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1.
BMJ Open Respir Res ; 7(1)2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33239407

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Family history is a risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We previously developed a COPD risk score from genome-wide genetic markers (Polygenic Risk Score, PRS). Whether the PRS and family history provide complementary or redundant information for predicting COPD and related outcomes is unknown. METHODS: We assessed the predictive capacity of family history and PRS on COPD and COPD-related outcomes in non-Hispanic white (NHW) and African American (AA) subjects from COPDGene and ECLIPSE studies. We also performed interaction and mediation analyses. RESULTS: In COPDGene, family history and PRS were significantly associated with COPD in a single model (PFamHx <0.0001; PPRS<0.0001). Similar trends were seen in ECLIPSE. The area under the receiver operator characteristic curve for a model containing family history and PRS was significantly higher than a model with PRS (p=0.00035) in NHWs and a model with family history (p<0.0001) alone in NHWs and AAs. Both family history and PRS were significantly associated with measures of quantitative emphysema and airway thickness. There was a weakly positive interaction between family history and the PRS under the additive, but not multiplicative scale in NHWs (relative excess risk due to interaction=0.48, p=0.04). Mediation analyses found that a significant proportion of the effect of family history on COPD was mediated through PRS in NHWs (16.5%, 95% CI 9.4% to 24.3%), but not AAs. CONCLUSION: Family history and the PRS provide complementary information for predicting COPD and related outcomes. Future studies can address the impact of obtaining both measures in clinical practice.

2.
Am J Epidemiol ; 2020 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33106845

RESUMO

Risk for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is determined by both cigarette smoking and genetic susceptibility, but little is known about gene-by-smoking interactions. We performed a genome-wide association analysis of 179,689 controls and 21,077 COPD cases from UK Biobank subjects of European ancestry recruited from 2006 to 2010, considering genetic main effects and gene-by-smoking interaction effects simultaneously (2-degree-of-freedom test) as well as interaction effects alone (1-degree-of-freedom interaction test). We sought to replicate significant results in the COPDGene study and SpiroMeta Consortium. We considered two smoking variables: (1) ever/never and (2) current/non-current. In the 1-degree-of-freedom interaction test, we identified one genome-wide significant locus on 15q25.1 (CHRNB4) for ever- and current-smoking and identified PI*Z allele (rs28929474) of SERPINA1 for ever-smoking and 3q26.2 (MECOM) for current-smoking in an analysis of previously reported COPD loci. In the 2-degree-of-freedom test, most of the significant signals were also significant for genetic marginal effects, aside from 16q22.1 (SMPD3) and 19q13.2 (EGLN2). The significant effects at 15q25.1 and 19q13.2 loci, both previously described in prior genome-wide association studies of COPD or smoking, were replicated in the COPDGene and SpiroMeta. We identified interaction effects at previously reported COPD loci, however, we failed to identify novel susceptibility loci.

3.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5182, 2020 10 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33057025

RESUMO

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), diagnosed by reduced lung function, is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. We performed whole genome sequence (WGS) analysis of lung function and COPD in a multi-ethnic sample of 11,497 participants from population- and family-based studies, and 8499 individuals from COPD-enriched studies in the NHLBI Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine (TOPMed) Program. We identify at genome-wide significance 10 known GWAS loci and 22 distinct, previously unreported loci, including two common variant signals from stratified analysis of African Americans. Four novel common variants within the regions of PIAS1, RGN (two variants) and FTO show evidence of replication in the UK Biobank (European ancestry n ~ 320,000), while colocalization analyses leveraging multi-omic data from GTEx and TOPMed identify potential molecular mechanisms underlying four of the 22 novel loci. Our study demonstrates the value of performing WGS analyses and multi-omic follow-up in cohorts of diverse ancestry.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/genética , Loci Gênicos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Respiratórios/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Dioxigenase FTO Dependente de alfa-Cetoglutarato/genética , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/genética , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Seguimentos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Proteínas Inibidoras de STAT Ativados/genética , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/etnologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Proteínas Modificadoras Pequenas Relacionadas à Ubiquitina/genética
4.
Lancet Respir Med ; 8(7): 696-708, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32649918

