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1.
Transpl Infect Dis ; : e13158, 2019 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31402532

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is growing evidence that community-acquired respiratory virus (CARV) increases the risk of pulmonary invasive fungal disease (IFD) in the allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) setting. To date, there is a lack of knowledge regarding the risk factors (RFs), as well as the most critical period for subsequent onset of IFD after CARV infections in allo-HSCT recipients. METHODS: In this prospective longitudinal observational CARV survey, we analyzed the effect of CARV on subsequent IFD development in 287 adult allo-HSCT recipients diagnosed with 597 CARV episodes from December 2013 to December 2018. Multiplex PCR panel assays were used to test CARVs in respiratory specimens. FINDINGS: Twenty-nine out of 287 allo-HSCT recipients (10%) developed IFD after a CARV episode. The median time of IFD onset was 21 days (range, 0-158 days) from day of the first CARV detection. Generalized estimating equation model identified 4 risk factors for IFD: ATG-based conditioning regimen [odds ratio (OR) 2.34, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.05-5.2, P = .038], CARV lower respiratory tract disease (OR 10.6, 95% CI 3.7-30.8, P < .0001), CARV infection during the first year after transplant (OR 5.34, 95% CI 1.3-21.8, P = .014), and corticosteroids during CARV (OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.1-6.3, P = .03). CONCLUSION: Allo-HSCT recipients conditioned with ATG and under corticosteroid therapy at the time of CARV LRTD during the first year after transplant may require close monitoring for subsequent IFD.

2.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2019 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31323088

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The optimal antibiotic regimen for Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteremia is controversial. Though beta-lactam monotherapy is common, data to guide the choice between antibiotics are scarce. We aimed to compare ceftazidime, carbapenems, and piperacillin-tazobactam as definitive monotherapy. METHODS: A multinational retrospective study (9 countries, 25 centers), including hospitalized patients with P . aeruginosa bacteremia treated with beta-lactam monotherapy during 2009-2015. The primary outcome was 30-day all-cause mortality. Univariate and multivariate analyses, including propensity adjusted analysis, were conducted introducing monotherapy type as an independent variable. RESULTS: We included 767 patients. Thirty-day mortality was 37/213 (17.4%) in the ceftazidime group; 42/210 (20%) in the carbapenem group, and 55/344 (16%) in the piperacillin-tazobactam group. Type of monotherapy was not significantly associated with mortality in either univariate, multivariate or propensity adjusted analyses (odds ratio [OR] 1.14, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.52-2.46 for ceftazidime, OR 1.3, 95% CI 0.67-2.51 for piperacillin-tazobactam with carbapenems as reference in propensity adjusted multivariate analysis, 542 patients). No significant difference between antibiotics was demonstrated for clinical failure, microbiological failure, or adverse events. Isolation of P. aeruginosa with new resistance to antipseudomonal drugs was significantly more frequently with carbapenems (36/206, 17.5% versus ceftazidime 25/201, 12.4% and piperacillin-tazobactam 28/332, 8.4%, p=0.007). CONCLUSIONS: No significant difference in mortality, clinical, and microbiological outcomes or adverse events was demonstrated between ceftazidime, carbapenems and piperacillin-tazobactam as definitive treatment of P. aeruginosa bacteremia. Higher rates of resistant P. aeruginosa after patients were treated with carbapenems, along with the general preference for carbapenem-sparing regimens, suggests using ceftazidime or piperacillin-tazobactam for treating susceptible infection.

3.
Ann Hematol ; 98(9): 2081-2088, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31240471

RESUMO

Few reports analyze the incidence and clinical outcome of invasive fungal disease (IFD) in patients with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia (AML) undergoing intensive chemotherapy, and thus the impact of different antifungal prophylactic regimens remains unclear. We analyze the incidence and clinical outcome of IFD in a large series of adult AML patients undergoing front-line intensive induction and consolidation chemotherapy between 2004 and 2015 in a single institution. Three antifungal prophylaxis regimens were given (2004-2005 oral fluconazole, 2006-2012 intravenous itraconazole, and 2013-2015 voriconazole). Overall, 285 patients and 589 intensive chemotherapy episodes were assessed (47%) (induction courses 47% and consolidation 53%). The median age was 51 years (range, 17-65). We observed 56 (10%) episodes of IFD. According to the EORTC 2008 criteria, IFD was classified as possible (29, 52%), probable (17, 30%), and proven (10, 18%). Possible/probable/proven IFD rate was significantly lower during HiDAC consolidation as compared to any anthracycline-containing chemotherapy courses (2% vs. 11%, P = 0.001), and under voriconazole prophylaxis as compared to itraconazole and fluconazole (6% vs. 11% vs. 15%, P = 0.007), and the multivariate analysis showed that they were independent risk factors. Patients under voriconazole prophylaxis had shorter hospitalization duration and less frequent use of empirical or directed antifungal therapy. In conclusion, IFD was a frequent complication during upfront intensive chemotherapy courses for adult AML patients. This retrospective study shows that voriconazole prophylaxis was feasible and associated with a lower risk of IFD compared with intravenous itraconazole or oral fluconazole schedules.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/administração & dosagem , Quimioterapia de Consolidação , Infecções Fúngicas Invasivas , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Infecções Fúngicas Invasivas/epidemiologia , Infecções Fúngicas Invasivas/prevenção & controle , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
4.
Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis ; 38(6): 1105-1111, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30989419

