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1.
Diabetes Care ; 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31601636

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Maternal gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has been associated with adverse outcomes in the offspring. Growing evidence suggests that the epigenome may play a role, but most previous studies have been small and adjusted for few covariates. The current study meta-analyzed the association between maternal GDM and cord blood DNA methylation in the Pregnancy and Childhood Epigenetics (PACE) consortium. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Seven pregnancy cohorts (3,677 mother-newborn pairs [317 with GDM]) contributed results from epigenome-wide association studies, using DNA methylation data acquired by the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip array. Associations between GDM and DNA methylation were examined using robust linear regression, with adjustment for potential confounders. Fixed-effects meta-analyses were performed using METAL. Differentially methylated regions (DMRs) were identified by taking the intersection of results obtained using two regional approaches: comb-p and DMRcate. RESULTS: Two DMRs were identified by both comb-p and DMRcate. Both regions were hypomethylated in newborns exposed to GDM in utero compared with control subjects. One DMR (chr 1: 248100345-248100614) was located in the OR2L13 promoter, and the other (chr 10: 135341870-135342620) was located in the gene body of CYP2E1. Individual CpG analyses did not reveal any differentially methylated loci based on a false discovery rate-adjusted P value threshold of 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal GDM was associated with lower cord blood methylation levels within two regions, including the promoter of OR2L13, a gene associated with autism spectrum disorder, and the gene body of CYP2E1, which is upregulated in type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Future studies are needed to understand whether these associations are causal and possible health consequences.

2.
Bioinformatics ; 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31368477

RESUMO

SUMMARY: Performing highly parallelized preprocessing of methylation array data using Python can accelerate data preparation for downstream methylation analyses, including large scale production-ready machine learning pipelines. We present a highly reproducible, scalable pipeline (PyMethylProcess) that can be quickly set-up and deployed through Docker and PIP. AVAILABILITY AND IMPLEMENTATION: Project Home Page: https://github.com/Christensen-Lab-Dartmouth/PyMethylProcess. Available on PyPI (pymethylprocess), Docker (joshualevy44/pymethylprocess).

3.
Clin Epigenetics ; 11(1): 125, 2019 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31455416

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Umbilical cord blood (UCB) is commonly used in epigenome-wide association studies of prenatal exposures. Accounting for cell type composition is critical in such studies as it reduces confounding due to the cell specificity of DNA methylation (DNAm). In the absence of cell sorting information, statistical methods can be applied to deconvolve heterogeneous cell mixtures. Among these methods, reference-based approaches leverage age-appropriate cell-specific DNAm profiles to estimate cellular composition. In UCB, four reference datasets comprising DNAm signatures profiled in purified cell populations have been published using the Illumina 450 K and EPIC arrays. These datasets are biologically and technically different, and currently, there is no consensus on how to best apply them. Here, we systematically evaluate and compare these datasets and provide recommendations for reference-based UCB deconvolution. RESULTS: We first evaluated the four reference datasets to ascertain both the purity of the samples and the potential cell cross-contamination. We filtered samples and combined datasets to obtain a joint UCB reference. We selected deconvolution libraries using two different approaches: automatic selection using the top differentially methylated probes from the function pickCompProbes in minfi and a standardized library selected using the IDOL (Identifying Optimal Libraries) iterative algorithm. We compared the performance of each reference separately and in combination, using the two approaches for reference library selection, and validated the results in an independent cohort (Generation R Study, n = 191) with matched Fluorescence-Activated Cell Sorting measured cell counts. Strict filtering and combination of the references significantly improved the accuracy and efficiency of cell type estimates. Ultimately, the IDOL library outperformed the library from the automatic selection method implemented in pickCompProbes. CONCLUSION: These results have important implications for epigenetic studies in UCB as implementing this method will optimally reduce confounding due to cellular heterogeneity. This work provides guidelines for future reference-based UCB deconvolution and establishes a framework for combining reference datasets in other tissues.

