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1.
Rev Environ Contam Toxicol ; 251: 131-184, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31129734

RESUMO

Maternal exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) is associated with long-term hormone-dependent effects that are sometimes not revealed until maturity, middle age, or adulthood. The aim of this study was to conduct descriptive reviews on animal experimental and human epidemiological evidence of the adverse health effects of in utero and lactational exposure to selected EDCs on the first generation and subsequent generation of the exposed offspring. PubMed, Web of Science, and Toxline databases were searched for relevant human and experimental animal studies on 29 October 29 2018. Search results were screened for relevance, and studies that met the inclusion criteria were evaluated and qualitative data extracted for analysis. The search yielded 73 relevant human and 113 animal studies. Results from studies show that in utero and lactational exposure to EDCs is associated with impairment of reproductive, immunologic, metabolic, neurobehavioral, and growth physiology of the exposed offspring up to the fourth generation without additional exposure. Little convergence is seen between animal experiments and human studies in terms of the reported adverse health effects which might be associated with methodologic challenges across the studies. Based on the available animal and human evidence, in utero and lactational exposure to EDCs is detrimental to the offspring. However, more human studies are necessary to clarify the toxicological and pathophysiological mechanisms underlying these effects.


Assuntos
Disruptores Endócrinos , Exposição Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez
2.
Allergol. immunopatol ; 46(6): 599-606, nov.-dic. 2018. tab, graf, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-177901

RESUMO

Introduction and Objectives: Aeroallergens are airborne organic substances which are responsible for allergenic diseases in hypersensitive individuals. People are exposed to their allergens either directly or after their entrance into the interiors. The spatio-temporal pattern of aeroallergens and their relationship with weather variability in Abuja and Nassarawa, North-Central Nigeria was studied. Materials and Methods: Aerosamples were trapped with modified Tauber-like pollen traps. Samples were collected monthly and centrifuged at 2500 rpm for 5 min and subjected to acetolysis. Meteorological data were collected from the Nigerian Meteorological Agency. Results and Conclusion: Aeroallergens concentration were unequivocally regulated by weather variables in both locations, indicating the possible use of aeroallergens especially pollen and spores as bio-indicators of weather variations and change. Aeroallergens encountered were fungal spores, pollen, diatom frustules, fern spores, algal cyst/cells in decreasing order of dominance. Among pollen group, Poaceae, Amarathaceae/Chenopodiaceae and Hymenocardia acida dominated. Spores of Smut species, Puccinia, Curvularia and Nigrospora were major contributors among aeromycoflora. Fungal spores morphotype dominated during the rainier months and were major contributors of the aeroallergen spectrum with those belonging to Deuteromycete preponderant. Aeroallergens which were previously identified as triggers of conjunctivitis, asthma, allergic sinusitis and bronchopulmonary allergic diseases were frequently present in both locations. Pollen prevailed more during the harmattan, influenced by northeast trade wind. Pollen component differed and was based on autochthonous source plants, indicating difference in sub-vegetational types


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Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Ar/análise , Asma/epidemiologia , Alérgenos/imunologia , Asma/imunologia , Material Particulado/imunologia , Pólen/imunologia , Esporos Fúngicos/imunologia , Alérgenos/química , Diatomáceas/imunologia , Hipersensibilidade/epidemiologia , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Material Particulado/química , Poaceae/imunologia , Pólen/química , Estações do Ano , Esporos Fúngicos/química , Ustilago/imunologia
3.
Allergol Immunopathol (Madr) ; 46(6): 599-606, 2018 Nov - Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30055844