RESUMO

The cost of treating Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in Spain is substantial. Findings from the randomised, controlled, open-label, phase 3b/4 EXTEND study showed that an extended-pulsed fidaxomicin (EPFX) regimen was associated with improved sustained clinical cure and reduced recurrence of CDI versus vancomycin in patients aged 60 years and older. We assessed the cost-effectiveness of EPFX versus vancomycin for the treatment of CDI in patients aged 60 years and older from the perspective of the National Health System (NHS) in Spain. We used a Markov model with six health states and 1-year time horizon. Health resources, their unit costs and utilities were based on published sources. Key efficacy data and transition probabilities were obtained from the EXTEND study and published sources. A panel of Spanish clinical experts validated all model assumptions. In the analysis, 0.638 and 0.594 quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) per patient were obtained with EPFX and vancomycin, respectively, with a gain of 0.044 QALYs with EPFX. The cost per patient treated with EPFX and vancomycin was estimated to be €10,046 and €10,693, respectively, with a saving of €647 per patient treated with EPFX. For willingness-to-pay thresholds of €20,000, €25,000 and €30,000 per QALY gained, the probability that EPFX was the most cost-effective treatment was 99.3%, 99.5% and 99.9%, respectively. According to our economic model and the assumptions based on the Spanish NHS, EPFX is cost-effective compared with vancomycin for the first-line treatment of CDI in patients aged 60 years and older.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Infecções por Clostridium/tratamento farmacológico , Análise Custo-Benefício , Fidaxomicina/administração & dosagem , Vancomicina/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antibacterianos/economia , Infecções por Clostridium/economia , Clostridium difficile , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Econômicos , Programas Nacionais de Saúde , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Espanha , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Anaerobe ; 57: 93-98, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30959165

RESUMO

Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is characterized by a high delayed and unrelated mortality. Predicting delayed mortality in CDI patients could allow the implementation of interventions that could reduce these events. A prospective multicentric study was carried out to investigate prognostic factors associated with mortality. It was based on a cohort (July 2015 to February 2016) of 295 patients presenting with CDI. Logistic regression was used and the model was calibrated using the Hosmer-Lemeshow test. The mortality rate at 75 days in our series was 18%. Age (>65 years), comorbidity (defined by heart failure, diabetes mellitus with any organ lesion, renal failure, active neoplasia or immunosuppression) and fecal incontinence at clinical presentation were associated with delayed (75-day) mortality. When present, each of the aforementioned variables added one point to the score. Mortalities with 0, 1, 2 and 3 points were 0%, 9.4%, 18.5% and 38.2%, respectively. The area under the ROC curve was 0.743, and the Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit test p value was 0.875. Therefore, the prediction of high delayed mortality in CDI patients by our scoring system could promote measures for increasing survival in suitable cases.

