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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(8)2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32326627

RESUMO

There is a growing interest in unraveling gene expression mechanisms leading to viral host invasion and infection progression. Current findings reveal that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are implicated in the regulation of the immune system by influencing gene expression through a wide range of mechanisms. By mining whole-transcriptome shotgun sequencing (RNA-seq) data using machine learning approaches, we detected two lncRNAs (ENSG00000254680 and ENSG00000273149) that are downregulated in a wide range of viral infections and different cell types, including blood monocluclear cells, umbilical vein endothelial cells, and dermal fibroblasts. The efficiency of these two lncRNAs was positively validated in different viral phenotypic scenarios. These two lncRNAs showed a strong downregulation in virus-infected patients when compared to healthy control transcriptomes, indicating that these biomarkers are promising targets for infection diagnosis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the very first study using host lncRNAs biomarkers for the diagnosis of human viral infections.

2.
Forensic Sci Int Genet ; 47: 102274, 2020 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32330850

RESUMO

A breakthrough article published in PNAS by Luo et al. challenges a central dogma in biology which states that the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in humans is inherited exclusively from the mother. We re-analyzed original FASTQ files and results reported by Luo et al. to investigate methodological issues (e.g. nuclear mitochondrial DNA or NUMTs, DNA rearrangements) that could lead to biological misinterpretations. A comprehensive analysis of their data reveals several methodological and analytical issues that must be carefully addressed before challenging the current paradigm. We first show that the probability of the findings described by the authors is extremely small (most likely below 10-37). The sequencing replicates from the same donors show aberrations in the variants detected that need further investigation to exclude contributions from other sources or methodological artifacts. Applying the principle of reductio ad absurdum, we demonstrate that the nuclear factor invoked by the authors to explain the phenomenon would need to be extraordinarily complex and precise to preclude linear accumulation of mtDNA lineages across generations, which would make the appearance of mixed haplotypes a much more frequent event in the population. We discuss alternate scenarios that explain findings of the same nature as reported by Luo et al., in the context of in-vitro fertilization and therapeutic mtDNA replacement ooplasmic transplantation.

3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(5)2020 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32155831

RESUMO

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is one of the major causes of acute lower respiratory tract infection worldwide. The absence of a commercial vaccine and the limited success of current therapeutic strategies against RSV make further research necessary. We used a multi-cohort analysis approach to investigate host transcriptomic biomarkers and shed further light on the molecular mechanism underlying RSV-host interactions. We meta-analyzed seven transcriptome microarray studies from the public Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) repository containing a total of 922 samples, including RSV, healthy controls, coronaviruses, enteroviruses, influenzas, rhinoviruses, and coinfections, from both adult and pediatric patients. We identified > 1500 genes differentially expressed when comparing the transcriptomes of RSV-infected patients against healthy controls. Functional enrichment analysis showed several pathways significantly altered, including immunologic response mediated by RSV infection, pattern recognition receptors, cell cycle, and olfactory signaling. In addition, we identified a minimal 17-transcript host signature specific for RSV infection by comparing transcriptomic profiles against other respiratory viruses. These multi-genic signatures might help to investigate future drug targets against RSV infection.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31775298

RESUMO

This study investigates the temperature reduction capacity and water consumption of a fan-pad system installed in a greenhouse located in the coastal regions of Almería. The suitability of this system for coastal zones with high environmental humidity during the summer is analyzed. Historical temperature and relative humidity series are studied, obtaining the thermal difference and maximum, medium, and minimum monthly water consumption of the pads based on the operation data of the pads. Despite the high relative humidity of the air in the hottest hours of the day, a decrease of 5.92 °C in the mean temperature and a water consumption of 13.55 l/h per square meter of an evaporative cooling pad are obtained in the month of August. Additionally, the operation of a cellulose evaporative cooling pad installed for 3 years in a greenhouse is analyzed in a wind tunnel and compared with that of a new pad of the same model. Over time and with low maintenance, the porosity of the pad decreases due to salt incrustation. The salt incrustation makes airflow more difficult in the pad, increasing the pressure drop by 170.04%; however, the air saturation efficiency of the pad increases by 6.6% due to the greater contact time between the air and the water.

