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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33141616

RESUMO

Background - In the Women's Health Initiative hormone therapy (WHI-HT) trials, treatment with oral conjugated equine estrogens and medroxyprogesterone acetate (CEE+MPA) resulted in increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD), while oral conjugated equine estrogens alone (CEE) did not. Methods - 481 metabolites were measured at baseline and at 1-year in 503 and 431 participants in the WHI CEE and CEE+MPA trials, respectively. The effects of randomized HT on the change in metabolite profiles at 1-year was evaluated in linear models adjusting for age, BMI, race, incident CHD, prevalent hypertension and diabetes. Metabolites with discordant effects by HT type were evaluated for association with incident CHD in 944 participants (472 CHD cases) in the WHI Observational Study (WHI-OS), with replication in an independent cohort of 980 men and women at high risk for cardiovascular disease. Results - HT effects on the metabolome were profound; 62% of metabolites significantly changed with randomized CEE and 52% with CEE+MPA (FDR adjusted p value < 0.05) in multivariable models. Concerted increases in abundance were seen within various metabolite classes including triacylglycerols (TAG), phosphatidylethanolamines and phosphatidylcholines (PC); decreases in abundance was observed for acylcarnitines, lysophosphatidylcholines, quaternary amines and cholesteryl/cholesteryl esters. Twelve metabolites had discordant effects by HT type and were associated with incident CHD in the WHI-OS; a metabolite score estimated in a LASSO regression was associated with CHD risk with an odds ratio of 1.47 per SD increase (95% CI: 1.27-1.70, p<10-6). The findings of a subset of four metabolites including C58:11 TAG, C54:9 TAG, C36:1 PC and sucrose replicated in an independent dataset of 980 participants. Conclusions - Randomized treatment with oral HT resulted in large metabolome shifts. Discordant metabolite effects between HT regimens may partially mediate the differences in CHD risk between the two WHI-HT trials.

2.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33144125

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: The ankle-brachial index (ABI) is an indicator of peripheral artery disease (PAD). The aim of this study was to assess the association between PAD, measured with the ABI, and cognitive function in persons with overweight or obesity and metabolic syndrome. METHODS: Cross-sectional study conducted with baseline data from the PREDIMED-Plus study, which included 4898 participants (after exclusion of those without ABI measurements) aged between 55 and 75 years, and with overweight or obesity and metabolic syndrome. At the baseline assessment, we measured the ABI with a standardized protocol and assessed the presence of other cardiovascular risk factors (eg, diabetes, dyslipidemia, hypertension). Cognitive function was evaluated using several tests validated for the Spanish population (mini-mental state examination [MMSE], phonological and semantic verbal fluency test, WAIS-III working memory index [WMI], parts A and B of the trail making test (TMT), and clock drawing test). Generalized linear models were used to assess the association between the ABI and cognitive function. RESULTS: Among the participants, 3.4% had PAD defined as ABI ≤ 0.9, and 3.3% had arterial calcification defined as ABI ≥ 1.4. PAD was associated with age, systolic blood pressure and obesity indicators, while arterial calcification was also associated with obesity and diabetes. No significant associations were observed between cognitive function and ABI or PAD. CONCLUSIONS: In our sample, the presence of PAD increased with age, blood pressure, and obesity. No significant association was observed between ABI, PAD, or cognitive function.

3.
Age Ageing ; 2020 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33219673

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While urban built environments might promote active ageing, an infrequently studied question is how the neighbourhood walkability modulates physical activity changes during a physical activity intervention programme in older adults. We assessed the influence of objectively assessed neighbourhood walkability on the change in physical activity during the intervention programme used in the ongoing PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea (PREDIMED)-Plus trial. METHOD: The present study involved 228 PREDIMED-Plus senior participants aged between 55 and 75, recruited in Palma de Mallorca (Spain). Overweight/obese older adults with metabolic syndrome were randomised to an intensive weight-loss lifestyle intervention or a control group. A walkability index (residential density, land use mix, intersections density) was calculated using geographic information systems (1 km sausage-network buffer). Physical activity was assessed using accelerometer and a validated questionnaire, at baseline and two follow-up visits (6-months and 1-year later). Generalised additive mixed models were fitted to estimate the association between the neighbourhood walkability index and changes in physical activity during follow-up. RESULTS: Higher neighbourhood walkability (1 z-score increment) was associated with moderate-to-vigorous accelerometer assessed physical activity duration, (ß = 3.44; 95% CI = 0.52; 6.36 min/day). When analyses were stratified by intervention arm, the association was only observed in the intervention group (ß = 6.357; 95% CI = 2.07;10.64 min/day) (P for interaction = 0.055). CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that the walkability of the neighbourhood could support a physical activity intervention, helping to maintain or increase older adults' physical activity.