6.
J Infect Chemother ; 25(8): 605-609, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31023570

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bacterial infections in immunocompromised patients are associated with a high mortality and morbidity rate. In this high-risk group, the presence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria, particularly bacteria that harbor a transferable antibiotic resistance gene, complicates the management of bacterial infections. In this study, we investigated the presence of the transferable colistin resistance mcr genes in patients with leukemia in Spain. METHODS: 217 fecal samples collected in 2013-2015 from 56 patients with acute leukemia and colonized with MDR Enterobacteriaceae strains, were screened on September 2017 for the presence of the colistin resistance mcr genes (mcr-1 to -5) by multiplex PCR. mcr positive strains selected on LBJMR and MacConkey supplemented with colistin (2 µg/ml) media were phenotypically and molecularly characterized by antimicrobial susceptibility testing, minimum inhibitory concentration, multilocus sequence typing and plasmid characterization. RESULTS: Among 217 fecal samples, 5 samples collected from 3 patients were positive for the presence of the mcr-1 colistin-resistance gene. Four Escherichia coli strains were isolated and exhibited resistance to colistin with MIC = 4 µg/ml. Other genes conferring the resistance to ß-lactam antibiotics have also been identified in mcr-1 positive strains, including blaTEM-206 and blaTEM-98. Three different sequence types were identified, including ST1196, ST140 and ST10. Plasmid characterization allowed us to detect the mcr-1 colistin resistance gene on conjugative IncP plasmid type. CONCLUSION: To the best of our knowledge, we have identified the mcr-1 gene for the first time in leukemia patients in Spain. In light of these results, strict measures have been implemented to prevent its dissemination.

7.
J Infect ; 78(5): 393-401, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30797790

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To date no definitive cut-off value for cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA load in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid specimens has been established to discriminate between CMV pneumonia and pulmonary CMV DNA shedding in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (allo-HSCT) recipients. METHODS: The current retrospective study is aimed at assessing the range of CMV DNA loads quantified in BAL fluid specimens from allo-HSCT patients with pneumonia in which different microorganisms were causally involved. RESULTS: A total of 144 BAL specimens from 123 patients were included. CMV DNA was detected in 56 out of 144 BAL fluid specimens and the median CMV DNA load from patients in whom CMV pneumonia was unlikely or could be tentatively ruled out was 1210 (31-68, 920) IU/ml. The frequency of CMV DNA detection and median CMV DNA loads were comparable, irrespective of the attributable cause of pneumonia. Detection of CMV DNA loads in BAL fluid specimens >500 IU/ml was independently associated with pneumonia-attributable mortality. CONCLUSIONS: The current study highlights the difficulty in establishing universal CMV DNA load thresholds in BAL fluid specimens for distinguishing between CMV pneumonia and pulmonary CMV DNA shedding, and suggests that the presence of CMV DNA in BAL fluid specimens beyond a certain level may have a deleterious impact on patient outcome.

8.
Mycoses ; 62(5): 418-427, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30633829

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recently, we reported a simple prognostic score for post-engraftment invasive fungal disease (IFD) obtained in 404 adult allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (alloSCT) (training cohort). OBJECTIVES: We aim to validate this score in an external cohort assessing the 1-year cumulative incidence (CI) of post-engraftment IFD. Additionally, we analyse the type of IFD and incidence of IFD according to type of prophylaxis. PATIENTS/METHODS: We included 465 consecutive adult recipients surviving >40 days who engrafted and were discharged without prior IFD (median age 45 years, range, 14-69). RESULTS: Patients classified as low-risk, 139; intermediate-risk, 162; and high-risk, 164 (35% vs 27% in the training cohort, P = 0.03). The CI of probable/proven IFD in the validation cohort was 8% vs 11% in the training cohort (P = 0.006). The only voriconazole prophylaxis used in the training cohort was 100 mg/12 h, 65% vs 27% in the validation cohort, but 38% received 200 mg/12 h. Thus, the validation cohort showed a lower CI of IFD (P = 0.009). The post-engraftment IFD score was validated, showing a CI of IFD for low-, intermediate- and high-risk of 3%, 6% and 14%, respectively (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, this is the first prognostic index to predict the occurrence of post-engraftment IFD after alloSCT that has been validated in an external cohort.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Infecções Fúngicas Invasivas/epidemiologia , Transplante Homólogo/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
9.
Eur J Haematol ; 2018 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30506598

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Characteristics and risk factors (RFs) of invasive fungal disease (IFD) have been little studied in the setting of umbilical cord blood transplantation (UCBT). METHOD: We retrospectively included 205 single-unit myeloablative UCBT recipients with a median follow-up of 64 months. RESULTS: Fifty-six episodes of IFD were observed in 48 patients (23%) at a median time of 123 days after stem cell infusion. Invasive mold disease (IMD) occurred in 42 cases, 38 of them (90%) caused by invasive aspergillosis whereas invasive yeast disease (IYD) occurred in 14 cases, most of them due to candidemia (n= 12, 86%). The 5-year cumulative incidence of IFD, IMDs and IYDs was 24% 19% and 7%, respectively. In multivariate analysis, 3 RFs for IMDs were identified: age > 30 years (HR 3.5, p=0.017), acute grade II-IV graft-versus-host disease (HR 2.3, p=0.011) and ⩾1 previous transplant (HR 3.1, p=0.012). The probability of IMDs was 2.5%, 14% and 33% for recipients with none, 1, or 2 to 3 RFs, respectively (p< 0.001). Among IFD, IMDs had a negative effect on non-relapse mortality in multivariate analysis (HR 1.6, p=0.039). IMDs showed a negative impact on overall survival (HR 1.59, p=0.018). CONCLUSION: IMDs were very common and serious complication after UCBT. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