5.
mSphere ; 4(4)2019 08 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31391283

RESUMO

Cryptococcus neoformans is an important fungal pathogen, causing life-threatening pneumonia and meningoencephalitis. Brain dissemination of C. neoformans is thought to be a consequence of an active infection in the lung which then extravasates to other sites. Brain invasion results from dissemination via either transport by free yeast cells in the bloodstream or Trojan horse transport within mononuclear phagocytes. We assessed brain dissemination in three mouse models of infection: intravenous, intratracheal, and intranasal models. All three modes of infection resulted in dissemination of C. neoformans to the brain in less than 3 h. Further, C. neoformans was detected in the entirety of the upper respiratory tract and the ear canals of mice. In recent years, intranasal infection has become a popular mechanism to induce pulmonary infection because it avoids surgery, but our findings show that instillation of C. neoformans produces cryptococcal nasal infection. These findings imply that immunological studies using intranasal infection should assume that the initial sites of infection of infection are brain, lung, and upper respiratory tract, including the nasal airways.IMPORTANCE Cryptococcus neoformans causes an estimated 181, 000 deaths each year, mostly associated with untreated HIV/AIDS. C. neoformans has a ubiquitous worldwide distribution. Humans become infected from exposure to environmental sources, after which the fungus lays dormant within the human body. Upon AIDS-induced immunosuppression or therapy-induced immunosuppression (required for organ transplant recipients or those suffering from autoimmune disorders), cryptococcal disease reactivates and causes life-threatening meningitis and pneumonia. This study showed that upon contact with the host, C. neoformans can quickly (a few hours) reach the host brain and also colonizes the nose of infected animals. Therefore, this work paves the way to better knowledge of how C. neoformans travels through the host body. Understanding how C. neoformans infects, disseminates, and survives within the host is critically required so that we can prevent infections and the disease caused by this deadly fungus.


Assuntos
Administração Intranasal , Encéfalo/microbiologia , Criptococose/microbiologia , Cryptococcus neoformans/patogenicidade , Nariz/microbiologia , Administração Intravenosa , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Pulmão/microbiologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Traqueia/microbiologia
6.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 11780, 2019 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31409879

RESUMO

The diagnosis of bacterial infections in hospital settings is currently performed using bacterial culture from sterile site, but they are lengthy and limited. Transcriptomic biomarkers are becoming promising tools for diagnosis with potential applicability in clinical settings. We evaluated a RT-qPCR assay for a 2-transcript host expression signature (FAM89A and IFI44L genes) inferred from microarray data that allow to differentiate between viral and bacterial infection in febrile children. This assay was able to discriminate viral from bacterial infections (P-value = 1.04 × 10-4; AUC = 92.2%; sensitivity = 90.9%; specificity = 85.7%) and showed very high reproducibility regardless of the reference gene(s) used to normalize the data. Unexpectedly, the monogenic IFI44L expression signature yielded better results than those obtained from the 2-transcript test (P-value = 3.59 × 10-5; AUC = 94.1%; sensitivity = 90.9%; specificity = 92.8%). We validated this IFI44L signature in previously published microarray and whole-transcriptome data from patients affected by different types of viral and bacterial infections, confirming that this gene alone differentiates between both groups, thus saving time, effort, and costs. Herein, we demonstrate that host expression microarray data can be successfully translated into a fast, highly accurate and relatively inexpensive in vitro assay that could be implemented in the clinical routine.

