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1.
Open Heart ; 8(2)2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34611018

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is a respiratory disease that results in a prothrombotic state manifesting as thrombotic, microthrombotic and thromboembolic events. As a result, several antithrombotic modalities have been implicated in the treatment of this disease. This study aimed to identify if therapeutic anticoagulation (TAC) or concurrent use of antiplatelet and anticoagulants was associated with an improved outcome in this patient population. METHODS: A retrospective observational cohort study of adult patients admitted to a single university hospital for COVID-19 infection was performed. The primary outcome was a composite of in-hospital mortality, intensive care unit (ICU) admission or the need for mechanical ventilation. The secondary outcomes were each of the components of the primary outcome, in-hospital mortality, ICU admission, or the need for mechanical ventilation. RESULTS: 242 patients were included in the study and divided into four subgroups: Therapeutic anticoagulation (TAC), prophylactic anticoagulation+antiplatelet (PACAP), TAC+antiplatelet (TACAP) and prophylactic anticoagulation (PAC) which was the reference for comparison. Multivariable Cox regression analysis and propensity matching were done and showed when compared with PAC, TACAP and TAC were associated with less in-hospital all-cause mortality with an adjusted HR (aHR) of 0.113 (95% CI 0.028 to 0.449) and 0.126 (95% CI 0.028 to 0.528), respectively. The number needed to treat in both subgroups was 11. Furthermore, PACAP was associated with a reduced risk of invasive mechanical ventilation with an aHR of 0.07 (95% CI 0.014 to 0.351). However, the was no statistically significant difference in the occurrence of major or minor bleeds, ICU admission or the composite outcome of in-hospital mortality, ICU admission or the need for mechanical ventilation. CONCLUSION: The use of combined anticoagulant and antiplatelet agents or TAC alone in hospitalised patients with COVID-19 was associated with a better outcome in comparison to PAC alone without an increase in the risk of major and minor bleeds. Sufficiently powered randomised controlled trials are needed to further evaluate the safety and efficacy of combining antiplatelet and anticoagulants agents or using TAC in the management of patients with COVID-19 infection.

2.
Psychiatry Investig ; 2021 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34517442

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the association of increased smartphone screen time with insomnia, bedtime procrastination, depression, anxiety, body mass index (BMI), and physical activity during the coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. METHODS: An online survey was performed for university students from all regions of Lebanon during the lockdown. The survey included questionnaires about smartphone screen time, diet, physical activity, psychological symptoms, and bedtime procrastination. We defined 6 hours of smartphone use as critical based on a survey done in United States. RESULTS: Among female students, smartphone use duration, physical activity levels, BMI, depression, anxiety, and insomnia severity were significantly higher than in male. When we stratified participants based on 6 hours of smartphone use, females, unhealthy food consumption, insomnia, anxiety, depression, and bedtime procrastination were significantly higher in the group with ≥6 hours of smartphone use. When we divided based on 7 hours, physical activity and body weight also differed between the two groups. Logistic regression analysis revealed that female, overweight, insomnia, and bedtime procrastination were significant predictors of a phone screen time of 7 hours. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that adults should be more cautious and responsible when using smartphones and be more concerned about the health-related risks.

3.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1627, 2021 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488694

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Salameh et al. developed the Lebanese Waterpipe Dependence Scale (LWDS-11) that assesses nicotine dependence among adult waterpipe smokers. In view of the high waterpipe use among Lebanese youth and other neighboring countries, it was deemed necessary to check the psychometric properties of the LWDS-11, originally adapted to the Lebanese population, to measure nicotine dependence among adolescents. METHODS: Two cross-sectional investigations were conducted; Study 1 (January and May 2019) enrolled a total of 449 students who were exclusive waterpipe smokers; this sample was used to conduct the exploratory factor analysis. Study 2 enrolled another sample composed of 243 waterpipe smoking adolescents. This sample was independent from the first one and was used to conduct the confirmatory analysis. RESULTS: The results also showed that 312 (69.5%) [95% CI 0.652-0.738] had high waterpipe dependence (scores of ≥10). Results of the factor analysis in sample 1 showed that all LWDS-11 items were extracted following the factor analysis. Items converged over a solution of one factor; total variance explained = 70.45%, αCronbach = 0.96). The results of the confirmatory factor analysis were as follows: the Maximum Likelihood Chi-Square = 129.58 and Degrees of Freedom = 45, which gave a χ2/df = 2.88. For non-centrality fit indices, the Steiger-Lind Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA) was 0.08 [0.071-0.106]. Moreover, the Comparative Fit Index (CFI) value was 0.77. CONCLUSION: The preliminary results suggest that the LWDS-11 has good psychometric properties to measure waterpipe dependence among adolescents. We hope this tool would serve the benefit of research and epidemiology.