4.
BMC Cancer ; 19(1): 711, 2019 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31324166

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Differentiated cells that arise from stem cells in early development contain DNA methylation features that provide a memory trace of their fetal cell origin (FCO). The FCO signature was developed to estimate the proportion of cells in a mixture of cell types that are of fetal origin and are reminiscent of embryonic stem cell lineage. Here we implemented the FCO signature estimation method to compare the fraction of cells with the FCO signature in tumor tissues and their corresponding nontumor normal tissues. METHODS: We applied our FCO algorithm to discovery data sets obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and replication data sets obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) data repository. Wilcoxon rank sum tests, linear regression models with adjustments for potential confounders and non-parametric randomization-based tests were used to test the association of FCO proportion between tumor tissues and nontumor normal tissues. P-values of < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. RESULTS: Across 20 different tumor types we observed a consistently lower FCO signature in tumor tissues compared with nontumor normal tissues, with 18 observed to have significantly lower FCO fractions in tumor tissue (total n = 6,795 tumor, n = 922 nontumor, P < 0.05). We replicated our findings in 15 tumor types using data from independent subjects in 15 publicly available data sets (total n = 740 tumor, n = 424 nontumor, P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that cancer development itself is substantially devoid of recapitulation of normal embryologic processes. Our results emphasize the distinction between DNA methylation in normal tightly regulated stem cell driven differentiation and cancer stem cell reprogramming that involves altered methylation in the service of great cell heterogeneity and plasticity.

5.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1893, 2019 04 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31015461

RESUMO

Birthweight is associated with health outcomes across the life course, DNA methylation may be an underlying mechanism. In this meta-analysis of epigenome-wide association studies of 8,825 neonates from 24 birth cohorts in the Pregnancy And Childhood Epigenetics Consortium, we find that DNA methylation in neonatal blood is associated with birthweight at 914 sites, with a difference in birthweight ranging from -183 to 178 grams per 10% increase in methylation (PBonferroni < 1.06 x 10-7). In additional analyses in 7,278 participants, <1.3% of birthweight-associated differential methylation is also observed in childhood and adolescence, but not adulthood. Birthweight-related CpGs overlap with some Bonferroni-significant CpGs that were previously reported to be related to maternal smoking (55/914, p = 6.12 x 10-74) and BMI in pregnancy (3/914, p = 1.13x10-3), but not with those related to folate levels in pregnancy. Whether the associations that we observe are causal or explained by confounding or fetal growth influencing DNA methylation (i.e. reverse causality) requires further research.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer/genética , DNA/metabolismo , Epigênese Genética , Genoma Humano , Adolescente , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Ilhas de CpG , DNA/genética , Metilação de DNA , Feminino , Desenvolvimento Fetal/genética , Feto , Ácido Fólico/sangue , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/sangue , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/etiologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/genética , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/fisiopatologia , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/sangue , Fumar/genética
6.
Eur Respir J ; 53(4)2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30765504

RESUMO

RATIONALE: We aimed to identify differentially methylated regions (DMRs) in cord blood DNA associated with childhood lung function, asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) across the life course. METHODS: We meta-analysed epigenome-wide data of 1688 children from five cohorts to identify cord blood DMRs and their annotated genes, in relation to forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC) ratio and forced expiratory flow at 75% of FVC at ages 7-13 years. Identified DMRs were explored for associations with childhood asthma, adult lung function and COPD, gene expression and involvement in biological processes. RESULTS: We identified 59 DMRs associated with childhood lung function, of which 18 were associated with childhood asthma and nine with COPD in adulthood. Genes annotated to the top 10 identified DMRs were HOXA5, PAOX, LINC00602, ABCA7, PER3, CLCA1, VENTX, NUDT12, PTPRN2 and TCL1A. Differential gene expression in blood was observed for 32 DMRs in childhood and 18 in adulthood. Genes related with 16 identified DMRs were associated with respiratory developmental or pathogenic pathways. INTERPRETATION: Our findings suggest that the epigenetic status of the newborn affects respiratory health and disease across the life course.