7.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 15(10): 2405-2415, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31158041

RESUMO

The Ninth Interactive Infectious Disease workshop TIPICO was held on November 22-23, 2018, in Santiago de Compostela, Spain. This 2-day academic experience addressed current and topical issues in the field of infectious diseases and vaccination. Summary findings of the meeting include: cervical cancer elimination will be possible in the future, thanks to the implementation of global vaccination action plans in combination with appropriate screening interventions. The introduction of appropriate immunization programs is key to maintain the success of current effective vaccines such as those against meningococcal disease or rotavirus infection. Additionally, reduced dose schedules might improve the efficiency of some vaccines (i.e., PCV13). New vaccines to improve current preventive alternatives are under development (e.g., against tuberculosis or influenza virus), while others to protect against infectious diseases with no current available vaccines (e.g., enterovirus, parechovirus and flaviviruses) need to be developed. Vaccinomics will be fundamental in this process, while infectomics will allow the application of precision medicine. Further research is also required to understand the impact of heterologous vaccine effects. Finally, vaccination requires education at all levels (individuals, community, healthcare professionals) to ensure its success by helping to overcome major barriers such as vaccine hesitancy and false contraindications.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Vacinas , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Doenças Transmissíveis/parasitologia , Doenças Transmissíveis/virologia , Congressos como Assunto , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Espanha
9.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 6966, 2019 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31061469

RESUMO

Non-coding genetic variants play an important role in driving susceptibility to complex diseases but their characterization remains challenging. Here, we employed a novel approach to interrogate the genetic risk of such polymorphisms in a more systematic way by targeting specific regulatory regions relevant for the phenotype studied. We applied this method to meningococcal disease susceptibility, using the DNA binding pattern of RELA - a NF-kB subunit, master regulator of the response to infection - under bacterial stimuli in nasopharyngeal epithelial cells. We designed a custom panel to cover these RELA binding sites and used it for targeted sequencing in cases and controls. Variant calling and association analysis were performed followed by validation of candidate polymorphisms by genotyping in three independent cohorts. We identified two new polymorphisms, rs4823231 and rs11913168, showing signs of association with meningococcal disease susceptibility. In addition, using our genomic data as well as publicly available resources, we found evidences for these SNPs to have potential regulatory effects on ATXN10 and LIF genes respectively. The variants and related candidate genes are relevant for infectious diseases and may have important contribution for meningococcal disease pathology. Finally, we described a novel genetic association approach that could be applied to other phenotypes.

10.
RNA ; 25(7): 857-868, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31010885

RESUMO

There is a growing body of evidence suggesting that patterns of gene expression vary within and between human populations. However, the impact of this variation in human diseases has been poorly explored, in part owing to the lack of a standardized protocol to estimate biogeographical ancestry from gene expression studies. Here we examine several studies that provide new solid evidence indicating that the ancestral background of individuals impacts gene expression patterns. Next, we test a procedure to infer genetic ancestry from RNA-seq data in 25 data sets where information on ethnicity was reported. Genome data of reference continental populations retrieved from The 1000 Genomes Project were used for comparisons. Remarkably, only eight out of 25 data sets passed FastQC default filters. We demonstrate that, for these eight population sets, the ancestral background of donors could be inferred very efficiently, even in data sets including samples with complex patterns of admixture (e.g., American-admixed populations). For most of the gene expression data sets of suboptimal quality, ancestral inference yielded odd patterns. The present study thus brings a cautionary note for gene expression studies highlighting the importance to control for the potential confounding effect of ancestral genetic background.