4.
Atherosclerosis ; 314: 48-57, 2020 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33160246

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The aim of this study was to ascertain the association between the consumption of different categories of edible olive oils (virgin olive oils and olive oil) and olive pomace oil and ankle-brachial pressure index (ABI) in participants in the PREDIMED-Plus study, a trial of lifestyle modification for weight and cardiovascular event reduction in individuals with overweight/obesity harboring the metabolic syndrome. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional analysis of the PREDIMED-Plus trial. Consumption of any category of olive oil and olive pomace oil was assessed through a validated food-frequency questionnaire. Multivariable linear regression models were fitted to assess associations between olive oil consumption and ABI. Additionally, ABI ≤1 was considered as the outcome in logistic models with different categories of olive oil and olive pomace oil as exposure. RESULTS: Among 4330 participants, the highest quintile of total olive oil consumption (sum of all categories of olive oil and olive pomace oil) was associated with higher mean values of ABI (beta coefficient: 0.014, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.002, 0.027) (p for trend = 0.010). Logistic models comparing the consumption of different categories of olive oils, olive pomace oil and ABI ≤1 values revealed an inverse association between virgin olive oils consumption and the likelihood of a low ABI (odds ratio [OR] 0.73, 95% CI [0.56, 0.97]), while consumption of olive pomace oil was positively associated with a low ABI (OR 1.22 95% CI [1.00, 1.48]). CONCLUSIONS: In a Mediterranean population at high cardiovascular risk, total olive oil consumption was associated with a higher mean ABI. These results suggest that olive oil consumption may be beneficial for peripheral artery disease prevention, but longitudinal studies are needed.

5.
Nutrients ; 12(10)2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33023132

RESUMO

One-year dietary quality change according to the preceding maximum weight in a lifestyle intervention program (PREDIMED-Plus trial, 55-75-year-old overweight or obese adults; n = 5695) was assessed. A validated food frequency questionnaire was used to assess dietary intake. A total of 3 groups were made according to the difference between baseline measured weight and lifetime maximum reported weight: (a) participants entering the study at their maximum weight, (b) moderate weight loss maintainers (WLM), and (c) large WLM. Data were analyzed by General Linear Model. All participants improved average lifestyle. Participants entering the study at their maximum weight were the most susceptible to improve significantly their dietary quality, assessed by adherence to Mediterranean diet, DII and both healthful and unhealthful provegetarian patterns. People at maximum weight are the most benefitted in the short term by a weight management program. Long term weight loss efforts may also reduce the effect of a weight management program.

6.
Andrology ; 2020 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32966683

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many environmental and lifestyle factors have been implicated in the decline of sperm quality, with diet being one of the most plausible factors identified in recent years. Moreover, several studies have reported a close association between the alteration of specific sperm DNA methylation signatures and semen quality. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of tree nut consumption on sperm DNA methylation patterns in healthy individuals reporting eating a Western-style diet. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This is a post hoc analysis conducted in a subset of participants (healthy, non-smoking, and young) from the FERTINUTS 14-wk randomized-controlled, parallel trial, recruited between December 2015 and February 2017. The participants included in the current study (n = 72) were randomly selected in a proportion 2:1 from the original FERTINUTS trial between the 98 participants that completed the entire dietary intervention (nut group, n = 48; control group, n = 24). Sperm DNA methylation patterns were examined at baseline and after 14 weeks in 48 individuals consuming 60 g/d of mixed nuts (nut group) and in 24 individuals following the usual Western-style diet avoiding consumption of nuts (control group). RESULTS: Over the course of the trial, no significant changes in global methylation were observed between groups. However, in the nut group, we identified 36 genomic regions that were significantly differentially methylated between the baseline and the end of the trial and 97.2% of the regions displayed hypermethylation. We identified no such change in the control group over the same period of time. We also utilized the recently developed germ line age calculator to determine if nut consumption resulted in alterations to the epigenetic age of cells and no significant differences were found. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Adding nuts to a regular Western-style diet subtly impacts sperm DNA methylation in specific regions, demonstrating that there are some sperm epigenome regions that could respond to diet.