Assuntos
Cachimbos de Água , Tabagismo , Fumar Cachimbo de Água , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tabagismo/diagnóstico , Tabagismo/epidemiologia , Fumar Cachimbo de Água/epidemiologia
4.
Rheumatol Int ; 2021 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34499194

RESUMO

Behçet's disease (BD), a rare multisystemic disorder, has an unknown etiology. Interactions between genetic and environmental factors play a major role in this disorder. Human leukocyte antigen B51 allele is the strongest risk factor for the development of Behçet disease. The high prevalence of BD in the Arab world makes it necessary to undergo local research and publications, to target particular genetic, geographical, or even cultural risk factors. This study aims to assess the numerical contribution of the Arab world to research on Behçet disease. Using the PubMed platform, the number of BD-related publications from 2005 to 2019 was assessed for all 22 Arab countries, and countries having the highest prevalence of the disease. Number of publications on BD was normalized to the average population size and GDP for each Arab country. From 2005 to 2019, Arab countries published 198 articles related to BD. This accounts for 0.1% of the total number of BD-related articles published in this period (4170). A significant, positive correlation of moderate strength exists between the number of publications and the average population, while a non-significant, positive correlation of week strength exists between the number of publications and GDP. Concerning the top 15 countries according to Behçet disease prevalence, Turkey had the greatest number of articles, while the USA had the highest ratio of publications per prevalence. The high prevalence of BD in Arabic countries was faced by paradoxically low research activity in this field. Arab countries are lagging behind in the field of Behçet disease-related research, which highlights the need for improving research productivity.

5.
BMC Psychol ; 9(1): 137, 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34496963

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has led to prolonged exposure to stress and anxiety, raising concerns about a large spectrum of psychological side effects. The primary objective of the study was to validate the COVID-19 Bullying Scale (CBS-11). The second objective was to explore factors associated with COVID-19-related bullying and evaluate the mediating effect of fear and anxiety between knowledge and COVID-19-related bullying. METHODS: A cross-sectional online survey conducted between December 20, 2020, and January 5, 2021, recruited 405 Lebanese adults using a snowball sampling technique. The CBS-11, an 11-item tool specifically created for this study, was used to measure bullying behaviors towards COVID-19 patients. RESULTS: All items of the CBS-11 converged over a 1-factor solution with an eigenvalue over 1, accounting for a variance of 75.16%. The scale has a high Cronbach's alpha (.974), indicating excellent reliability. A positive correlation was found between the COVID-19 bullying scale and fear, anxiety, and stigma discrimination. The logistic regression showed that higher fear of COVID-19 (ORa = 1.04), a positive attitude toward COVID-19 preventive measures and hygiene recommendations (ORa = 1.18), higher stigma discrimination scores (ORa = 1.09), and having a health professional family member (ORa = 2.42) were significantly associated with bullying. CONCLUSION: Our main findings showed that the CBS-11 could be an efficient tool to measure bullying behaviors toward COVID-19 patients. Stigma discrimination and fear from COVID-19 were associated with higher bullying attitudes. Future prospective studies are needed to understand better the factors related to bullying among adults during a pandemic, such as COVID-19.


Assuntos
Bullying , COVID-19 , Adulto , Ansiedade , Estudos Transversais , Medo , Humanos , Pandemias , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , SARS-CoV-2
6.
F1000Res ; 10: 793, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34504688