Assuntos
Doença/etnologia , Doença/genética , Grupos Étnicos/genética , Genoma Humano , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Marcadores Genéticos , Genética Populacional , Genômica , Humanos , Padrões de Herança
11.
Infect Drug Resist ; 12: 55-64, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30636886

RESUMO

The landscape of rotavirus (RV) infection has changed substantially in recent years. Autoimmune triggering has been added to clinical spectrum of this pathology, which is now known to be much broader than diarrhea. The impact of RV vaccines in these other conditions is becoming a growing field of research. The importance of host genetic background in RV susceptibility has been revealed, therefore increasing our understanding of vaccine effectiveness and giving some clues about the limited efficacy of RV vaccines in low-income settings. Also, interaction of RV with intestinal microbiota seems to play a key role in the process of infection vaccine effect. This article reviews current findings on the extraintestinal impact of RV infection and their widening clinical picture, and the recently described mechanisms of host susceptibility to infection and vaccine effectiveness. RV infection is a systemic disease with clinical and pathophysiological implications beyond the gut. We propose an "iceberg" model for this pathology with almost hidden clinical implications away from the gastrointestinal tract and eventually triggering the development of autoimmune diseases. Impact of current vaccines is being influenced by host genetics and gut microbiota interactions and these factors must be taken into account in the development of public health programs.

12.
Forensic Sci Int Genet ; 39: 57-60, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30578983

RESUMO

Most of the variation in the human genome (∼95%) is constrained, directly or indirectly, by purifying selection and GC-biased gene conversion, according to a recent article by Pouyet et al. (2018). The use of 'non-neutral' variation to infer human demographies can lead to undesirable biases; for example, in estimation of the time of the most recent common ancestor. Further examination of 'neutral' variation in entire human genomes from The 1000 Genomes Project reveals that ∼99% of this variation lacks exonic function, but ∼35% of it falls in introns. In addition, estimates of biogeographical ancestry using 'non-neutral' SNPs differ very marginally from inferences obtained from 'neutral' variation. Additional investigations should be carried out before establishing the roadmap for future human population and forensic genetic studies.


Assuntos
Genoma Humano , Genômica , Seleção Genética , Elementos de DNA Transponíveis , Evolução Molecular , Variação Genética , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
14.
Arthrosc Tech ; 7(11): e1167-e1171, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30533364

RESUMO

Hip arthroscopy has been increasing tremendously in the past decade and is a very common surgical procedure to repair femoroacetabular impingement. To access the hip joint, distraction is mandatory to treat intra-articular disorders such as labral tears, cartilage loose bodies, and ligamentum teres tears and to evaluate the condition of the femoral head and acetabular cartilage. To distract the hip, counterdistraction is needed, and this is achieved with placement of a bulky and cushioned perineal post. Most of the described techniques in hip arthroscopy use a perineal post, whereas others use beanbags to place the patient's body on the surgical table. Still others do not use a post at all but rather use gravity and a Trendelenburg position to achieve distraction. Our technique does not use a perineal post but instead uses heavy-duty tape over the patient's upper body, which is placed on a normal operating room table to distract the hip while entering the central compartment.

15.
Science ; 362(6419)2018 12 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30409807

RESUMO

Studies of the peopling of the Americas have focused on the timing and number of initial migrations. Less attention has been paid to the subsequent spread of people within the Americas. We sequenced 15 ancient human genomes spanning from Alaska to Patagonia; six are ≥10,000 years old (up to ~18× coverage). All are most closely related to Native Americans, including those from an Ancient Beringian individual and two morphologically distinct "Paleoamericans." We found evidence of rapid dispersal and early diversification that included previously unknown groups as people moved south. This resulted in multiple independent, geographically uneven migrations, including one that provides clues of a Late Pleistocene Australasian genetic signal, as well as a later Mesoamerican-related expansion. These led to complex and dynamic population histories from North to South America.