7.
Mol Nutr Food Res ; 64(20): e2000350, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32918853

RESUMO

SCOPE: To assess whether following a Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) improves atherothrombosis biomarkers in high cardiovascular risk individuals. METHODS AND RESULTS: In 358 random volunteers from the PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea trial, the 1-year effects on atherothrombosis markers of an intervention with MedDiet, enriched with virgin olive oil (MedDiet-VOO; n = 120) or nuts (MedDiet-Nuts; n = 119) versus a low-fat control diet (n = 119), and whether large increments in MedDiet adherence (≥3 score points, versus compliance decreases) and intake changes in key food items are associated with 1-year differences in biomarkers. Differences are observed between 1-year changes in the MedDiet-VOO intervention and control diet on the activity of platelet activating factor acetylhydrolase in high-density lipoproteins (HDLs) (+7.5% [95% confidence interval: 0.17; 14.8]) and HDL-bound α1 -antitrypsin levels (-6.1% [-11.8; -0.29]), and between the MedDiet-Nuts intervention and the control arm on non-esterified fatty acid concentrations (-9.3% [-18.1; -0.53]). Large MedDiet adherence increments are associated with less fibrinogen (-9.5% [-18.3; -0.60]) and non-esterified fatty acid concentrations (-16.7% [-31.7; -1.74]). Increases in nut, fruit, vegetable, and fatty fish consumption, and decreases in processed meat intake are linked to enhancements in biomarkers. CONCLUSION: MedDiet improves atherothrombosis biomarkers in high cardiovascular risk individuals.

8.
Nutr Hosp ; 37(5): 1072-1086, 2020 Oct 21.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32960634

RESUMO

Introduction: Water is an essential nutrient for life and the most abundant component in the human body. However, its dietary recommendations or clinical management guidelines do not receive as much attention as they deserve. In addition, there are some obstacles to establishing optimal values, both for the amount of water the body must contain and for water ingestion. Water intake and elimination depend on unsteady factors that are difficult to measure and, at the same time, compensated by the body's ability to regulate homeostasis. Since scientific evidence is lacking for establishing recommendations, "adequate intakes" (to maintain an adequate hydration state) have been estimated using data on water intake from groups of healthy people. The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) also considers desirable the use of urine osmolarity to estimate the adequacy of water intake in adults. Clinical studies have generally shown the benefits of adequate hydration and the damage caused by water imbalance, whether quantitative (dehydration and overhydration) or qualitative (extracellular and intracellular water). Unfortunately, these studies are few and often have poor cross-sectional, case-control, or prospective designs, and use small samples or indirect methods to assess hydration status. This article presents up-to-date information on subjects such as: 1) compliance with water consumption recommendations and suggestions for improvement; 2) techniques available to measure hydration status and their clinical applications; 3) effects of hydration/dehydration on physical or cognitive activities and chronic diseases; and 4) existing Spanish regulations on the quality and salubrity of water.