RESUMO

Background: Non-communicable diseases, the major cause of death and disability, are susceptible to modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. Atrial fibrillation (AF) increases the risk of stroke by 4-5 times and can lead to cardiovascular mortality. This study was conducted to assess the effects of different sociodemographic factors on stroke development in patients with AF. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted between January and June 2018 on patients recruited from Lebanese community pharmacies. The CHA 2DS 2-VASc scoring system is utilized as a stroke risk stratification tool in AF patients. Participants with a previous physician diagnosis of AF, documented on medical records, were included in this study. Results: A total of 524 patients were enrolled in the study with a mean age of 58.75 (± SD) ± 13.59 years with hypertension (78.38%) being the most predominant disease. The results showed that obesity (Beta=0.610, p-value =0.011), retirement and unemployment compared to employment (Beta=1.440 and 1.440, p-value=0.001 respectively), divorced/widow compared to married (Beta=1.380, p-value =0.001) were significantly associated with higher CHA 2DS 2-VASc scores whereas high versus low socio-economic status (Beta=-1.030, p=0.009) and high school education versus primary education level (Beta=-0.490, p-value=0.025) were significantly associated with lower CHA 2DS 2-VASc scores. Conclusions: The study highlights that the CHA 2DS 2-VASc score is affected by the presence of various sociodemographic and socioeconomic characteristics in patients with AF. Thus, screening for those factors may predict the progression of cardiovascular disease and may provide an optimal intervention.

7.
Int J Clin Pract ; : e14864, 2021 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34523204

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In an era of rapid evolution in healthcare delivery, major changes have occurred within the profession of pharmacist. Because the impact of pharmacist-led interventions in the hospital setting has been well-studied and showed mixed findings on drug-related readmissions, all-cause emergency department visits and mortality, this systematic review focused on services provided by pharmacists in the community or ambulatory care setting without being limited to a specific intervention or outcome. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of pharmacist-led interventions, categorised into clinical medication review (CMR), adherence review (AR), and prescription review (PR) on various aspects of patient care (clinical, behavioural, economic and humanistic outcomes in ambulatory care setting) and understand which particular intervention makes the greatest contribution. METHODS: A literature search was conducted using MEDLINE, Embase and the Cochrane Library for publications from 2000 onwards. FINDINGS AND INTERPRETATION: A total of 31 relevant publications corresponding to 27 controlled trials (CTs) and 4 observational studies were selected. CMR was the most studied pharmacist-led intervention (n = 19, 61.29%), followed by AR (n = 6, 19.3%). CMR demonstrated a favourable effect on different clinical outcomes mainly the management of drug-related problems and adverse events, and it also contributed the most to the reduction of healthcare costs. AR was the most effective intervention to improve patient's adherence. CMR alone or combined with AR both raised equally the patient's satisfaction. CONCLUSION: Our results showed that CMR can play a major role in the management of drug-related problems and economic issues. AR can significantly improve patient compliance. Larger, standardised and rigorously designed intervention studies are needed to help decision-makers to select appropriate interventions leading to meaningful improvements in patient care.

8.
Sultan Qaboos Univ Med J ; 21(3): 442-449, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34522411

RESUMO

Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the association between sociodemographic characteristics and antibiotic knowledge in the Lebanese population. Methods: A questionnaire-based survey was conducted in community pharmacies across all Lebanese governorates. Data were collected by well-trained pharmacists through face-to-face interviews from January until March 2017. The survey tool was adapted from a questionnaire developed by the World Health Organization. A knowledge index was computed for comparative purposes and a linear regression model was performed to assess factors associated with knowledge. Results: A total of 623 participants were included in the analysis of this study (response rate: 90.6%). The mean antibiotic knowledge index was 12.5 ± 3.2 (minimum score: 3 and maximum score: 19). Higher knowledge score was inversely correlated with age (r = -0.118; P = 0.003), but no gender differences were reported (females: 12.6 versus males: 12.3; P = 0.191). However, statistically significant differences were found for residence type (P = 0.002), educational level (P <0.001) and total household income categories (P <0.001). The linear regression model showed a significant association between residence type and knowledge (urban versus rural: ß = 0.793; P = 0.011). Furthermore, a higher knowledge index was significantly associated with a higher income combined with higher education (additive scale/ß = 1.590; P = 0.025). Finally, interactions between income and age, gender and residence type were not significant. Conclusion: Individuals residing in urban areas, with combined high income and educational levels, are more knowledgeable about antibiotics use and resistance compared to other groups. More studies are needed to assess the interaction of sociodemographic interactions with health literacy.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Adulto , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Farmacêuticos , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
Int J Pharm Pract ; 2021 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34562077