7.
Environ Int ; 123: 459-466, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30622071

RESUMO

Swimming in pools during pregnancy may expose the fetus to water disinfection by-products (DBP). As yet, our understanding of the impacts on DBPs on the fetus is uncertain. Individuals with public water systems are typically exposed to DBPs through drinking, showering and bathing, whereas among those on private water systems, swimming in pools may be the primary exposure source. We analyzed the effects of maternal swimming on birth outcomes and cord blood epigenetic changes in the New Hampshire Birth Cohort Study, a cohort of pregnant women with households on private water systems. Information about swimming in pools during pregnancy was obtained from 1033 women via questionnaires. Swimming pool use and duration were modeled using linear regression with newborn weight, length, and head circumference (z-scores) and genome wide cord blood DNA methylation as the outcomes and with adjustment for potential confounders. Overall 19.7% of women reported swimming in a pool during pregnancy. Among swimmers, duration of swimming was inversely related to head circumference (-0.02 z-score per 10% increase in duration, P = 0.004). No associations were observed with birth weight, length or DNA methylation modifications. Our findings suggest swimming pool exposure may impact the developing fetus although longer-term studies are needed.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Sangue Fetal/química , Recém-Nascido , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Piscinas , Adulto , Peso ao Nascer , Estudos de Coortes , Desinfecção , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez , Natação , Poços de Água
8.
Breast Cancer Res ; 21(1): 14, 2019 01 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30683142

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: BRCA1-mutated cancers exhibit deficient homologous recombination (HR) DNA repair, resulting in extensive copy number alterations and genome instability. HR deficiency can also arise in tumors without a BRCA1 mutation. Compared with other breast tumors, HR-deficient, BRCA1-like tumors exhibit worse prognosis but selective chemotherapeutic sensitivity. Presently, patients with triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) who do not respond to hormone endocrine-targeting therapy are given cytotoxic chemotherapy. However, more recent evidence showed a similar genomic profile between BRCA1-deficient TNBCs and hormone-receptor-positive tumors. Characterization of the somatic alterations of BRCA1-like hormone-receptor-positive breast tumors as a group, which is currently lacking, can potentially help develop biomarkers for identifying additional patients who might respond to chemotherapy. METHODS: We retrained and validated a copy-number-based support vector machine (SVM) classifier to identify HR-deficient, BRCA1-like breast tumors. We applied this classifier to The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and Molecular Taxonomy of Breast Cancer International Consortium (METABRIC) breast tumors. We assessed mutational profiles and proliferative capacity by covariate-adjusted linear models and identified differentially methylated regions using DMRcate in BRCA1-like hormone-receptor-positive tumors. RESULTS: Of the breast tumors in TCGA and METABRIC, 22% (651/2925) were BRCA1-like. Stratifying on hormone-receptor status, 13% (302/2405) receptor-positive and 69% (288/417) triple-negative tumors were BRCA1-like. Among the hormone-receptor-positive subgroup, BRCA1-like tumors showed significantly increased mutational burden and proliferative capacity (both P < 0.05). Genome-scale DNA methylation analysis of BRCA1-like tumors identified 202 differentially methylated gene regions, including hypermethylated BRCA1. Individually significant CpGs were enriched for enhancer regions (P < 0.05). The hypermethylated gene sets were enriched for DNA and chromatin conformation (all Bonferroni P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: To provide insights into alternative classification and potential therapeutic targeting strategies of BRCA1-like hormone-receptor-positive tumors we developed and applied a novel copy number classifier to identify BRCA1-like hormone-receptor-positive tumors and their characteristic somatic alteration profiles.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Epigenômica/métodos , Máquina de Vetores de Suporte , Adulto , Idoso , Mama/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Ilhas de CpG/genética , Metilação de DNA/genética , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Feminino , Recombinação Homóloga/genética , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo , Receptores de Progesterona/metabolismo , Análise de Sobrevida
9.
Clin Epigenetics ; 10(1): 152, 2018 12 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30526669