9.
Molecules ; 25(18)2020 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32971870

RESUMO

Metabolic syndrome (MetS) components are strongly associated with increased risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) development. Several studies have supported that resveratrol is associated with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects on health status. The main objective of this study was to assess the putative associations between some urinary resveratrol phase II metabolites, cardiometabolic, and liver markers in individuals diagnosed with MetS. In this cross-sectional study, 266 participants from PREDIMED Plus study (PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea) were divided into tertiles of total urinary resveratrol phase II metabolites (sum of five resveratrol conjugation metabolites). Urinary resveratrol metabolites were analyzed by ultra- performance liquid chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-q-Q MS), followed by micro-solid phase extraction (µ-SPE) method. Liver function markers were assessed using serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT). Moreover, lipid profile was measured by triglycerides, very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-c), and total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein ratio (total cholesterol/HDL). Linear regression adjusted models showed that participants with higher total urine resveratrol concentrations exhibited improved lipid and liver markers compared to the lowest tertile. For lipid determinations: log triglycerides (ßT3= -0.15, 95% CI; -0.28, -0.02, p-trend = 0.030), VLDL-c, (ßT3= -4.21, 95% CI; -7.97, -0.46, p-trend = 0.039), total cholesterol/HDL ratio Moreover, (ßT3= -0.35, 95% CI; -0.66, -0.03, p-trend = 0.241). For liver enzymes: log AST (ßT3= -0.12, 95% CI; -0.22, -0.02, p-trend = 0.011, and log GGT (ßT3= -0.24, 95% CI; -0.42, -0.06, p-trend = 0.002). However, there is no difference found on glucose variables between groups. To investigate the risk of elevated serum liver markers, flexible regression models indicated that total urine resveratrol metabolites were associated with a lower risk of higher ALT (169.2 to 1314.3 nmol/g creatinine), AST (599.9 to 893.8 nmol/g creatinine), and GGT levels (169.2 to 893.8 nmol/g creatinine). These results suggested that higher urinary concentrations of some resveratrol metabolites might be associated with better lipid profile and hepatic serum enzymes. Moreover, urinary resveratrol excreted showed a reduced odds ratio for higher liver enzymes, which are linked to NAFLD.

10.
J Nutr ; 150(11): 2882-2889, 2020 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32939552

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although the association between glutamate and glutamine in relation to cardiometabolic disorders has been evaluated, the role of these metabolites in the development of atrial fibrillation (AF) and heart failure (HF) remains unknown. OBJECTIVES: We examined associations of glutamate, glutamine, and the glutamine-to-glutamate ratio with AF and HF incidence in a Mediterranean population at high cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. METHODS: The present study used 2 nested case-control studies within the PREDIMED (Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea) study. During ∼10 y of follow-up, there were 509 AF incident cases matched to 618 controls and 326 HF incident cases matched to 426 controls. Plasma concentrations of glutamate and glutamine were semiquantitatively profiled with LC-tandem MS. ORs were estimated with multivariable conditional logistic regression models. RESULTS: In fully adjusted models, per 1-SD increment, glutamate was associated with a 29% (95% CI: 1.08, 1.54) increased risk of HF and glutamine-to-glutamate ratio with a 20% (95% CI: 0.67, 0.94) decreased risk. Glutamine-to-glutamate ratio was also inversely associated with HF risk (OR per 1-SD increment: 0.80; 95% CI: 0.67, 0.94) when comparing extreme quartiles. Higher glutamate concentrations were associated with a worse cardiometabolic risk profile, whereas a higher glutamine-to-glutamate ratio was associated with a better cardiometabolic risk profile. No associations between the concentrations of these metabolites and AF were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that high plasma glutamate concentrations possibly resulting from alterations in the glutamate-glutamine cycle may contribute to the development of HF in Mediterranean individuals at high CVD risk.This trial was registered at www.isrctn.com as ISRCTN35739639.