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genetic factors influence chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) risk, but the individual variants that have been identified have small effects. We hypothesised that a polygenic risk score using additional variants would predict COPD and associated phenotypes. METHODS: We constructed a polygenic risk score using a genome-wide association study of lung function (FEV1 and FEV1/forced vital capacity [FVC]) from the UK Biobank and SpiroMeta. We tested this polygenic risk score in nine cohorts of multiple ethnicities for an association with moderate-to-severe COPD (defined as FEV1/FVC <0·7 and FEV1 <80% of predicted). Associations were tested using logistic regression models, adjusting for age, sex, height, smoking pack-years, and principal components of genetic ancestry. We assessed predictive performance of models by area under the curve. In a subset of studies, we also studied quantitative and qualitative CT imaging phenotypes that reflect parenchymal and airway pathology, and patterns of reduced lung growth. FINDINGS: The polygenic risk score was associated with COPD in European (odds ratio [OR] per SD 1·81 [95% CI 1·74-1·88] and non-European (1·42 [1·34-1·51]) populations. Compared with the first decile, the tenth decile of the polygenic risk score was associated with COPD, with an OR of 7·99 (6·56-9·72) in European ancestry and 4·83 (3·45-6·77) in non-European ancestry cohorts. The polygenic risk score was superior to previously described genetic risk scores and, when combined with clinical risk factors (ie, age, sex, and smoking pack-years), showed improved prediction for COPD compared with a model comprising clinical risk factors alone (AUC 0·80 [0·79-0·81] vs 0·76 [0·75-0·76]). The polygenic risk score was associated with CT imaging phenotypes, including wall area percent, quantitative and qualitative measures of emphysema, local histogram emphysema patterns, and destructive emphysema subtypes. The polygenic risk score was associated with a reduced lung growth pattern. INTERPRETATION: A risk score comprised of genetic variants can identify a small subset of individuals at markedly increased risk for moderate-to-severe COPD, emphysema subtypes associated with cigarette smoking, and patterns of reduced lung growth. FUNDING: US National Institutes of Health, Wellcome Trust.


Assuntos
Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Fatores de Risco , Capacidade Vital
5.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 201(5): 564-574, 2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31710517

RESUMO

Rationale: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a complex lung disease characterized by scarring of the lung that is believed to result from an atypical response to injury of the epithelium. Genome-wide association studies have reported signals of association implicating multiple pathways including host defense, telomere maintenance, signaling, and cell-cell adhesion.Objectives: To improve our understanding of factors that increase IPF susceptibility by identifying previously unreported genetic associations.Methods: We conducted genome-wide analyses across three independent studies and meta-analyzed these results to generate the largest genome-wide association study of IPF to date (2,668 IPF cases and 8,591 controls). We performed replication in two independent studies (1,456 IPF cases and 11,874 controls) and functional analyses (including statistical fine-mapping, investigations into gene expression, and testing for enrichment of IPF susceptibility signals in regulatory regions) to determine putatively causal genes. Polygenic risk scores were used to assess the collective effect of variants not reported as associated with IPF.Measurements and Main Results: We identified and replicated three new genome-wide significant (P < 5 × 10-8) signals of association with IPF susceptibility (associated with altered gene expression of KIF15, MAD1L1, and DEPTOR) and confirmed associations at 11 previously reported loci. Polygenic risk score analyses showed that the combined effect of many thousands of as yet unreported IPF susceptibility variants contribute to IPF susceptibility.Conclusions: The observation that decreased DEPTOR expression associates with increased susceptibility to IPF supports recent studies demonstrating the importance of mTOR signaling in lung fibrosis. New signals of association implicating KIF15 and MAD1L1 suggest a possible role of mitotic spindle-assembly genes in IPF susceptibility.