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lung macrophages are major participants in the pulmonary innate immune response. In the cystic fibrosis (CF) lung, the inability of lung macrophages to successfully regulate the exaggerated inflammatory response suggests dysfunctional innate immune cell function. In this study, we aim to gain insight into innate immune cell dysfunction in CF by investigating alterations in DNA methylation in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells, composed primarily of lung macrophages of CF subjects compared with healthy controls. All analyses were performed using primary alveolar macrophages from human subjects collected via bronchoalveolar lavage. Epigenome-wide DNA methylation was examined via Illumina MethylationEPIC (850 K) array. Targeted next-generation bisulfite sequencing was used to validate selected differentially methylated CpGs. Methylation-based sample classification was performed using the recursively partitioned mixture model (RPMM) and was tested against sample case-control status. Differentially methylated loci were identified by fitting linear models with adjustment of age, sex, estimated cell type proportions, and repeat measurement. RESULTS: RPMM class membership was significantly associated with the CF disease status (P = 0.026). One hundred nine CpG loci were differentially methylated in CF BAL cells (all FDR ≤ 0.1). The majority of differentially methylated loci in CF were hypo-methylated and found within non-promoter CpG islands as well as in putative enhancer regions and DNase hyper-sensitive regions. CONCLUSIONS: These results support a hypothesis that epigenetic changes, specifically DNA methylation at a multitude of gene loci in lung macrophages, may participate, at least in part, in driving dysfunctional innate immune cells in the CF lung.


Assuntos
Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/química , Fibrose Cística/genética , Metilação de DNA , Epigenômica/métodos , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/métodos , Adulto , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/imunologia , Ilhas de CpG , Fibrose Cística/imunologia , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Masculino , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Adulto Jovem
10.
Genome Res ; 28(9): 1285-1295, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30072366

RESUMO

Stem cell maturation is a fundamental, yet poorly understood aspect of human development. We devised a DNA methylation signature deeply reminiscent of embryonic stem cells (a fetal cell origin signature, FCO) to interrogate the evolving character of multiple human tissues. The cell fraction displaying this FCO signature was highly dependent upon developmental stage (fetal versus adult), and in leukocytes, it described a dynamic transition during the first 5 yr of life. Significant individual variation in the FCO signature of leukocytes was evident at birth, in childhood, and throughout adult life. The genes characterizing the signature included transcription factors and proteins intimately involved in embryonic development. We defined and applied a DNA methylation signature common among human fetal hematopoietic progenitor cells and have shown that this signature traces the lineage of cells and informs the study of stem cell heterogeneity in humans under homeostatic conditions.

11.
NPJ Parkinsons Dis ; 4: 24, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30131971

RESUMO

Neuroinflammation is a well-characterized pathophysiology occurring in association with the progression of Parkinson's disease. Characterizing the cellular and molecular basis of neuroinflammation is critical to understanding its impact on the incidence and progression of PD and other neurologic disorders. Inflammasomes are intracellular pro-inflammatory pattern-recognition receptors capable of initiating and propagating inflammation. These cellular complexes are well characterized in the innate immune system and activity of the NLRP3 inflammasome has been reported in microglia. NLRP3 inflammasome activity has been associated with Alzheimer's disease, and recent reports, from our laboratory and others, indicate that Nlrp3 is required for neuroinflammation and nigral cell loss in animal models of PD. NLRP3 has not yet been characterized in PD patients. Here we characterize NLRP3 in PD using immunohistologic and genetic approaches. Histologic studies revealed elevated NLRP3 expression in mesencephalic neurons of PD patients. Analysis of exome sequencing data for genetic variation of NLRP3 identified multiple single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) including rs7525979 that was associated with a significantly reduced risk of developing PD. Mechanistic studies conducted in HEK293 cells indicated that the synonymous SNP, NLRP3 rs7525979, alters the efficiency of NLRP3 translation impacting NLRP3 protein stability, ubiquitination state, and solubility. These data provide evidence that dopaminergic neurons are a cell-of-origin for inflammasome activity in PD and are consistent with recent animal studies, suggesting that inflammasome activity may impact the progression of PD.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29880533