11.
Adv Ther ; 35(11): 1920-1934, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30328061

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is the major cause of infectious nosocomial diarrhoea and is associated with considerable morbidity, mortality and economic impact. Bezlotoxumab administered in combination with standard of care (SoC) antibiotic therapy prevents recurrent CDI. This study assessed the cost-effectiveness of bezlotoxumab added to SoC, compared to SoC alone, to prevent the recurrence of CDI in high-risk patients from the Spanish National Health System perspective. METHODS: A Markov model was used to simulate the natural history of CDI over a lifetime horizon in five populations of patients at high risk of CDI recurrence according to MODIFY trials: (1) ≥ 65 years old; (2) severe CDI; (3) immunocompromised; (4) ≥ 1 CDI episode in the previous 6 months; and (5) ≥ 65 years old and with ≥ 1 CDI episode in the previous 6 months. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) expressed as cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained was calculated. Deterministic (DSA) and probabilistic sensitivity analyses (PSA) were performed. RESULTS: In all patient populations (from 1 to 5), bezlotoxumab added to SoC reduced CDI recurrence compared to SoC alone by 26.4, 19.5, 21.2, 26.6 and 39.7%, respectively. The resulting ICERs for the respective subgroups were €12,724, €17,495, €9545, €7386, and €4378. The model parameters with highest impact on the ICER were recurrence rate (first), mortality, and utility values. The probability that bezlotoxumab was cost-effective at a willingness-to-pay threshold of €21,000/QALY was 85.5%, 54.1%, 86.0%, 94.5%, 99.6%, respectively. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that bezlotoxumab added to SoC compared to SoC alone is a cost-effective treatment to prevent the recurrence of CDI in high-risk patients. The influence of changes in model parameters on DSA results was higher in patients ≥ 65 years old, with severe CDI and immunocompromised. Additionally, PSA estimated that the probability of cost-effectiveness exceeded 85% in most subgroups. FUNDING: Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp.

12.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2018 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30239624

RESUMO

Background: Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell recipients (allo-HSCT) are at high risk for morbidity and mortality from influenza respiratory virus infection (RVI). Vaccination is the primary method for preventing influenza RVI. Although the influenza vaccine is able to achieve serological response in some allo-HSCT recipients, its clinical benefit is still uncertain. Methods: In this prospective cross-sectional study, we retrospectively analyzed the effect of inactivated trivalent influenza vaccination status on the prevalence of influenza RVI in a consecutive cohort of 136 allo-HSCT adult recipients who developed 161 RVI over 5 flu seasons (from 2013 to 2018). Respiratory virus in upper and/or lower respiratory tract specimens were tested using multiplex PCR panel assays. Results: Overall, we diagnosed 74 episodes (46%) of Influenza RVI in 70 allo-HSCT recipients. Influenza RVI occurred in 51% of the non-vaccinated compared to 36% of the vaccinated recipients (p= 0.036). Multivariate analysis showed that influenza vaccination was associated with lower prevalence of influenza RVI (OR 0.39, p= 0.01). Multivariate risk factor analysis of lower respiratory tract disease (LRTD) identified two conditions associated with the probability of influenza RVI progression; influenza vaccination (OR 0.12, 95% C.I. 0.014-1, p= 0.05) and high-risk immunodeficiency score index (OR 36, 95% C.I. 2.26-575, p= 0.011). Influenza vaccination was also associated with lower likelihood of influenza-related hospital admission (14% vs 2%, p= 0.04). Conclusion: This study shows that influenza vaccination may have a clinical benefit in allo-HSCT recipients with virologicallly confirmed RVI, in terms of lower influenza RVI prevalence, LRTD progression and hospital admission.