Assuntos
Genoma Humano , Migração Humana , Índios Norte-Americanos/genética , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Extremo Oriente/etnologia , Genômica , Humanos , América do Norte , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Dinâmica Populacional , Sibéria/etnologia , América do Sul
16.
Lancet Child Adolesc Health ; 2(6): 404-414, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30169282

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sepsis and severe focal infections represent a substantial disease burden in children admitted to hospital. We aimed to understand the burden of disease and outcomes in children with life-threatening bacterial infections in Europe. METHODS: The European Union Childhood Life-threatening Infectious Disease Study (EUCLIDS) was a prospective, multicentre, cohort study done in six countries in Europe. Patients aged 1 month to 18 years with sepsis (or suspected sepsis) or severe focal infections, admitted to 98 participating hospitals in the UK, Austria, Germany, Lithuania, Spain, and the Netherlands were prospectively recruited between July 1, 2012, and Dec 31, 2015. To assess disease burden and outcomes, we collected demographic and clinical data using a secured web-based platform and obtained microbiological data using locally available clinical diagnostic procedures. FINDINGS: 2844 patients were recruited and included in the analysis. 1512 (53·2%) of 2841 patients were male and median age was 39·1 months (IQR 12·4-93·9). 1229 (43·2%) patients had sepsis and 1615 (56·8%) had severe focal infections. Patients diagnosed with sepsis had a median age of 27·6 months (IQR 9·0-80·2), whereas those diagnosed with severe focal infections had a median age of 46·5 months (15·8-100·4; p<0·0001). Of 2844 patients in the entire cohort, the main clinical syndromes were pneumonia (511 [18·0%] patients), CNS infection (469 [16·5%]), and skin and soft tissue infection (247 [8·7%]). The causal microorganism was identified in 1359 (47·8%) children, with the most prevalent ones being Neisseria meningitidis (in 259 [9·1%] patients), followed by Staphylococcus aureus (in 222 [7·8%]), Streptococcus pneumoniae (in 219 [7·7%]), and group A streptococcus (in 162 [5·7%]). 1070 (37·6%) patients required admission to a paediatric intensive care unit. Of 2469 patients with outcome data, 57 (2·2%) deaths occurred: seven were in patients with severe focal infections and 50 in those with sepsis. INTERPRETATION: Mortality in children admitted to hospital for sepsis or severe focal infections is low in Europe. The disease burden is mainly in children younger than 5 years and is largely due to vaccine-preventable meningococcal and pneumococcal infections. Despite the availability and application of clinical procedures for microbiological diagnosis, the causative organism remained unidentified in approximately 50% of patients. FUNDING: European Union's Seventh Framework programme.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Sepse/epidemiologia , Algoritmos , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
17.
Arthroplast Today ; 4(3): 325-329, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30186915

RESUMO

We present a case report of a patient with severe valgus deformity of the right knee due to multiple hereditary exostoses (MHEs) treated with total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The surgical management of MHE affecting the knee encompasses exostoses resection, joint deformity rectification, and limb-length discrepancy alignment. On rare occasions, distraction osteogenesis and TKA have been used to correct valgus deformities of the knee. TKA in MHE patients with knee involvement has only been described in 6 cases. Several considerations, such as extensive knowledge of frequently occurring skeletal aberrations, are required to successfully correct the deformities associated with MHE via TKA. This report describes a case of severe valgus knee deformity with a rotational component in MHE managed with TKA, the surgical technique, and future recommendations.

18.
Genes (Basel) ; 9(5)2018 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29751582

RESUMO

Pneumonia is the leading cause of death amongst infectious diseases. Streptococcus pneumoniae is responsible for about 25% of pneumonia cases worldwide, and it is a major cause of childhood mortality. We carried out a whole exome sequencing (WES) study in eight patients with complicated cases of pneumococcal pneumonia (empyema). An initial assessment of statistical association of WES variation with pneumonia was carried out using data from the 1000 Genomes Project (1000G) for the Iberian Peninsula (IBS) as reference controls. Pseudo-replication statistical analyses were carried out using different European control groups. Association tests pointed to single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs201967957 (gene MEIS1; chromosome 2; p-valueIBS = 3.71 × 10-13) and rs576099063 (gene TSPAN15; chromosome 10; p-valueIBS = 2.36 × 10-8) as the best candidate variants associated to pneumococcal pneumonia. A burden gene test of pathogenicity signaled four genes, namely, OR9G9, MUC6, MUC3A and APOB, which carry significantly increased pathogenic variation when compared to controls. By analyzing various transcriptomic data repositories, we found strong supportive evidence for the role of MEIS1, TSPAN15 and APOBR (encoding the receptor of the APOB protein) in pneumonia in mouse and human models. Furthermore, the association of the olfactory receptor gene OR9G9 has recently been related to some viral infectious diseases, while the role of mucin genes (MUC6 and MUC3A), encoding mucin glycoproteins, are well-known factors related to chronic obstructive airway disease. WES emerges as a promising technique to disentangle the genetic basis of host genome susceptibility to infectious respiratory diseases.