RESUMO

Background: Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is commonly diagnosed at an advanced stage, and prognosis for such patients is poor. There remains a gap in our understanding of genetic variants related with HNSCC prognosis. miRNA-related single nucleotide polymorphisms (miR-SNPs) are a class of genetic variants with gene-regulatory potential.Methods: We used a genome-scale approach and independent patient populations in a two-stage approach to test 40,286 common miR-SNPs for association with HNSCC survival in the discovery population (n = 847), and selected the strongest associations for replication in validation phase cases (n = 1,236). Furthermore, we leveraged miRNA interaction databases and miRNA expression data from The Cancer Genome Atlas, to provide functional insight for the identified and replicated associations.Results: Joint population analyses identified novel miR-SNPs associated with overall survival in oral and laryngeal cancers. rs1816158, located within long noncoding RNA MIR100HG, was associated with overall survival in oral cavity cancer (HR, 1.56; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.21-2.00). In addition, expression of MIR100HG-embedded miRNA, miR-100, was significantly associated with overall survival in an independent cohort of HNSCC cases (HR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.06-1.49). A SNP in the 3'UTR of SH3BP4 (rs56161233) that overlaps predicted miRNA-binding sites and is predicted to disrupt several miRNA-mRNA interactions was associated with overall survival of laryngeal cancer (HR, 2.57; 95% CI, 1.71-3.86).Conclusions: This work reveals novel miR-SNPs associated with HNSCC survival, and utilizes miRNA-mRNA interaction and expression data to provide functional support for these associations.Impact: These findings extend our understanding of how genetic variation contributes to HNSCC survival, and may contribute to future prognostic models for improved risk stratification. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 1-10. ©2018 AACR.

13.
Genome Biol ; 19(1): 64, 2018 05 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29843789

RESUMO

Genome-wide methylation arrays are powerful tools for assessing cell composition of complex mixtures. We compare three approaches to select reference libraries for deconvoluting neutrophil, monocyte, B-lymphocyte, natural killer, and CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell fractions based on blood-derived DNA methylation signatures assayed using the Illumina HumanMethylationEPIC array. The IDOL algorithm identifies a library of 450 CpGs, resulting in an average R2 = 99.2 across cell types when applied to EPIC methylation data collected on artificial mixtures constructed from the above cell types. Of the 450 CpGs, 69% are unique to EPIC. This library has the potential to reduce unintended technical differences across array platforms.


Assuntos
Células Sanguíneas/metabolismo , Metilação de DNA , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Algoritmos , Ilhas de CpG , Biblioteca Gênica , Humanos , Masculino
14.
Hum Mol Genet ; 26(R2): R216-R224, 2017 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28977446

RESUMO

Recent advances in cell-type deconvolution approaches are adding to our understanding of the biology underlying disease development and progression. DNA methylation (DNAm) can be used as a biomarker of cell types, and through deconvolution approaches, to infer underlying cell type proportions. Cell-type deconvolution algorithms have two main categories: reference-based and reference-free. Reference-based algorithms are supervised methods that determine the underlying composition of cell types within a sample by leveraging differentially methylated regions (DMRs) specific to cell type, identified from DNAm measures of purified cell populations. Reference-free algorithms are unsupervised methods for use when cell-type specific DMRs are not available, allowing scientists to estimate putative cellular proportions or control for potential confounding from cell type. Reference-based deconvolution is typically applied to blood samples and has potentiated our understanding of the relation between immune profiles and disease by allowing estimation of immune cell proportions from archival DNA. Bioinformatic analyses using DNAm to infer immune cell proportions, part of a new field known as Immunomethylomics, provides a new direction for consideration in epigenome wide association studies (EWAS).


Assuntos
Biologia Computacional/métodos , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Algoritmos , Animais , Simulação por Computador , Metilação de DNA/genética , Metilação de DNA/fisiologia , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos
15.
Hum Mol Genet ; 26(20): 4067-4085, 2017 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29016858

RESUMO

Pre-pregnancy maternal obesity is associated with adverse offspring outcomes at birth and later in life. Individual studies have shown that epigenetic modifications such as DNA methylation could contribute. Within the Pregnancy and Childhood Epigenetics (PACE) Consortium, we meta-analysed the association between pre-pregnancy maternal BMI and methylation at over 450,000 sites in newborn blood DNA, across 19 cohorts (9,340 mother-newborn pairs). We attempted to infer causality by comparing the effects of maternal versus paternal BMI and incorporating genetic variation. In four additional cohorts (1,817 mother-child pairs), we meta-analysed the association between maternal BMI at the start of pregnancy and blood methylation in adolescents. In newborns, maternal BMI was associated with small (<0.2% per BMI unit (1 kg/m2), P < 1.06 × 10-7) methylation variation at 9,044 sites throughout the genome. Adjustment for estimated cell proportions greatly attenuated the number of significant CpGs to 104, including 86 sites common to the unadjusted model. At 72/86 sites, the direction of the association was the same in newborns and adolescents, suggesting persistence of signals. However, we found evidence for acausal intrauterine effect of maternal BMI on newborn methylation at just 8/86 sites. In conclusion, this well-powered analysis identified robust associations between maternal adiposity and variations in newborn blood DNA methylation, but these small effects may be better explained by genetic or lifestyle factors than a causal intrauterine mechanism. This highlights the need for large-scale collaborative approaches and the application of causal inference techniques in epigenetic epidemiology.