Assuntos
Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/genética , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Cinesina/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição de Risco , Transdução de Sinais , Fuso Acromático , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo
6.
Respir Res ; 20(1): 160, 2019 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31324189

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Emphysema, characterized by lung destruction, is a key component of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified multiple genetic factors associated with cross-sectional measures of quantitative emphysema, but the genetic determinants of longitudinal change in quantitative measures of emphysema remain largely unknown. Our study aims to identify genetic variants associated with longitudinal change in quantitative emphysema measured by computed tomography (CT) imaging. METHODS: We included current and ex-smokers from two longitudinal cohorts: COPDGene, a study of Non-Hispanic Whites (NHW) and African Americans (AA), and the Evaluation of COPD Longitudinally to Identify Predictive Surrogate End-points (ECLIPSE). We calculated annual change in two quantitative measures of emphysema based on chest CT imaging: percent low attenuation area (≤ - 950HU) (%LAA-950) and adjusted lung density (ALD). We conducted GWAS, separately in 3030 NHW and 1158 AA from COPDGene and 1397 Whites from ECLIPSE. We further explored effects of 360 previously reported variants and a lung function based polygenic risk score on annual change in quantitative emphysema. RESULTS: In the genome-wide association analysis, no variants achieved genome-wide significance (P < 5e-08). However, in the candidate region analysis, rs2076295 in the DSP gene, previously associated with COPD, lung function and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, was associated with change in %LAA-950 (ß (SE) = 0.09 (0.02), P = 3.79e-05) and in ALD (ß (SE) = - 0.06 (0.02), P = 2.88e-03). A lung function based polygenic risk score was associated with annual change in %LAA-950 (P = 4.03e-02) and with baseline measures of quantitative emphysema (P < 1e-03) and showed a trend toward association with annual change in ALD (P = 7.31e-02). CONCLUSIONS: DSP variants may be associated with longitudinal change in quantitative emphysema. Additional investigation of the DSP gene are likely to provide further insights into the disease progression in emphysema and COPD. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00608764 , NCT00292552 .


Assuntos
Desmoplaquinas/genética , Progressão da Doença , Estudos de Associação Genética/métodos , Variação Genética/genética , Enfisema Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Enfisema Pulmonar/genética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Estudos de Associação Genética/tendências , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
7.
PLoS Genet ; 15(7): e1008229, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31269066

RESUMO

While many disease-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are associated with gene expression (expression quantitative trait loci, eQTLs), a large proportion of complex disease genome-wide association study (GWAS) variants are of unknown function. Some of these SNPs may contribute to disease by regulating gene splicing. Here, we investigate whether SNPs that are associated with alternative splicing (splice QTL or sQTL) can identify novel functions for existing GWAS variants or suggest new associated variants in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). RNA sequencing was performed on whole blood from 376 subjects from the COPDGene Study. Using linear models, we identified 561,060 unique sQTL SNPs associated with 30,333 splice sites corresponding to 6,419 unique genes. Similarly, 708,928 unique eQTL SNPs involving 15,913 genes were detected at 10% FDR. While there is overlap between sQTLs and eQTLs, 55.3% of sQTLs are not eQTLs. Co-localization analysis revealed that 7 out of 21 loci associated with COPD (p<1x10-6) in a published GWAS have at least one shared causal variant between the GWAS and sQTL studies. Among the genes identified to have splice sites associated with top GWAS SNPs was FBXO38, in which a novel exon was discovered to be protective against COPD. Importantly, the sQTL in this locus was validated by qPCR in both blood and lung tissue, demonstrating that splice variants relevant to lung tissue can be identified in blood. Other identified genes included CDK11A and SULT1A2. Overall, these data indicate that analysis of alternative splicing can provide novel insights into disease mechanisms. In particular, we demonstrated that SNPs in a known COPD GWAS locus on chromosome 5q32 influence alternative splicing in the gene FBXO38.


Assuntos
Processamento Alternativo , Proteínas F-Box/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Arilsulfotransferase/genética , Quinases Ciclina-Dependentes/genética , Éxons , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Análise de Sequência de RNA
9.
Nat Genet ; 51(3): 481-493, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30804560

RESUMO

Reduced lung function predicts mortality and is key to the diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In a genome-wide association study in 400,102 individuals of European ancestry, we define 279 lung function signals, 139 of which are new. In combination, these variants strongly predict COPD in independent populations. Furthermore, the combined effect of these variants showed generalizability across smokers and never smokers, and across ancestral groups. We highlight biological pathways, known and potential drug targets for COPD and, in phenome-wide association studies, autoimmune-related and other pleiotropic effects of lung function-associated variants. This new genetic evidence has potential to improve future preventive and therapeutic strategies for COPD.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/genética
10.
Nat Genet ; 51(3): 494-505, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30804561