11.
Eur J Nutr ; 2020 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32833162

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We examined the association between dietary folate intake and a score of MetS (metabolic syndrome) and its components among older adults at higher cardiometabolic risk participating in the PREDIMED-Plus trial. METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis with 6633 with overweight/obesity participants with MetS was conducted. Folate intake (per 100 mcg/day and in quintiles) was estimated using a validated food frequency questionnaire. We calculated a MetS score using the standardized values as shown in the formula: [(body mass index + waist-to-height ratio)/2] + [(systolic blood pressure + diastolic blood pressure)/2] + plasma fasting glucose-HDL cholesterol + plasma triglycerides. The MetS score as continuous variable and its seven components were the outcome variables. Multiple robust linear regression using MM-type estimator was performed to evaluate the association adjusting for potential confounders. RESULTS: We observed that an increase in energy-adjusted folate intake was associated with a reduction of MetS score (ß for 100 mcg/day = - 0.12; 95% CI: - 0.19 to - 0.05), and plasma fasting glucose (ß = - 0.03; 95% CI: - 0.05 to - 0.02) independently of the adherence to Mediterranean diet and other potential confounders. We also found a positive association with HDL-cholesterol (ß = 0.07; 95% CI: 0.04-0.10). These associations were also observed when quintiles of energy-adjusted folate intake were used instead. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that a higher folate intake may be associated with a lower MetS score in older adults, a lower plasma fasting glucose, and a greater HDL cholesterol in high-risk cardio-metabolic subjects.

12.
Nutr. hosp ; 37(4): 814-822, jul.-ago. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS-Express | IBECS | ID: ibc-FGT-5406

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: to date, gluten-free (GF) diet is the only treatment available for individuals with celiac disease. Both individual and collective food intake assessments are a challenge because a food composition database of GF products (GFPs) is lacking. OBJECTIVES: to describe the process of developing a food composition database of GFPs, and to compare the nutritional profile and price of some GFPs and non-GFPs. METHODS: initially, a total of 216 brands of GFPs marketed in Spain were recorded. Nutritional information was collected from nutritional labels and product fact sheets that had been provided by food companies or collected first-hand by researchers. Then, the nutritional profile and price of the cereal and cereal byproducts foodstuff groups, including 19 types of products, were compared. Statistical analyses were performed using the SPSS statistical program (22.0 edition; SPSS, Chicago, IL, USA). RESULTS: a total of 2,247 GFPs from 126 different foodstuff brands were included in the food composition database of GFPs (CELIAC-BASE). We classified these products into 14 foodstuff groups. The protein content of the GFPs studied was significantly lower, and the price was higher, than that of their non-GFP counterparts. Some, but not all, GFPs had a higher content of fat and sugar, and a lower content of dietary fiber as compared to their non-GFP counterparts. Some GFPs were up to 6 times more expensive than the corresponding non-GFPs. CONCLUSIONS: CELIAC-BASE is a pioneering tool for dietitians. Many GFPs have poor nutritional profiles and should be consumed only occasionally in a balanced GF diet


INTRODUCCIÓN: hasta la fecha, una dieta sin gluten (SG) es el único tratamiento para las personas con enfermedad celíaca. Tanto las evaluaciones de ingesta de alimentos individuales como las colectivas son un desafío debido a la falta de una base de datos de composición de productos SG (PSG). OBJETIVOS: describir el proceso de desarrollo de una base de datos de composición de PSG y comparar el perfil nutricional y el precio de algunos PSG y productos con gluten. MÉTODOS: inicialmente, se registraron un total de 216 marcas de PSG comercializadas en España. La información nutricional se recopiló de las etiquetas nutricionales y hojas informativas de los productos, que habían sido proporcionadas por las compañías de alimentos o recopiladas de primera mano por los investigadores. Luego, se compararon el perfil nutricional y el precio de los grupos de cereales y subproductos alimenticios, incluidos 19 tipos de productos. Los análisis estadísticos se realizaron utilizando el programa estadístico SPSS (edición 22.0; SPSS, Chicago, IL, EUA). RESULTADOS: se incluyeron un total de 2247 PSG de 126 marcas de alimentos diferentes en la base de datos de composición de PSG (CELIAC-BASE). Clasificamos estos productos en 14 grupos de alimentos. El contenido de proteínas de los PSG estudiados fue significativamente menor, y el precio de los mismos fue más alto, que el de sus homólogos con gluten. Algunos PSG, pero no todos, presentaron un mayor contenido de grasa y azúcar, y un menor contenido de fibra dietética, que sus homólogos con gluten. Algunos PSG eran hasta 6 veces más caros que sus homólogos con gluten. CONCLUSIONES: CELIAC-BASE es una herramienta pionera para dietistas-nutricionistas. Muchos PSG tienen perfiles nutricionales no saludables y deben consumirse solo ocasionalmente en una dieta equilibrada libre de gluten