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Aeroallergens are airborne organic substances which are responsible for allergenic diseases in hypersensitive individuals. People are exposed to their allergens either directly or after their entrance into the interiors. The spatio-temporal pattern of aeroallergens and their relationship with weather variability in Abuja and Nassarawa, North-Central Nigeria was studied. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Aerosamples were trapped with modified Tauber-like pollen traps. Samples were collected monthly and centrifuged at 2500rpm for 5 min and subjected to acetolysis. Meteorological data were collected from the Nigerian Meteorological Agency. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Aeroallergens concentration were unequivocally regulated by weather variables in both locations, indicating the possible use of aeroallergens especially pollen and spores as bio-indicators of weather variations and change. Aeroallergens encountered were fungal spores, pollen, diatom frustules, fern spores, algal cyst/cells in decreasing order of dominance. Among pollen group, Poaceae, Amarathaceae/Chenopodiaceae and Hymenocardia acida dominated. Spores of Smut species, Puccinia, Curvularia and Nigrospora were major contributors among aeromycoflora. Fungal spores morphotype dominated during the rainier months and were major contributors of the aeroallergen spectrum with those belonging to Deuteromycete preponderant. Aeroallergens which were previously identified as triggers of conjunctivitis, asthma, allergic sinusitis and bronchopulmonary allergic diseases were frequently present in both locations. Pollen prevailed more during the harmattan, influenced by northeast trade wind. Pollen component differed and was based on autochthonous source plants, indicating difference in sub-vegetational types.

4.
Ann Glob Health ; 84(3): 380-386, 2018 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30835375

RESUMO

Volcanic rock for use as building material is mined extensively in the North Eastern Region of Tanzania. Dust emitted from the rock may contain harmful elements such as crystalline silica, arsenic (As), cobalt (Co), boron (B) and mercury (Hg) which might contribute to severity and onset of health symptoms. OBJECTIVE: This study assessed respiratory symptoms and fractional exhaled nitric oxide as a marker for respiratory inflammation in relation to dust exposure among workers in different job sections in volcanic block mining. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study assessed a total of 135 workers in which 70 were exposed and 65 none exposed. The mining activities are mainly manual, and include cutting of blocks underground, transporting blocks to the shaping area, shaping blocks, loading blocks and aggregates (Murom) to vehicles and clearing or expanding the site. Respiratory health questionnaires were administered through face-to-face interviews. A total of 28 samples of "total" dust were collected around the breathing zone of the workers using SKC Sidekick pump (model 224-50) with a flow rate of 2.0 l/min. FENO assessed respiratory system inflammation using a portable electrochemistry-based sensor (NIOX MINO). FINDINGS: The overall arithmetic mean concentration of personal total dust exposure among the workers was 4.37 mg/m3 (range 0.15-20.84). The prevalence of acute cough and red eyes were significantly higher among exposed than among non exposed (35% vs 10% and 45% vs 14%, respectively). The ANOVA Boniferroni test showed a significant difference in mean FENO between stone cutters and none exposed (P = 0.005). CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests the strong association between working as a stone cutting and shaping with respiratory inflammation. There is a need for respiratory mask type P2 use to protect workers from the exposure. There is also need for the follow up study involving cohorts of all workers happened to be in the mine.

5.
Ann Glob Health ; 84(3): 523-531, 2018 10 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30835397

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gas-fired electric plants are equipped with heavy machines, which produce hazards including noise pollution. Exposure to high level of noise of above 85dB(A) is known to bring about Noise-Induced Hearing Loss (NIHL). This study aimed to assess noise exposure level and reported prevalence of noise-induced hearing loss among workers in gas-fired electric plants. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted in three gas-fired electric plants in Dar es Salaam (Plant A, Plant B and Plant C) from July to August 2017. A noise logging dosimeter was used to measure personal noise exposure level. A questionnaire was used to collect information on managerial factors, individual factors, socio-demographic factors and history of the participants. A short screening validated questionnaire was used to obtain noise exposure score. Frequency distribution, Chi-square test and Regression analyses were done using SPSS version 20. Results: One hundred and six participants were involved in the study. Noise exposure level among gas-fired electric plant workers was above 85dB(A), n = 37. The equivalent sound level (LAeq) measured over 8 hours was (98.6 ± 9.7) dB(A). The mean noise peak level was (139.5 ± 9.4) dB(A). Plant C had higher mean noise exposure level (TWA) of (96.9 ± 5.1) dB(A) compared to plant B 96.4 ± 3.7dB(A) and plant A 78.7 ± 11.9dB(A). Participants in both operation and maintenance had higher equivalent sound level (LAeq) measured over eight hours of 101.980 ± 3.6dB(A) compared to maintenance alone 98.5 ± 12.4dB (A) or operation 97.7 ± 8.8dB (A). Proportion of participants with reported hearing loss was 57(53.8%) where 44(41.5%) participants reported difficulty hearing people during conversations. Hearing protective devices (HPDs) were reported to be used by a majority, 101(95.3%). CONCLUSION: Workers in gas-fired plants are exposed to high noise levels that could damage their hearing. Hearing conservation programs should be established and maintained in this work environment.