RESUMO

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the leading cause of respiratory mortality worldwide. Genetic risk loci provide new insights into disease pathogenesis. We performed a genome-wide association study in 35,735 cases and 222,076 controls from the UK Biobank and additional studies from the International COPD Genetics Consortium. We identified 82 loci associated with P < 5 × 10-8; 47 of these were previously described in association with either COPD or population-based measures of lung function. Of the remaining 35 new loci, 13 were associated with lung function in 79,055 individuals from the SpiroMeta consortium. Using gene expression and regulation data, we identified functional enrichment of COPD risk loci in lung tissue, smooth muscle, and several lung cell types. We found 14 COPD loci shared with either asthma or pulmonary fibrosis. COPD genetic risk loci clustered into groups based on associations with quantitative imaging features and comorbidities. Our analyses provide further support for the genetic susceptibility and heterogeneity of COPD.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Asma/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Expressão Gênica/genética , Loci Gênicos/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fibrose Pulmonar/genética , Fumar/genética
11.
Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol ; 60(5): 523-531, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30694715

RESUMO

DlCO is a widely used pulmonary function test in clinical practice and a particularly useful measure for assessing patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We hypothesized that elucidating genetic determinants of DlCO could lead to better understanding of the genetic architecture of COPD. We estimated the heritability of DlCO using common genetic variants and performed genome-wide association analyses in four cohorts enriched for subjects with COPD (COPDGene [Genetic Epidemiology of COPD], NETT [National Emphysema Treatment Trial], GenKOLS [Genetics of Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease study], and TESRA [Treatment of Emphysema With a Gamma-Selective Retinoid Agonist study]) using a combined European ancestry white dataset and a COPDGene African American dataset. We assessed our genome-wide significant and suggestive associations for DlCO in previously reported genome-wide association studies of COPD and related traits. We also characterized associations of known COPD-associated variants and DlCO. We estimated the SNP-based heritability of DlCO in the European ancestry white population to be 22% (P = 0.0004). We identified three genome-wide significant associations with DlCO: variants near TGFB2, CHRNA3, and PDE11A loci (P < 5 × 10-8). In addition, 12 loci were suggestively associated with DlCO in European ancestry white (P < 1 × 10-5 in the combined analysis and P < 0.05 in both COPDGene and GenKOLS), including variants near NEGR1, CADM2, PCDH7, RETREG1, DACT2, NRG1, ANKRD18A, KRT86, NTN4, ARHGAP28, INSR, and PCBP3. Some DlCO-associated variants were also associated with COPD, emphysema, and/or spirometric values. Among 25 previously reported COPD loci, TGFB2, CHRNA3/CHRNA5, FAM13A, DSP, and CYP2A6 were associated with DlCO (P < 0.001). We identified several genetic loci that were significantly associated with DlCO and characterized effects of known COPD-associated loci on DlCO. These results could lead to better understanding of the heterogeneous nature of COPD.


Assuntos
3',5'-GMP Cíclico Fosfodiesterases/genética , Loci Gênicos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Enfisema Pulmonar/genética , Receptores Nicotínicos/genética , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta2/genética , 3',5'-GMP Cíclico Fosfodiesterases/metabolismo , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano , Citocromo P-450 CYP2A6/genética , Citocromo P-450 CYP2A6/metabolismo , Desmoplaquinas/genética , Desmoplaquinas/metabolismo , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Proteínas Ativadoras de GTPase/genética , Proteínas Ativadoras de GTPase/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica , Genoma Humano , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Pulmão/metabolismo , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/etnologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/metabolismo , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Enfisema Pulmonar/etnologia , Enfisema Pulmonar/metabolismo , Enfisema Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Receptores Nicotínicos/metabolismo , Testes de Função Respiratória , Espirometria , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta2/metabolismo
12.
J Affect Disord ; 243: 16-22, 2019 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30219690