19.
Genome Res ; 28(6): 767-779, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29735605

RESUMO

Genetic and archaeological data indicate that the initial Paleoindian settlers of South America followed two entry routes separated by the Andes and the Amazon rainforest. The interactions between these paths and their impact on the peopling of South America remain unclear. Analysis of genetic variation in the Peruvian Andes and regions located south of the Amazon River might provide clues on this issue. We analyzed mitochondrial DNA variation at different Andean locations and >360,000 autosomal SNPs from 28 Native American ethnic groups to evaluate different trans-Andean demographic scenarios. Our data reveal that the Peruvian Altiplano was an important enclave for early Paleoindian expansions and point to a genetic continuity in the Andes until recent times, which was only marginally affected by gene flow from the Amazonian lowlands. Genomic variation shows a good fit with the archaeological evidence, indicating that the genetic interactions between the descendants of the settlers that followed the Pacific and Atlantic routes were extremely limited.


Assuntos
DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Fluxo Gênico/genética , Genética Populacional , Arqueologia , Cromossomos Humanos Y/genética , Grupos Étnicos/genética , Variação Genética , Haplótipos , Humanos , Mitocôndrias/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , América do Sul
20.
PLoS One ; 13(4): e0195314, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29621276

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Salivary glands are known immune effector sites and considered to be part of the whole mucosal immune system. The aim of the present study was to assess the salivary immune response to rotavirus (RV) infection through the analysis of the cytokine immune profile in saliva. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A prospective comparative study of serial saliva samples from 27 RV-infected patients (sampled upon admission to the hospital during acute phase and at convalescence-i.e. at least three months after recovery) and 36 healthy controls was performed. Concentrations of 11 salivary cytokines (IFN-γ, IFN-α2, IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-15, IL12p70, TNF-α, IFN-λ1, IL-22) were determined. Cytokine levels were compared between healthy controls acute infection and convalescence. The correlation between clinical data and salivary cytokine profile in infected children was assessed. RESULTS: The salivary cytokine profile changes significantly in response to acute RV infection. In RV-infected patients, IL-22 levels were increased in the acute phase with respect to convalescence (P-value < 0.001). Comparisons between infected and control group showed significant differences in salivary IFN-α2, IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and IL-22. Although acute-phase levels of IL-12, IL-10, IL-6 and IFN-γ showed nominal association with Vesikari's severity, this trend did not reach statistical significance after multiple test adjustment. CONCLUSIONS: RV infection induces a host salivary immune response, indicating that immune mucosal response to RV infection is not confined to the intestinal mucosa. Our data point to a whole mucosal implication in the RV infection as a result of the integrative mucosal immune response, and suggest the salivary gland as effector site for RV infection.


Assuntos
Imunidade nas Mucosas/imunologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/imunologia , Glândulas Salivares/fisiologia , Pré-Escolar , Citocinas/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Imunidade nas Mucosas/fisiologia , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Interleucinas/análise , Enteropatias , Mucosa Intestinal/química , Intestinos/química , Masculino , Mucosa Bucal/química , Estudos Prospectivos , Rotavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Rotavirus/virologia , Saliva/química , Glândulas Salivares/virologia
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