female patients than for male patients. Incidence tended to be higher in Asian/Pacific Islanders and lower in Black individuals. Increasing incidence was notable for Stage I disease (especially 2006-2012) and evident across a range of tumor sizes (3.0-4.6 for ≤ 1 cm, 2.5-3.5 for 1-2 cm, and 2.4-4.7 for 2-4 cm) but was modest for large tumors (0.9-1.5 for > 4 cm) per 100,000 person-years. DISCUSSION: Increasing PTC incidence over 10 years was most evident for tumors ≤ 4 cm and Stage I disease. Although these findings may be attributable to greater PTC detection, the increase across a range of tumor sizes suggests that PTC burden might also have increased.


Assuntos
Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Sistema de Registros , Câncer Papilífero da Tireoide/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/epidemiologia
14.
JNCI Cancer Spectr ; 5(3)2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34041438

RESUMO

Background: Incidence of early-onset (younger than 50 years of age) colorectal cancer (CRC) is increasing in many countries. Thus, elucidating the role of traditional CRC risk factors in early-onset CRC is a high priority. We sought to determine whether risk factors associated with late-onset CRC were also linked to early-onset CRC and whether association patterns differed by anatomic subsite. Methods: Using data pooled from 13 population-based studies, we studied 3767 CRC cases and 4049 controls aged younger than 50 years and 23 437 CRC cases and 35 311 controls aged 50 years and older. Using multivariable and multinomial logistic regression, we estimated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to assess the association between risk factors and early-onset CRC and by anatomic subsite. Results: Early-onset CRC was associated with not regularly using nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (OR = 1.43, 95% CI = 1.21 to 1.68), greater red meat intake (OR = 1.10, 95% CI = 1.04 to 1.16), lower educational attainment (OR = 1.10, 95% CI = 1.04 to 1.16), alcohol abstinence (OR = 1.23, 95% CI = 1.08 to 1.39), and heavier alcohol use (OR = 1.25, 95% CI = 1.04 to 1.50). No factors exhibited a greater excess in early-onset compared with late-onset CRC. Evaluating risks by anatomic subsite, we found that lower total fiber intake was linked more strongly to rectal (OR = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.14 to 1.48) than colon cancer (OR = 1.14, 95% CI = 1.02 to 1.27; P = .04). Conclusion: In this large study, we identified several nongenetic risk factors associated with early-onset CRC, providing a basis for targeted identification of those most at risk, which is imperative in mitigating the rising burden of this disease.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo/etiologia , Neoplasias Retais/etiologia , Adulto , Idade de Início , Idoso , Alcoolismo/complicações , Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Bovinos , Neoplasias do Colo/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/etiologia , Intervalos de Confiança , Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Escolaridade , Humanos , Incidência , Modelos Logísticos , Carne , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Neoplasias Retais/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
15.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 30(7): 1349-1358, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33972368

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A positive association between circulating C-reactive protein (CRP) and colorectal cancer survival was reported in observational studies, which are susceptible to unmeasured confounding and reverse causality. We used a Mendelian randomization approach to evaluate the association between genetically predicted CRP concentrations and colorectal cancer-specific survival. METHODS: We used individual-level data for 16,918 eligible colorectal cancer cases of European ancestry from 15 studies within the International Survival Analysis of Colorectal Cancer Consortium. We calculated a genetic-risk score based on 52 CRP-associated genetic variants identified from genome-wide association studies. Because of the non-collapsibility of hazard ratios from Cox proportional hazards models, we used the additive hazards model to calculate hazard differences (HD) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between genetically predicted CRP concentrations and colorectal cancer-specific survival, overall and by stage at diagnosis and tumor location. Analyses were adjusted for age at diagnosis, sex, body mass index, genotyping platform, study, and principal components. RESULTS: Of the 5,395 (32%) deaths accrued over up to 10 years of follow-up, 3,808 (23%) were due to colorectal cancer. Genetically predicted CRP concentration was not associated with colorectal cancer-specific survival (HD, -1.15; 95% CI, -2.76 to 0.47 per 100,000 person-years; P = 0.16). Similarly, no associations were observed in subgroup analyses by stage at diagnosis or tumor location. CONCLUSIONS: Despite adequate power to detect moderate associations, our results did not support a causal effect of circulating CRP concentrations on colorectal cancer-specific survival. IMPACT: Future research evaluating genetically determined levels of other circulating inflammatory biomarkers (i.e., IL6) with colorectal cancer survival outcomes is needed.