6.
J Occup Med Toxicol ; 11: 17, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27073408

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Primary coffee processing takes place in countries where coffee is grown, and may include hand picking of coffee to remove low quality beans. Hand picking is mostly performed by women. No previous studies on dust and respiratory health have been performed in this occupational group, although studies indicate respiratory problems among other coffee production workers. FINDINGS: Our aim was to assess dust and endotoxin exposure among hand pickers in a coffee factory and compare the levels with limit values. In addition we wanted to examine the fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) as a possible inflammatory marker in the airways among the hand pickers and evaluate the association between FeNO and years of hand picking. All hand pickers in a factory were examined during 1 week. The response was 100 %; 69 participated. FeNO was measured using an electrochemistry-based NIOX MINO device. Nine out of 69 workers (13 %) had levels of FeNO above 25 ppb, indicating presence of respiratory inflammation. A significant positive association was found between increasing FeNO and years of hand picking. Nine personal samples of total dust and endotoxin were taken. None of the dust samples exceeded the occupational limit value for total organic dust of 5 mg/m(3). Three samples of endotoxin (33 %) were above the recommended value of 90 EU/m(3). CONCLUSIONS: Levels of endotoxin were higher than recommended standards among hand pickers, and there was a positive association between the level of exhaled nitrogen oxide and years of work with hand picking coffee.

7.
J Occup Environ Med ; 55(5): 544-51, 2013 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23618889

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare chronic respiratory symptoms, fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO), and lung function between Robusta and Arabica coffee workers and a control group. METHODS: Chronic respiratory symptoms were assessed by a questionnaire (n = 138 coffee workers and n = 120 controls). The FENO was measured by NIOX MINO device (Aerocrine AB, Solna, Sweden). Lung function was examined by a portable spirometer. RESULTS: Coffee workers had higher prevalence of chronic respiratory and asthma symptoms than controls. Robusta coffee workers were exposed to higher levels of endotoxin and had more asthma symptoms than Arabica coffee workers (38% vs. 18%). Coffee workers had reduced lung function associated with cumulative exposure to total dust and endotoxin. CONCLUSION: Work in coffee factories is associated with small but significant lung function impairment. These changes were not associated with the level of FENO.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/efeitos adversos , Coffea , Indústria de Processamento de Alimentos , Exposição por Inalação/efeitos adversos , Óxido Nítrico/análise , Doenças Respiratórias/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Idoso , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/análise , Testes Respiratórios , Café , Estudos Transversais , Poeira/análise , Endotoxinas/efeitos adversos , Endotoxinas/análise , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Humanos , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Respiratórias/diagnóstico , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tanzânia , Capacidade Vital , Adulto Jovem
8.
Ann Occup Hyg ; 57(2): 173-83, 2013 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23028014

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Endotoxin exposure associated with organic dust exposure has been studied in several industries. Coffee cherries that are dried directly after harvest may differ in dust and endotoxin emissions to those that are peeled and washed before drying. The aim of this study was to measure personal total dust and endotoxin levels and to evaluate their determinants of exposure in coffee processing factories. METHODS: Using Sidekick Casella pumps at a flow rate of 2l/min, total dust levels were measured in the workers' breathing zone throughout the shift. Endotoxin was analyzed using the kinetic chromogenic Limulus amebocyte lysate assay. Separate linear mixed-effects models were used to evaluate exposure determinants for dust and endotoxin. RESULTS: Total dust and endotoxin exposure were significantly higher in Robusta than in Arabica coffee factories (geometric mean 3.41 mg/m(3) and 10 800 EU/m(3) versus 2.10 mg/m(3) and 1400 EU/m(3), respectively). Dry pre-processed coffee and differences in work tasks explained 30% of the total variance for total dust and 71% of the variance for endotoxin exposure. High exposure in Robusta processing is associated with the dry pre-processing method used after harvest. CONCLUSIONS: Dust and endotoxin exposure is high, in particular when processing dry pre-processed coffee. Minimization of dust emissions and use of efficient dust exhaust systems are important to prevent the development of respiratory system impairment in workers.