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The Order of Pharmacists of Lebanon, the official pharmacists' association in Lebanon, had suggested a core competencies framework based on global and international frameworks and adapted to the local context. The objective of this study was to validate the structure of this comprehensive set of competencies in the Lebanese context of pharmacy practice. METHODS: The framework structure was assessed through multiple factor analyses, correlational and reliability measures of self-declared assessment, based on a cross-sectional survey of practising pharmacists. KEY FINDINGS: The framework had adequate structural validity and reliability: all measured coefficients were of appropriate magnitude. Behaviours adequately loaded on competencies, and competencies adequately loaded on domains and the entire framework. The exploratory factor analysis showed an adequate distribution of competencies in domains. Domains were also inter-correlated, without over-correlation. CONCLUSIONS: Our results are an essential step towards standardizing pharmacy competencies in Lebanon and show that the Lebanese core competencies framework developed by the Order of Pharmacists of Lebanon is structurally valid and reliable, although not yet applied in the Lebanese educational system. This tool would be helpful to assess the minimum competencies of pharmacists upon and after graduation.

10.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1583, 2021 08 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34425819

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Waterpipe and cigarette smoking dependence are becoming increasingly prevalent forms of addiction globally. This study examined whether cumulative cigarette smoking and cumulative waterpipe smoking are associated with higher dependence on both cigarettes and waterpipe. METHODS: This cross-sectional study conducted between February and April 2020, enrolled 363 participants drawn from all Lebanese districts. The mean age was 29.51 years, 64.8% were females, and 124 (34.2%) exclusive cigarette smokers, 189 (52.1%) exclusive waterpipe smokers, and 50 (13.8%) dual smokers (waterpipe and cigarette). We used the Hooked on Nicotine Checklist (HONC) as an indicator of decreased autonomy towards nicotine, in addition to the Lebanon Waterpipe Dependence Scale-11 (LWDS11) and the Lebanese Cigarette Dependence scale (LCD). A stepwise linear regression was performed taking the HONC scores due to cigarette and waterpipe smoking, LCD and LWDS-11 scores as dependent variables. RESULTS: The results showed that in the total sample, higher cumulative cigarette smoking (B = 0.005 with a confidence interval of 0.004, 0.006) was significantly associated with higher HONC cigarette scores, whereas higher cumulative waterpipe smoking (B = -0.006 with a confidence interval of - 0.009, - 0.002) was significantly associated with lower HONC cigarette scores. Moreover, higher cumulative waterpipe smoking (B = 0.012 with a confidence interval of 0.009,0.015) was significantly associated with higher HONC waterpipe scores. The results showed that, in both sexes, higher cumulative cigarette smoking was associated with higher HONC cigarette scores and lower HONC waterpipe scores. Furthermore, higher cumulative waterpipe smoking was significantly associated with higher HONC waterpipe scores in both sexes. CONCLUSION: Our study supports the fact that heavy nicotine consumption, related to both the increased frequency and smoking duration, can increase the risk of dependence. It raises the need for strategic plans to minimize and discourage the use of nicotine products in Lebanese community settings.


Assuntos
Cachimbos de Água , Produtos do Tabaco , Tabagismo , Fumar Cachimbo de Água , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Tabagismo/epidemiologia , Fumar Cachimbo de Água/efeitos adversos , Fumar Cachimbo de Água/epidemiologia
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444605

RESUMO

At the start of 2020, a new coronavirus (COVID-19) invaded the world leading to the death of 3.92 million people. Sadly, to date, no remedy has been discovered for this virus. Preventive vaccines have been under investigation, but were unavailable until December 2020. Clinical deficiencies of nutrients may increase susceptibility to infections. This knowledge may have provided an incentive for some dietary supplement (DS) manufacturers to advertise their products as COVID-19 preventatives or cures without any substantiation, targeting mainly social media fans. The objective of this research was to assess the usage, knowledge and attitudes towards dietary supplementation before and during the COVID-19 pandemic among Lebanese people. A cross-sectional study was conducted based on a convenience sample (N = 2966) and information from participants aged 18 years and above was collected about periods before and during the pandemic. Our findings showed that attitudes towards DSs changed when the pandemic emerged and people believed that DSs can improve their health and strengthen their immunity. Despite the rise in DS prescription by healthcare professionals, the prevalence of DS use decreased from 73.3% before the pandemic to 69.9% during the pandemic (p < 0.001). Study results declared that the weekly or the daily estimated intake had increased during the pandemic as compared to before the pandemic, from 14% to 15.6% for antioxidants (p = 0.014), from 35.3% to 42.1% for vitamin C (p < 0.001), from 35.5% to 41% for vitamin D (p < 0.001), from 15.2% to 17.5% for vitamin E (p = 0.002), and from 18.8% to 29.3% for zinc (p < 0.001) and other vitamins and minerals (from 9% to 10.9%, p < 0.001). Binary logistic regression indicated that the use of DSs during the pandemic was 4 times higher among those infected with COVID-19, 30 times higher among those who used to take DSs before pandemic, and 1.5 times higher among those who worked in the medical sector. To conclude, there is a crucial need to increase awareness among Lebanese people regarding the use of DSs.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Estudos Transversais , Suplementos Nutricionais , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34402077