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Large sample GWAS is needed to identify genetic factors associated with depression. This study used genome-wide genotypic and phenotypic data from the COPDGene study to identify genetic risk factors for depression. METHODS: Data were from 9716 COPDGene subjects with ≥10 pack-year history. Depression was defined as antidepressant use and/or a HADS depression subscale score ≥8. Non-Hispanic White (6576) and African-American (3140) subsets were analyzed. A GWAS pipeline identified SNPs associated with depression in each group. Network analysis software analyzed gene interactions through common biological pathways, genetic interactions, and tissue-specific gene expression. RESULTS: The mean age was 59.4 years (SD 9.0) with 46.5% female subjects. Depression was in 24.7% of the NHW group (1622) and 12.5% of the AA group (391). No SNPs had genome-wide significance. One of the top SNPs, rs12036147 (p = 1.28 × 10-6), is near CHRM3. Another SNP was near MDGA2 (rs17118176, p = 3.52 × 10-6). Top genes formed networks for synaptic transmission with a statistically significant level of more co-expression in brain than other tissues, particularly in the basal ganglia (p = 1.00 × 10-4). LIMITATIONS: Limitations included a depression definition based on antidepressant use and a limited HADS score subgroup, which could increase false negatives in depressed patients not on antidepressants. Antidepressants used for smoking cessation in non-depressed patients could lead to false positives. CONCLUSIONS: Systems biology analysis identified statistically significant pathways whereby multiple genes influence depression. The gene set pathway analysis and COPDGene data can help investigate depression in future studies.


Assuntos
Depressão/genética , Fumar/genética , Afro-Americanos/genética , Idoso , Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Coortes , Depressão/psicologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/psicologia , Biologia de Sistemas
13.
Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol ; 60(4): 388-398, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30335480

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified multiple associations with emphysema apicobasal distribution (EABD), but the biological functions of these variants are unknown. To characterize the functions of EABD-associated variants, we integrated GWAS results with 1) expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) from the Genotype Tissue Expression (GTEx) project and subjects in the COPDGene (Genetic Epidemiology of COPD) study and 2) cell type epigenomic marks from the Roadmap Epigenomics project. On the basis of these analyses, we selected a variant near ACVR1B (activin A receptor type 1B) for functional validation. SNPs from 168 loci with P values less than 5 × 10-5 in the largest GWAS meta-analysis of EABD were analyzed. Eighty-four loci overlapped eQTL, with 12 of these loci showing greater than 80% likelihood of harboring a single, shared GWAS and eQTL causal variant. Seventeen cell types were enriched for overlap between EABD loci and Roadmap Epigenomics marks (permutation P < 0.05), with the strongest enrichment observed in CD4+, CD8+, and regulatory T cells. We selected a putative causal variant, rs7962469, associated with ACVR1B expression in lung tissue for additional functional investigation, and reporter assays confirmed allele-specific regulatory activity for this variant in human bronchial epithelial and Jurkat immune cell lines. ACVR1B expression levels exhibit a nominally significant association with emphysema distribution. EABD-associated loci are preferentially enriched in regulatory elements of multiple cell types, most notably T-cell subsets. Multiple EABD loci colocalize to regulatory elements that are active across multiple tissues and cell types, and functional analyses confirm the presence of an EABD-associated functional variant that regulates ACVR1B expression, indicating that transforming growth factor-ß signaling plays a role in the EABD phenotype. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT00608764).


Assuntos
Receptores de Ativinas Tipo I/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Enfisema Pulmonar/genética , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Células Jurkat , Pulmão/patologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Estudo de Prova de Conceito , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia
14.
Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol ; 59(5): 614-622, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29949718