13.
Nutrients ; 12(9)2020 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32846882

RESUMO

Dietary fibre is a generic term describing non-absorbed plant carbohydrates and small amounts of associated non-carbohydrate components. The main contributors of fibre to the diet are the cell walls of plant tissues, which are supramolecular polymer networks containing variable proportions of cellulose, hemicelluloses, pectic substances, and non-carbohydrate components, such as lignin. Other contributors of fibre are the intracellular storage oligosaccharides, such as fructans. A distinction needs to be made between intrinsic sources of dietary fibre and purified forms of fibre, given that the three-dimensional matrix of the plant cell wall confers benefits beyond fibre isolates. Movement through the digestive tract modifies the cell wall structure and may affect the interactions with the colonic microbes (e.g., small intestinally non-absorbed carbohydrates are broken down by bacteria to short-chain fatty acids, absorbed by colonocytes). These aspects, combined with the fibre associated components (e.g., micronutrients, polyphenols, phytosterols, and phytoestrogens), may contribute to the health outcomes seen with the consumption of dietary fibre. Therefore, where possible, processing should minimise the degradation of the plant cell wall structures to preserve some of its benefits. Food labelling should include dietary fibre values and distinguish between intrinsic and added fibre. Labelling may also help achieve the recommended intake of 14 g/1000 kcal/day.

14.
Obes Rev ; 2020 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32705766

RESUMO

The present updated systematic review and meta-analysis aims to summarize the evidence from published studies with low risk for any important bias (based on methodological quality assessment) investigating the potential associations of adiposity with sperm quality and reproductive hormones. We conducted a systematic search of the literature published in MEDLINE-PubMed and EMBASE through June 2019. Based on the criteria in our review, 169 eligible publications were used for data abstraction. Finally, 60 articles were included in the qualitative analysis and 28 in the quantitative analysis. Our systematic review results indicated that overweight and/or obesity were associated with low semen quality parameters (i.e., semen volume, sperm count and concentration, sperm vitality and normal morphology) and some specific reproductive hormones (e.g., inhibin B, total testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin). Overweight and/or obesity were also positively associated with high estradiol concentrations. Meta-analysis indicated that overweight and/or obesity categories were associated with lower sperm quality (i.e., semen volume, sperm count and concentration, sperm vitality, total motility and normal morphology), and underweight category was likewise associated with low sperm normal morphology. In conclusion, our results suggest that maintaining a healthy body weight is important for increasing sperm quality parameters and potentially male fertility.

15.
Nutrients ; 12(7)2020 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32635152

RESUMO

This cross-sectional study aims to evaluate the association between the PREDIMED-Plus study lifestyle intervention and (i) adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) and (ii) physical activity of cohabiting study participants, and to define the related social characteristics of the household members. Participants were a subsample of 541 cohabitants of the PREDIMED-Plus study. Adherence to the MedDiet, physical activity, anthropometric measurements, family function, and social support were assessed. Multiple linear regressions were applied to the data. Partners of the PREDIMED-Plus participants had higher adherence to the MedDiet compared to their sons/daughters (9.0 vs. 6.9 points). In comparison to partners with low adherence to the MedDiet, partners with high adherence were older, practiced more physical activity, ate more frequently with the PREDIMED-Plus participants, and had better family function (adaptability item). Compared to physically active partners, very active ones were older, more likely to be women, and had lower BMI and higher adherence to the MedDiet. In addition, they ate more frequently with the PREDIMED-Plus participants and had better family function. Using multiple lineal regressions, an increase in the adherence to the MedDiet of the PREDIMED-Plus participant, and better family function, were positively associated with their partner's adherence to the MedDiet. The PREDIMED-Plus intervention showed a positive association with adherence to the MedDiet of the study participants' partners. In addition, this association was influenced by the social characteristics of the household members.