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Evaluate seasonal affective disorder (SAD) and the possible factors associated with it among Lebanese adults, during winter and summer seasons of 2018 and 2019. DESIGN AND METHODS: Cross-sectional study was conducted in two time intervals. The winter period took place from December 2018 to January 2019, whereas the summer period was from May to June 2019, evaluating the same participants. FINDINGS: Higher winter depression (adjusted odds ratio [ORa] = 1.16), higher winter insomnia (ORa = 1.04) were significantly associated with higher odds of having winter SAD. Higher summer depression (ORa = 1.20) was significantly associated with higher odds of having summer SAD. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: A proper recognition of risk factors associated with SAD allows the clinician to effectively differentiate between SAD and nonseasonal depressive symptoms.

13.
Psychol Health Med ; : 1-10, 2021 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34256660

RESUMO

The study objectives were to investigate correlates of healthy orthorexia (HeOr), its relation with impulsivity, and the moderating role of adaptive personality traits among a Lebanese adult sample. The sample was recruited from seven community pharmacies, from the five districts in Lebanon, chosen from a list provided by the Lebanese Order of Pharmacists in a convenient way. The questionnaire included the Teruel Orthorexia Scale (TOS) to measure HeOr, Big Five Inventory (BFI) to assess adaptive personality traits, and the I-8 scale for impulsivity. Higher extraversion (B = -4.31) was significantly associated with lower healthy orthorexia. The interaction perseverance by extraversion was associated with higher healthy orthorexia; in those with higher perseverance, higher extraversion was associated with more healthy orthorexia. Our study presents findings that could be of significant clinical relevance in the future, especially with the interest increase in Orthorexia Nervosa prevalence, which subsequently prompts more research and intrigue about HeOr. Furthermore, it places healthy eating and consistent commitment to a healthy diet within a clearly defined scientific frame, on which further investigation can be based.

14.
BMC Pediatr ; 21(1): 288, 2021 06 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34158020

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Lebanese population has undergone several conflicts and were the most afflicted by shelling and chaos during the civil war from 1975 to 1990, or even by displacement, bereavement, emigration, family separations, not to mention the economic crises that have hit the country since 2019 under which young adults are still succumbing. Our study aims to validate the Lebanese Anxiety Scale and assess correlates of anxiety among Lebanese adolescents. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried between January and May 2019, using a proportionate random sampling of schools from all five Lebanese governorates, among which 1810 adolescents aged 14 to 17 years. RESULTS: All LAS items remained in the model and formed one factor solution that explained 61.38% of the total variance (KMO = 0.873; pBartlett test < 0.001), with an excellent Cronbach's alpha of 0.93. Higher neglect (B = 0.38), insomnia (B = 0.21) and child psychological abuse (B = 0.08) were significantly associated with more anxiety. Those results were considered adjusted overall sociodemographic variables since the latter had no statistically significant association with anxiety. CONCLUSION: The study confirmed the association between anxiety and some variables such as psychological child abuse, neglect, and insomnia and emphasized the correlation between anxiety and these factors. Further, the LAS appears to be a short, valid and efficient tool for assessing anxiety among Lebanese adolescents. Further studies need to be carried to evaluate whether the LAS-10 gives a similar diagnosis to psychiatrists.