Assuntos
Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Neoplasias Colorretais/mortalidade , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias Colorretais/sangue , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Feminino , Seguimentos , Variação Genética , Humanos , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco
16.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(4): e218559, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33929519

RESUMO

Importance: For lung cancer screening to confer mortality benefit, adherence to annual screening with low-dose computed tomography scans is essential. Although the National Lung Screening Trial had an adherence rate of 95%, current data are limited on screening adherence across diverse practice settings in the United States. Objective: To evaluate patterns and factors associated with adherence to annual screening for lung cancer after negative results of a baseline examination, particularly in centralized vs decentralized screening programs. Design, Setting, and Participants: This observational cohort study was conducted at 5 academic and community-based sites in North Carolina and California among 2283 individuals screened for lung cancer between July 1, 2014, and March 31, 2018, who met US Preventive Services Task Force eligibility criteria, had negative results of a baseline screening examination (American College of Radiology Lung Imaging Reporting and Data System category 1 or 2), and were eligible to return for a screening examination in 12 months. Exposures: To identify factors associated with adherence, the association of adherence with selected baseline demographic and clinical characteristics, including type of screening program, was estimated using multivariable logistic regression. Screening program type was classified as centralized if individuals were referred through a lung cancer screening clinic or program and as decentralized if individuals had a direct clinician referral for the baseline low-dose computed tomography scan. Main Outcomes and Measures: Adherence to annual lung cancer screening, defined as a second low-dose computed tomography scan within 11 to 15 months after baseline screening. Results: Among the 2283 eligible individuals (1294 men [56.7%]; mean [SD] age, 64.9 [5.8] years; 1160 [50.8%] aged ≥65 years) who had negative screening results at baseline, overall adherence was 40.2% (n = 917), with higher adherence among those who underwent screening through centralized (46.0% [478 of 1039]) vs decentralized (35.3% [439 of 1244]) programs. The independent factor most strongly associated with adherence was type of screening program, with a 2.8-fold increased likelihood of adherence associated with centralized screening (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.78; 95% CI, 1.99-3.88). Another associated factor was age (65-69 vs 55-59 years: aOR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.07-1.77; 70-74 vs 55-59 years: aOR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.10-1.96). Conclusions and Relevance: After negative results of a baseline examination, adherence to annual lung cancer screening was suboptimal, although adherence was higher among individuals who were screened through a centralized program. These results support the value of centralized screening programs and the need to further implement strategies that improve adherence to annual screening for lung cancer.


Assuntos
Atenção à Saúde/organização & administração , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico por imagem , Cooperação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Centros Médicos Acadêmicos , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Tomada de Decisão Compartilhada , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Fatores Sexuais , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
17.
Gut ; 70(7): 1325-1334, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33632709

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: An understanding of the etiologic heterogeneity of colorectal cancer (CRC) is critical for improving precision prevention, including individualized screening recommendations and the discovery of novel drug targets and repurposable drug candidates for chemoprevention. Known differences in molecular characteristics and environmental risk factors among tumors arising in different locations of the colorectum suggest partly distinct mechanisms of carcinogenesis. The extent to which the contribution of inherited genetic risk factors for CRC differs by anatomical subsite of the primary tumor has not been examined. DESIGN: To identify new anatomical subsite-specific risk loci, we performed genome-wide association study (GWAS) meta-analyses including data of 48 214 CRC cases and 64 159 controls of European ancestry. We characterised effect heterogeneity at CRC risk loci using multinomial modelling. RESULTS: We identified 13 loci that reached genome-wide significance (p<5×10-8) and that were not reported by previous GWASs for overall CRC risk. Multiple lines of evidence support candidate genes at several of these loci. We detected substantial heterogeneity between anatomical subsites. Just over half (61) of 109 known and new risk variants showed no evidence for heterogeneity. In contrast, 22 variants showed association with distal CRC (including rectal cancer), but no evidence for association or an attenuated association with proximal CRC. For two loci, there was strong evidence for effects confined to proximal colon cancer. CONCLUSION: Genetic architectures of proximal and distal CRC are partly distinct. Studies of risk factors and mechanisms of carcinogenesis, and precision prevention strategies should take into consideration the anatomical subsite of the tumour.