16.
Nutrients ; 12(7)2020 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32708828

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Body weight dissatisfaction is a hindrance to following a healthy lifestyle and it has been associated with weight concerns. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the association between the adherence to the Mediterranean lifestyle (diet and exercise) and the desired body weight loss in an adult Mediterranean population with overweight. METHODS: Cross-sectional analysis in 6355 participants (3268 men; 3087 women) with metabolic syndrome and BMI (Body mass index) between 27.0 and 40.0 kg/m2 (55-75 years old) from the PREDIMED-Plus trial. Desired weight loss was the percentage of weight that participants wished to lose. It was categorized into four cut-offs of this percentage (Q1: <10%, n = 1495; Q2: 10-15%, n = 1804; Q3: <15-20%, n = 1470; Q4: ≥20%, n = 1589). Diet was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire and a 17-item Mediterranean diet questionnaire. Physical activity was assessed by the validated Minnesota-REGICOR and the validated Spanish version of the Nurses' Health Study questionnaire. RESULTS: Participants reporting higher percentages of desired weight loss (Q3 and Q4) were younger, had higher real and perceived BMI and were more likely to have abdominal obesity. Desired weight loss correlated inversely to physical activity (Q1: 2106 MET min/week; Q4: 1585 MET min/week. p < 0.001) and adherence to Mediterranean diet (Q1: 8.7; Q4: 8.3. p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In older Mediterranean individuals with weight excess, desired weight loss was inversely associated with Mediterranean lifestyle adherence. Deeply rooted aspects of the MedDiet remained similar across groups. Longitudinal research is advised to be able to establish causality.

17.
Nutr Hosp ; 37(4): 814-822, 2020 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32686439

RESUMO

Introduction: Background: to date, gluten-free (GF) diet is the only treatment available for individuals with celiac disease. Both individual and collective food intake assessments are a challenge because a food composition database of GF products (GFPs) is lacking. Objectives: to describe the process of developing a food composition database of GFPs, and to compare the nutritional profile and price of some GFPs and non-GFPs. Methods: initially, a total of 216 brands of GFPs marketed in Spain were recorded. Nutritional information was collected from nutritional labels and product fact sheets that had been provided by food companies or collected first-hand by researchers. Then, the nutritional profile and price of the cereal and cereal byproducts foodstuff groups, including 19 types of products, were compared. Statistical analyses were performed using the SPSS statistical program (22.0 edition; SPSS, Chicago, IL, USA). Results: a total of 2,247 GFPs from 126 different foodstuff brands were included in the food composition database of GFPs (CELIAC-BASE). We classified these products into 14 foodstuff groups. The protein content of the GFPs studied was significantly lower, and the price was higher, than that of their non-GFP counterparts. Some, but not all, GFPs had a higher content of fat and sugar, and a lower content of dietary fiber as compared to their non-GFP counterparts. Some GFPs were up to 6 times more expensive than the corresponding non-GFPs. Conclusions: CELIAC-BASE is a pioneering tool for dietitians. Many GFPs have poor nutritional profiles and should be consumed only occasionally in a balanced GF diet.

18.
Adv Nutr ; 11(6): 1544-1554, 2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730558

RESUMO

Accelerated telomere shortening has been associated with several age-related diseases and/or decreased lifespan in humans. The Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) is considered to be 1 of the most recognized diets for disease prevention and healthy aging, partially due to its demonstrated anti-inflammatory and antioxidative properties which may impact on telomere length (TL). The aim of this meta-analysis was to determine the associations between MedDiet adherence and TL maintenance. MEDLINE-PubMed and Cochrane databases were searched up to December 2018 for studies evaluating the association between MedDiet adherence and TL in blood cells. Two reviewers, working independently, screened all titles and abstracts to identify studies that met the inclusion criteria [cross-sectional, case-control, and prospective cohort studies and randomized clinical trials (RCTs) published in English and excluded nonoriginal articles]. Data were pooled by the generic inverse variance method using the random effects model and expressed as standardized mean difference (SMD). Heterogeneity was identified using the Cochran Q test and quantified by the I2 statistic. A total of 8 original cross-sectional studies were included for the quantitative meta-analysis, comprising a total of 13,733 participants from 5 countries. A positive association between adherence to the MedDiet and TL was observed in all meta-analyses, with the exception of those conducted only in men: SMD (95% CI) of 0.130 (0.029; 0.231) for all subjects, 0.078 (0.005; 0.152) for women, and 0.095 (-0.005; 0.195) for men. Only 1 prospective cohort study and 1 RCT were identified, therefore, we could not undertake a meta-analysis for these study designs. The present meta-analysis of cross-sectional studies demonstrates that higher MedDiet adherence is associated with longer TL. At the same time, larger and high-quality prospective studies and clinical trials are warranted to confirm this association.