Assuntos
Herança Materna/genética , Obesidade/complicações , Resultado da Gravidez/genética , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Coortes , Metilação de DNA/genética , Epigênese Genética/genética , Epigenômica/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Herança Materna/fisiologia , Mães , Gravidez/fisiologia , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/genética , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/metabolismo
16.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 58: 250-261, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28774616

RESUMO

Exposure to disinfection by-products (DBP) such as trihalomethanes (THM) in swimming pools has been linked to adverse health effects in humans, but their biological mechanisms are unclear. We evaluated short-term changes in blood gene expression of adult recreational swimmers after swimming in a chlorinated pool. Volunteers swam 40min in an indoor chlorinated pool. Blood samples were drawn and four THM (chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane and bromoform) were measured in exhaled breath before and after swimming. Intensity of physical activity was measured as metabolic equivalents (METs). Gene expression in whole blood mRNA was evaluated using IlluminaHumanHT-12v3 Expression-BeadChip. Linear mixed models were used to evaluate the relationship between gene expression changes and THM exposure. Thirty-seven before-after pairs were analyzed. The median increase from baseline to after swimming were: 0.7 to 2.3 for MET, and 1.4 to 7.1µg/m3 for exhaled total THM (sum of the four THM). Exhaled THM increased on average 0.94µg/m3 per 1 MET. While 1643 probes were differentially expressed post-exposure. Of them, 189 were also associated with exhaled levels of individual/total THM or MET after False Discovery Rate. The observed associations with the exhaled THM were low to moderate (Log-fold change range: -0.17 to 0.15). In conclusion, we identified short-term gene expression changes associated with swimming in a pool that were minor in magnitude and their biological meaning was unspecific. The high collinearity between exhaled THM levels and intensity of physical activity precluded mutually adjusted models with both covariates. These exploratory results should be validated in future studies.


Assuntos
Desinfetantes/toxicidade , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Piscinas , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Adulto , Clorofórmio/sangue , Clorofórmio/toxicidade , Desinfetantes/sangue , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Halogenação , Humanos , Masculino , RNA , RNA Mensageiro/sangue , Natação , Trialometanos/sangue , Trialometanos/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/sangue
17.
Epigenetics ; 12(7): 561-574, 2017 07 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28426276

RESUMO

Genetic and epigenetic alterations are required for carcinogenesis and the mutation burden across tumor types has been investigated. Here, we investigate epigenetic alterations with a novel measure of global DNA methylation dysregulation, the methylation dysregulation index (MDI), across 14 cancer types in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. DNA methylation data-obtained using Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip-was accessed from TCGA. We calculated the MDI in 14 tumor types (n = 5,592 tumors), using adjacent normal tissues (n = 701) from each tumor site. Copy number alteration, and mutation burden were retrieved from cBioportal (n = 5,152). We tested the relation of subject MDI across tumors and with age, gender, tumor stage, estimated tumor purity, and copy number alterations for both overall MDI and genomic-context-specific MDI. We also investigated the top most dysregulated loci shared across tumor types. There was a broad range of extent in methylation dysregulation across tumor types (P < 2.2E-16). However, a consistent pattern of methylation dysregulation stratified by genomic context was observed across tumor types where the highest dysregulation occurred at non-CpG island regions. Considering other summary measures of somatic alteration, MDI was correlated with copy number alterations but not with mutation burden. Using the top dysregulated CpG sites in common across tumors, 4 classes of cancer types were observed, and the functional consequences of these alterations to gene expression were confirmed. This work identified the global DNA methylation dysregulation patterns across 14 cancer types showing a higher impact for the non-CpG island areas. The most dysregulated loci across cancer types identified common clusters across cancer types that may have implications for future treatment and prevention measures.