Assuntos
Café/efeitos adversos , Poeira/análise , Endotoxinas/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/análise , Endotoxinas/toxicidade , Indústria Alimentícia , Humanos , Exposição por Inalação/análise , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Tanzânia/epidemiologia
9.
J Occup Environ Med ; 54(7): 847-50, 2012 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22796930

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study dust exposure and inflammatory reactions in the respiratory tract among coffee curing workers in Tanzania. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in a Tanzanian coffee curing factory. Coffee workers (n = 15) were compared with unexposed controls (n = 18); all workers were nonsmokers. Exhaled nitric oxide was examined using an electrochemistry-based NIOX MINO device. Personal air samples were analyzed for total dust and endotoxins, using gravimetric analysis and the chromogenic Limulus amebocyte lysate endpoint assay, respectively. RESULTS: Total dust levels ranged from 0.2 to 27.9 mg/m, and endotoxin levels ranged from 42 to 75,083 endotoxin units/m. Concentrations of exhaled nitric oxide, analyzed by linear regression and adjusted for age (ß = 0.57; 95% confidence interval, 0.08 to 1.06; P = 0.02), was higher among coffee workers than among the control group. CONCLUSION: The results indicate a relationship between the coffee dust and signs of respiratory inflammation.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/efeitos adversos , Coffea/efeitos adversos , Inflamação/epidemiologia , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Doenças Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Adulto , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/análise , Testes Respiratórios , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Exposição por Inalação/análise , Masculino , Óxido Nítrico/análise , Doenças Profissionais/induzido quimicamente , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Doenças Respiratórias/induzido quimicamente , Tanzânia/epidemiologia
10.
BMC Pulm Med ; 11: 54, 2011 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22114929

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coffee processing causes organic dust exposure which may lead to development of respiratory symptoms. Previous studies have mainly focused on workers involved in roasting coffee in importing countries. This study was carried out to determine total dust exposure and respiratory health of workers in Tanzanian primary coffee-processing factories. METHODS: A cross sectional study was conducted among 79 workers in two coffee factories, and among 73 control workers in a beverage factory. Personal samples of total dust (n = 45 from the coffee factories and n = 19 from the control factory) were collected throughout the working shift from the breathing zone of the workers. A questionnaire with modified questions from the American Thoracic Society questionnaire was used to assess chronic respiratory symptoms. Differences between groups were tested by using independent t-tests and Chi square tests. Poisson Regression Model was used to estimate prevalence ratio, adjusting for age, smoking, presence of previous lung diseases and years worked in dusty factories. RESULTS: All participants were male. The coffee workers had a mean age of 40 years and were older than the controls (31 years). Personal total dust exposure in the coffee factories were significantly higher than in the control factory (geometric mean (GM) 1.23 mg/m3, geometric standard deviation (GSD) (0.8) vs. 0.21(2.4) mg/m3). Coffee workers had significantly higher prevalence than controls for cough with sputum (23% vs. 10%; Prevalence ratio (PR); 2.5, 95% CI 1.0-5.9) and chest tightness (27% vs. 13%; PR; 2.4, 95% CI 1.1-5.2). The prevalence of morning cough, cough with and without sputum for 4 days or more in a week was also higher among coffee workers than among controls. However, these differences were not statistically significant. CONCLUSION: Workers exposed to coffee dust reported more respiratory symptoms than did the controls. This might relate to their exposure to coffee dust. Interventions for reduction of dust levels and provision of respiratory protective equipment are recommended.


Assuntos
Café/efeitos adversos , Poeira , Doenças Profissionais/etiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Doenças Respiratórias/etiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tanzânia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
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