19.
Eur J Prev Cardiol ; : 2047487320925625, 2020 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32484052

RESUMO

AIMS: Physical activity has consistently been shown to improve cardiovascular health and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels. However, only small and heterogeneous studies have investigated the effect of exercise on high-density lipoprotein functions. Our aim is to evaluate, in the largest observational study to date, the association between leisure time physical activity and a range of high-density lipoprotein functional traits. METHODS: The study sample consisted of 296 Spanish adults at high cardiovascular risk. Usual leisure time physical activity and eight measures of high-density lipoprotein functionality were averaged over two measurements, one year apart. Multivariable linear regression models were used to explore the association between leisure time physical activity (exposure) and each high-density lipoprotein functional trait (outcome), adjusted for cardiovascular risk factors. RESULTS: Higher levels of leisure time physical activity were positively and linearly associated with average levels over one year of plasma high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and apolipoprotein A-I, paraoxonase-1 antioxidant activity, high-density lipoprotein capacity to esterify cholesterol and cholesterol efflux capacity in individuals free of type 2 diabetes only. The increased cholesterol esterification index with increasing leisure time physical activity reached a plateau at around 300 metabolic equivalents.min/day. In individuals with diabetes, the relationship with cholesteryl ester transfer protein followed a U-shape, with a decreased cholesteryl ester transfer protein activity from 0 to 300 metabolic equivalents.min/day, but increasing from there onwards. Increasing levels of leisure time physical activity were associated with poorer high-density lipoprotein vasodilatory capacity. CONCLUSIONS: In a high cardiovascular risk population, leisure time physical activity was associated not only with greater circulating levels of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, but also with better markers of high-density lipoprotein functionality, namely cholesterol efflux capacity, the capacity of high-density lipoprotein to esterify cholesterol and paraoxonase-1 antioxidant activity in individuals free of diabetes and lower cholesteryl ester transfer protein activity in individuals with type 2 diabetes.

20.
Clin Nutr ; 2020 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32591250

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Epidemiological data on iron status and cardiovascular disease (CVD) are still controversial. The aim of this study was to determine whether low serum iron (SI) levels are associated with an increased odds of first CVD event in a population at high cardiovascular risk. METHODS: Case-control study design nested within the "PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea" (PREDIMED) trial. A total of 207 participants diagnosed with CVD (myocardial infarction, stroke or cardiovascular death) during follow-up period (2003-2010) were matched by sex, age and intervention group to 436 controls by incidence density sampling. Median time between serum sample collection and subsequent CVD event occurrence was 0.94 years. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analysis was used to determine SI levels. In-person interviews, medical record reviews, and validated questionnaires were used to assess covariates. Multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) of CVD were calculated with conditional logistic regression. RESULTS: Mean SI levels were higher in men than in women (1224.0 µg/L vs. 1093.8 µg/L; p < 0.001). Among women, but not in men, the mean SI concentration was lower in cases than in controls (1008.5 µg/L vs. 1132.9 µg/L; p = 0.030). There was a gradual decrease in the multivariable-adjusted ORs of CVD with increasing SI levels (highest vs. lowest quartile: OR = 0.55, 95% CI: 0.32-0.93; ptrend = 0.020). This inverse relationship was more pronounced among women (highest vs. lowest quartile: OR = 0.15, 95% CI: 0.03-0.69; ptrend = 0.011). CONCLUSIONS: The present findings are consistent with previously reported inverse associations between SI and CVD. SI levels as an independent marker of short-term cardiovascular risk may be useful for risk assessment in older populations. TRIAL REGISTRATION: www.controlled-trials.com; International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Number (ISRCTN): 35,739,639. Registered 5 October 2005. Retrospectively registered.

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