Assuntos
Colo , Neoplasias do Colo/genética , Heterogeneidade Genética , Neoplasias Retais/genética , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idade de Início , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alelos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Ceco , Colo Ascendente , Colo Descendente , Colo Sigmoide , Colo Transverso , Neoplasias do Colo/diagnóstico , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Neoplasias Retais/diagnóstico , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
18.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 970, 2021 02 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33579919

RESUMO

Even distinct cancer types share biological hallmarks. Here, we investigate polygenic risk score (PRS)-specific pleiotropy across 16 cancers in European ancestry individuals from the Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging cohort (16,012 cases, 50,552 controls) and UK Biobank (48,969 cases, 359,802 controls). Within cohorts, each PRS is evaluated in multivariable logistic regression models against all other cancer types. Results are then meta-analyzed across cohorts. Ten positive and one inverse cross-cancer associations are found after multiple testing correction. Two pairs show bidirectional associations; the melanoma PRS is positively associated with oral cavity/pharyngeal cancer and vice versa, whereas the lung cancer PRS is positively associated with oral cavity/pharyngeal cancer, and the oral cavity/pharyngeal cancer PRS is inversely associated with lung cancer. Overall, we validate known, and uncover previously unreported, patterns of pleiotropy that have the potential to inform investigations of risk prediction, shared etiology, and precision cancer prevention strategies.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares/classificação , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Epidemiologia Molecular , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
19.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 113(1): 38-47, 2021 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32324875

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Body mass index (BMI) is a complex phenotype that may interact with genetic variants to influence colorectal cancer risk. METHODS: We tested multiplicative statistical interactions between BMI (per 5 kg/m2) and approximately 2.7 million single nucleotide polymorphisms with colorectal cancer risk among 14 059 colorectal cancer case (53.2% women) and 14 416 control (53.8% women) participants. All analyses were stratified by sex a priori. Statistical methods included 2-step (ie, Cocktail method) and single-step (ie, case-control logistic regression and a joint 2-degree of freedom test) procedures. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: Each 5 kg/m2 increase in BMI was associated with higher risks of colorectal cancer, less so for women (odds ratio [OR] = 1.14, 95% confidence intervals [CI] = 1.11 to 1.18; P = 9.75 × 10-17) than for men (OR = 1.26, 95% CI = 1.20 to 1.32; P = 2.13 × 10-24). The 2-step Cocktail method identified an interaction for women, but not men, between BMI and a SMAD7 intronic variant at 18q21.1 (rs4939827; Pobserved = .0009; Pthreshold = .005). A joint 2-degree of freedom test was consistent with this finding for women (joint P = 2.43 × 10-10). Each 5 kg/m2 increase in BMI was more strongly associated with colorectal cancer risk for women with the rs4939827-CC genotype (OR = 1.24, 95% CI = 1.16 to 1.32; P = 2.60 × 10-10) than for women with the CT (OR = 1.14, 95% CI = 1.09 to 1.19; P = 1.04 × 10-8) or TT (OR = 1.07, 95% CI = 1.01 to 1.14; P = .02) genotypes. CONCLUSION: These results provide novel insights on a potential mechanism through which a SMAD7 variant, previously identified as a susceptibility locus for colorectal cancer, and BMI may influence colorectal cancer risk for women.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Proteína Smad7/genética , Idoso , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
20.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 30(3): 564-575, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33318029

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence for aspirin's chemopreventative properties on colorectal cancer (CRC) is substantial, but its mechanism of action is not well-understood. We combined a proteomic approach with Mendelian randomization (MR) to identify possible new aspirin targets that decrease CRC risk. METHODS: Human colorectal adenoma cells (RG/C2) were treated with aspirin (24 hours) and a stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) based proteomics approach identified altered protein expression. Protein quantitative trait loci (pQTLs) from INTERVAL (N = 3,301) and expression QTLs (eQTLs) from the eQTLGen Consortium (N = 31,684) were used as genetic proxies for protein and mRNA expression levels. Two-sample MR of mRNA/protein expression on CRC risk was performed using eQTL/pQTL data combined with CRC genetic summary data from the Colon Cancer Family Registry (CCFR), Colorectal Transdisciplinary (CORECT), Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer (GECCO) consortia and UK Biobank (55,168 cases and 65,160 controls). RESULTS: Altered expression was detected for 125/5886 proteins. Of these, aspirin decreased MCM6, RRM2, and ARFIP2 expression, and MR analysis showed that a standard deviation increase in mRNA/protein expression was associated with increased CRC risk (OR: 1.08, 95% CI, 1.03-1.13; OR: 3.33, 95% CI, 2.46-4.50; and OR: 1.15, 95% CI, 1.02-1.29, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: MCM6 and RRM2 are involved in DNA repair whereby reduced expression may lead to increased DNA aberrations and ultimately cancer cell death, whereas ARFIP2 is involved in actin cytoskeletal regulation, indicating a possible role in aspirin's reduction of metastasis. IMPACT: Our approach has shown how laboratory experiments and population-based approaches can combine to identify aspirin-targeted proteins possibly affecting CRC risk.


Assuntos
Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana/métodos , Proteômica/métodos , Aspirina/farmacologia , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
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