Assuntos
Ansiedade , Maus-Tratos Infantis , Adolescente , Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Instituições Acadêmicas , Adulto Jovem
15.
J Pharm Policy Pract ; 14(1): 51, 2021 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34116719

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lebanon, a developing Middle Eastern country, was hit by the COVID-19 pandemic that occurred amid a severe national economic crisis. Community pharmacists are responsible for dispensing appropriate medications and products in addition to counseling, informing and educating the public, and promoting disease prevention and infection control. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess community pharmacists' knowledge, attitude, and practice towards the COVID-19 pandemic and evaluate behavior changes and safety measures. METHODS: An anonymous and standardized online questionnaire in English was disseminated via social media platforms to Lebanese community pharmacists. The questionnaire consisted of 95 items designed as Likert-scales and multiple-choice questions divided into four different sections: socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge-based, attitude-based, and pharmacy practice questions. Descriptive statistical analysis was used to summarize the demographic characteristics, and indices were created for knowledge, attitude, and practice by computing the correct answers for each section. RESULTS: A total of 310 questionnaires were completed. Around 61% have expressed their fear of getting infected with COVID-19 due to occupational exposure. The respondents were able to answer 80-90% of the knowledge-based questions of the survey. A more careful/anxious attitude, but not knowledge, was associated with overall better practice (p = 0.03). Also, respondents stated that they are dispensing protective equipment items such as masks (87%), gloves (60%), and sanitizers (77%) in small quantities due to limited availability. CONCLUSION: Our findings revealed an adequate level of knowledge and good practice towards COVID-19 among Lebanese community pharmacists. Their fears of contracting the virus and compromising the safety of those around them are justified. However, their supply of protective equipment is limited.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34105164

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To examine the association between menstrual cycle phases and other factors (depression, anxiety, and stress) with social, physical, and task attraction. METHODS: This cross-sectional study enrolled 662 female university students (December 2019-January 2020). RESULTS: Higher stress was associated with higher social and task attraction. Higher stress and depression were associated with higher physical attraction, whereas higher anxiety was associated with lower physical attraction. None of the cycle's phases was associated with attraction. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: This study results showed a lot of contradictory information to what is present in the literature, in addition to new associations that are not tackled enough in the literature. Therefore, there is a crucial need for new firm studies that explore the relationship between women's hormonal levels and attraction levels.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34091844

RESUMO

The Lebanese economic crisis, financial crisis, and USD shortage were conducive to an increased drug addiction especially for students who feel that their future in Lebanon is not safe, as well as the psychological fragility of the Lebanese people, and the more permissive sociocultural context. Our study aimed to assess the addiction levels and profiles of university students in Lebanon, and thus to evaluate the rapid rising in dependence regarding smoking, alcohol, and illegal drug use during this crisis. This cross-sectional study was carried out between February and September 2020. A total of 467 participants (315 females, 152 males; Mage = 23.48 ± 6.03) were recruited through convenience sampling through several universities in Lebanon's governorates. Participants received the online link to the survey. Students were divided into three clusters as follows: cluster 1, which corresponds to students with moderate addictions; cluster 2, which corresponds to students with high addictions; and cluster 3, which corresponds to students with low addictions. When comparing cluster 1 to cluster 3, the results of the multinomial regression showed that older age (aOR=1.08) and having a high monthly income compared to no income (aOR=2.78) were significantly associated with higher odds of being in cluster 1 compared to cluster 3. When comparing cluster 2 to cluster 3, the results of the multinomial regression showed that female gender (aOR=0.19) was significantly associated with lower odds of being in cluster 2 compared to cluster 3, whereas having a dead (aOR=16.38) or divorced parent (aOR=6.54) and having a low (aOR=3.93) or intermediate income compared to zero income (aOR=4.71) were significantly associated with higher odds of being in cluster 2 compared to cluster 3. The results of our study revealed a considerable prevalence of addiction to alcohol, illicit drugs, and specially to smoking, among Lebanese university students. These findings emphasize the need to implement firm policies and rules in an attempt to minimize the tendency of the young population to engage in such addictions.

18.
Transpl Immunol ; 68: 101432, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34186171

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Arab world consists of 22 countries situated in the Middle East and North Africa, tied together by linguistic and cultural bonds. Over numerous past decades, this region tended to fall behind regarding biomedical research. Organ, tissue, and cell transplantation are life-saving and life-improving treatments for various diseases. Given the positive correlation between research activity and the improvement of the clinical frame of transplantation, this article intended to examine the regional activity of transplantation research between 2005 and 2019. METHODS: Using the PubMed database, the number of transplantation-related articles published by each country, and regarding 26 different procedures, was assessed. The results were normalized with respect to each country's average population & average Gross Domestic Product (GDP). In addition, the co-occurrence of keywords and the co-authorships were analyzed by VOS Viewer. RESULTS: Arab countries contributed to 1.25% of total transplantation publications. The number of transplantation publications had an inflection in 2013, with the last six years alone contributing to 65.27% of the overall regional transplantation-related publications. Kuwait and Lebanon ranked first in terms of publications per million persons, while Egypt ranked first in terms of publications per national GDP. Stem cell, bone & kidney transplantations had the highest number of Arab transplantation-related publications. Low levels of collaboration between authors and organizations were observed, besides a modest but increasing trend towards experimental work on animals and newer therapies. CONCLUSION: Despite the increase in transplant-related research activity in recent years, the Arab world still lags behind in this field compared to the worldwide contribution.