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies have identified common variants associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) offers comprehensive coverage of the entire genome, as compared with genotyping arrays or exome sequencing. We hypothesized that WGS in subjects with severe COPD and smoking control subjects with normal pulmonary function would allow us to identify novel genetic determinants of COPD. We sequenced 821 patients with severe COPD and 973 control subjects from the COPDGene and Boston Early-Onset COPD studies, including both non-Hispanic white and African American individuals. We performed single-variant and grouped-variant analyses, and in addition, we assessed the overlap of variants between sequencing- and array-based imputation. Our most significantly associated variant was in a known region near HHIP (combined P = 1.6 × 10-9); additional variants approaching genome-wide significance included previously described regions in CHRNA5, TNS1, and SERPINA6/SERPINA1 (the latter in African American individuals). None of our associations were clearly driven by rare variants, and we found minimal evidence of replication of genes identified by previously reported smaller sequencing studies. With WGS, we identified more than 20 million new variants, not seen with imputation, including more than 10,000 of potential importance in previously identified COPD genome-wide association study regions. WGS in severe COPD identifies a large number of potentially important functional variants, with the strongest associations being in known COPD risk loci, including HHIP and SERPINA1. Larger sample sizes will be needed to identify associated variants in novel regions of the genome.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Pulmão/metabolismo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/métodos , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Pulmão/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/etnologia
15.
Respir Res ; 19(1): 46, 2018 03 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29566699

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies have identified several genetic risk loci for severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and emphysema. However, these studies do not fully explain disease heritability and in most cases, fail to implicate specific genes. Integrative methods that combine gene expression data with GWAS can provide more power in discovering disease-associated genes and give mechanistic insight into regulated genes. METHODS: We applied a recently described method that imputes gene expression using reference transcriptome data to genome-wide association studies for two phenotypes (severe COPD and quantitative emphysema) and blood and lung tissue gene expression datasets. We further tested the potential causality of individual genes using multi-variant colocalization. RESULTS: We identified seven genes significantly associated with severe COPD, and five genes significantly associated with quantitative emphysema in whole blood or lung. We validated results in independent transcriptome databases and confirmed colocalization signals for PSMA4, EGLN2, WNT3, DCBLD1, and LILRA3. Three of these genes were not located within previously reported GWAS loci for either phenotype. We also identified genetically driven pathways, including those related to immune regulation. CONCLUSIONS: An integrative analysis of GWAS and gene expression identified novel associations with severe COPD and quantitative emphysema, and also suggested disease-associated genes in known COPD susceptibility loci. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT00608764 , Registry: ClinicalTrials.gov, Date of Enrollment of First Participant: November 2007, Date Registered: January 28, 2008 (retrospectively registered); NCT00292552 , Registry: ClinicalTrials.gov, Date of Enrollment of First Participant: December 2005, Date Registered: February 14, 2006 (retrospectively registered).


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Genômica/métodos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Enfisema Pulmonar/genética , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto/métodos , Estudos de Coortes , Predisposição Genética para Doença/epidemiologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Humanos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Enfisema Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Enfisema Pulmonar/epidemiologia
16.
Hum Mol Genet ; 27(10): 1819-1829, 2018 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29547942

RESUMO

Causal genes of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) remain elusive. The current study aims at integrating genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and lung expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) data to map COPD candidate causal genes and gain biological insights into the recently discovered COPD susceptibility loci. Two complementary genomic datasets on COPD were studied. First, the lung eQTL dataset which included whole-genome gene expression and genotyping data from 1038 individuals. Second, the largest COPD GWAS to date from the International COPD Genetics Consortium (ICGC) with 13 710 cases and 38 062 controls. Methods that integrated GWAS with eQTL signals including transcriptome-wide association study (TWAS), colocalization and Mendelian randomization-based (SMR) approaches were used to map causality genes, i.e. genes with the strongest evidence of being the functional effector at specific loci. These methods were applied at the genome-wide level and at COPD risk loci derived from the GWAS literature. Replication was performed using lung data from GTEx. We collated 129 non-overlapping risk loci for COPD from the GWAS literature. At the genome-wide scale, 12 new COPD candidate genes/loci were revealed and six replicated in GTEx including CAMK2A, DMPK, MYO15A, TNFRSF10A, BTN3A2 and TRBV30. In addition, we mapped candidate causal genes for 60 out of the 129 GWAS-nominated loci and 23 of them were replicated in GTEx. Mapping candidate causal genes in lung tissue represents an important contribution to the genetics of COPD, enriches our biological interpretation of GWAS findings, and brings us closer to clinical translation of genetic associations.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Transcriptoma/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genômica , Humanos , Pulmão/metabolismo , Pulmão/patologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética
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