Assuntos
Carcinoma/genética , Epigênese Genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Ilhas de CpG , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Metilação de DNA , Feminino , Loci Gênicos , Genoma Humano , Humanos , Masculino
18.
Clin Epigenetics ; 9: 10, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28184256

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Differentially methylated regions (DMRs) within DNA isolated from whole blood can be used to estimate the proportions of circulating leukocyte subtypes. We use the term "immunomethylomics" to describe the application of these immune lineage DMRs to studying leukocyte profiles. Here, we applied this approach to peripheral blood DNA from 72 glioma patients with molecularly defined brain tumors, representing common patient groups with defined characteristic survival times and risk factors. We first estimated the proportions of leukocyte subtypes in samples using deconvolution algorithms with reference DMR libraries from isolated leukocyte populations and Illumina 450K DNA methylation data. Then, we calculated the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) using methylation-derived cell composition estimates (mdNLR). The NLR is considered an indicator of immunosuppressive cells in cancer patients. RESULTS: Elevated mdNLR scores were observed in glioma patients compared to mdNLR values of published controls. Significantly decreased survival times were associated with mdNLR ≥ 4.0 in Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for age, gender, tumor grade, and molecular subtype (HR 2.02, 95% CI, 1.11-3.69). We also identified five myeloid-related CpGs that were highly correlated with the mdNLR (adjusted R2 ≥ 0.80). Each of the five myeloid CpG loci was associated with survival when adjusted for the above covariates and offer a simplified approach for utilizing fresh or archived peripheral blood samples for interrogating a very small number of methylation markers to estimate myeloid immune influences in glioma survival. CONCLUSIONS: The mdNLR (based on DNA methylation) is a novel candidate methylation biomarker that represents immunosuppressive myeloid cells within the blood of glioma patients with potential application in clinical trials and future epidemiologic studies of glioma risk and survival.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Neoplasias Encefálicas/imunologia , Metilação de DNA , Glioma/genética , Glioma/imunologia , Adulto , Algoritmos , Neoplasias Encefálicas/sangue , Ilhas de CpG , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Glioma/sangue , Humanos , Contagem de Leucócitos , Contagem de Linfócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Análise de Sobrevida
19.
Int J Epidemiol ; 45(5): 1644-1655, 2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27591263

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We conducted an epigenome-wide association study (EWAS) of DNA methylation in placenta in relation to maternal tobacco smoking during pregnancy and examined whether smoking-induced changes lead to low birthweight. METHODS: DNA methylation in placenta was measured using the Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip in 179 participants from the INfancia y Medio Ambiente (INMA) birth cohort. Methylation levels across 431 311 CpGs were tested for differential methylation between smokers and non-smokers in pregnancy. We took forward three top-ranking loci for further validation and replication by bisulfite pyrosequencing using data of 248 additional participants of the INMA cohort. We examined the association of methylation at smoking-associated loci with birthweight by applying a mediation analysis and a two-sample Mendelian randomization approach. RESULTS: Fifty CpGs were differentially methylated in placenta between smokers and non-smokers during pregnancy [false discovery rate (FDR) < 0.05]. We validated and replicated differential methylation at three top-ranking loci: cg27402634 located between LINC00086 and LEKR1, a gene previously related to birthweight in genome-wide association studies; cg20340720 (WBP1L); and cg25585967 and cg12294026 (TRIO). Dose-response relationships with maternal urine cotinine concentration during pregnancy were confirmed. Differential methylation at cg27402634 explained up to 36% of the lower birthweight in the offspring of smokers (Sobel P-value < 0.05). A two-sample Mendelian randomization analysis provided evidence that decreases in methylation levels at cg27402634 lead to decreases in birthweight. CONCLUSIONS: We identified novel loci differentially methylated in placenta in relation to maternal smoking during pregnancy. Adverse effects of maternal smoking on birthweight of the offspring may be mediated by alterations in the placental methylome.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer/genética , Ilhas de CpG/genética , Metilação de DNA/genética , Placenta/metabolismo , Fumar Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Cotinina/urina , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Gravidez , Espanha
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