19.
Psychogeriatrics ; 21(4): 577-585, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33960064

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Depression among older adults is a frequent and underdiagnosed condition. However, there is a paucity of research on mental health problems among elderly people in Arab countries. The purpose of this study was to describe the risk of depression among a representative sample of older Lebanese adults living in rural areas and to identify gender-specific factors associated with depression risk. METHODS: This study included a randomly selected sample of 823 rural elderly people aged ≥65 years without cognitive decline. Data, including sociodemographic characteristics, living condition, health and functional status, were collected during face-to-face interviews. Depression was assessed by the five-item Geriatric Depression Scale. RESULTS: Risk for depression was significantly higher in women than in men (39.5% vs 26.2%, P < 0.001). Among men, reporting a higher versus a lower income (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 0.299) and being physically active significantly decreased the odds of depressive symptoms. In addition, physical disability (AOR = 3.03) and a high level of loneliness (AOR = 41.76) were significantly related to an increased risk of depression. Among women, daily or occasional physical activity was related to a reduced risk of depression compared to sedentary lifestyles (AOR = 0.35; AOR = 0.50). Furthermore digestive symptoms (AOR = 1.98), poor nutritional status (AOR = 1.99), and strong feelings of loneliness (AOR = 10.86) were significantly related to an increased odds of depression. CONCLUSION: Elderly Lebanese people, especially women, were at high risk for depression. Among other gender-specific factors, loneliness was strongly associated with depressive disorders in both genders, with a four times greater odds ratio in men than in women.


Assuntos
Depressão , Desnutrição , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Solidão , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , População Rural
20.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 998, 2021 05 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34044790

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 was first detected in Lebanon on February 21, 2020; it reached its peak in January 2021, with a total number of 418,448 confirmed cases and 5380 deaths (until March 15, 2021). Gaining insight into factors regarding willingness or refusal for vaccination might guide our goals in raising the awareness and target efforts to increase acceptance of the COVID-19 vaccine and maximize the uptake. Therefore, this study aims to assess the intent to receive the COVID-19 vaccine among Lebanese adults and the factors associated with vaccine refusal. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study during November-December 2020 among Lebanese adults from all Lebanese regions using a survey tool with closed-ended questions that included sociodemographic data and questions about vaccine hesitancy, knowledge, attitude, practice, and fear of COVID-19. We used the snowball technique to collect the data because of the COVID-19 imposed lockdown. RESULTS: Of the 579 participants, 21.4% were willing to receive the vaccine, 40.9% refused, and the remainder were unsure of their response. More vaccine hesitancy (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.06; 95% CI 1.03-1.09) was significantly associated with more odds of disagreeing/ strongly disagreeing on receiving the COVID-19 vaccine compared to being neutral. More vaccine hesitancy (aOR = 0.95; 95% CI 0.91-0.99), female gender compared to males (aOR = 0.53; 95% CI 0.32-0.87), and being married compared to single (aOR = 0.53; 95% CI 0.29-0.98) were significantly associated with lower odds of agreeing/strongly agreeing on receiving the COVID-19 vaccine compared to being neutral. CONCLUSION: Overall, our findings revealed a high percentage of people (40%) who strongly disagreed with receiving the vaccine, mainly females, married participants, and those who have a general vaccine hesitancy. Moreover, no significant association was found with knowledge, attitude, or prevention practice regarding COVID-19. Targeted efforts are necessary to increase acceptance of a COVID-19 vaccine among the Lebanese population to control the COVID-19 pandemic. Further studies with a larger sample size are warranted to validate our results and provide better insights into the underlying reasons for refusing vaccination.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Adulto , Atitude , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Líbano , Masculino , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Vacinação
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