13.
Rev. esp. quimioter ; 31(supl.1): 56-61, sept. 2018. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-179452

RESUMO

Diagnosis of CNS infections remains a great challenge in immunocompromised patients with solid cancer or hematological disorders, as it happens with transplant recipients, since symptoms might both be masked and be mimicked by other conditions such as metabolic disturbances or consequences of antineoplastic treatment and the administration of immunosuppressive drugs. Thus, awareness of this complication is crucial and any suspicion of a CNS infection should lead to make an early diagnosis and to choose an appropriate empirical treatment to improve the outcome in this population


El diagnóstico de las infecciones del SNC en pacientes inmunocomprometidos con cáncer sólido o neoplasias hematológicas, junto a los receptores de trasplantes, sigue siendo todo un desafío clínico. Ello es debido a que la semiología podría ser enmascarada y mimetizada por otras condiciones y factores como las alteraciones metabólicas o ser consecuencia del tratamiento antineoplásico o de la administración de fármacos inmunosupresores. Por ello, el conocimiento de esta complicación es crucial y cualquier sospecha de infección del SNC debería conducir a un diagnóstico adecuado en tiempo y forma y a un tratamiento apropiado con el fin de mejorar el pronóstico evolutivo en esta población de enfermos


Assuntos
Humanos , Imunossupressão/efeitos adversos , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido/imunologia , Infecções do Sistema Nervoso Central/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/complicações , Neoplasias/imunologia , Transplante de Órgãos , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Imunologia de Transplantes
14.
Transpl Infect Dis ; 20(4): e12926, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29809298

RESUMO

Risk factors (RFs) and mortality data of community-acquired respiratory virus (CARVs) lower respiratory tract disease (LRTD) with concurrent pulmonary co-infections in the setting of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is scarce. From January 2011 to December 2017, we retrospectively compared the outcome of allo-HSCT recipients diagnosed of CARVs LRTD mono-infection (n = 52, group 1), to those with viral, bacterial, or fungal pulmonary CARVs LRTD co-infections (n = 15, group 2; n = 20, group 3, and n = 11, group 4, respectively), and with those having bacterial pneumonia mono-infection (n = 19, group 5). Overall survival (OS) at day 60 after bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was significantly higher in group 1, 2, and 4 compared to group 3 (77%, 67%, and 73% vs 35%, respectively, P = .012). Recipients of group 5 showed a trend to better OS compared to those of group 3 (62% vs 35%, P = .1). Multivariate analyses showed bacterial co-infection as a RF for mortality (hazard ratio[HR] 2.65, 95% C.I. 1.2-6.9, P = .017). We identified other 3 RFs for mortality: lymphocyte count <0.5 × 109 /L (HR 2.6, 95% 1.1-6.2, P = .026), the occurrence of and CMV DNAemia requiring antiviral therapy (CMV-DNAemia-RAT) at the time of BAL (HR 2.32, 95% C.I. 1.1-4.9, P = .03), and the need of oxygen support (HR 8.3, 95% C.I. 2.9-35.3, P = .004). CARV LRTD co-infections are frequent and may have a negative effect in the outcome, in particular in the context of bacterial co-infections.


Assuntos
Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/microbiologia , Coinfecção/mortalidade , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/mortalidade , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Infecções Respiratórias/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Lavagem Broncoalveolar , Coinfecção/microbiologia , Coinfecção/terapia , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/microbiologia , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/terapia , Feminino , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Pulmão/microbiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções Respiratórias/microbiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Transplante Homólogo/efeitos adversos , Vírus/isolamento & purificação
15.
Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin ; 36(2): 112-119, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29412895

RESUMO

Catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSI) constitute an important cause of hospital-acquired infection associated with morbidity, mortality, and cost. The aim of these guidelines is to provide updated recommendations for the diagnosis and management of CRBSI in adults. Prevention of CRBSI is excluded. Experts in the field were designated by the two participating Societies (Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica and the Sociedad Española de Medicina Intensiva, Crítica y Unidades Coronarias). Short-term peripheral venous catheters, non-tunneled and long-term central venous catheters, tunneled catheters and hemodialysis catheters are covered by these guidelines. The panel identified 39 key topics that were formulated in accordance with the PICO format. The strength of the recommendations and quality of the evidence were graded in accordance with ESCMID guidelines. Recommendations are made for the diagnosis of CRBSI with and without catheter removal and of tunnel infection. The document establishes the clinical situations in which a conservative diagnosis of CRBSI (diagnosis without catheter removal) is feasible. Recommendations are also made regarding empirical therapy, pathogen-specific treatment (coagulase-negative staphylococci, Sthaphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus spp, Gram-negative bacilli, and Candida spp), antibiotic lock therapy, diagnosis and management of suppurative thrombophlebitis and local complications.

16.
Enferm. infecc. microbiol. clín. (Ed. impr.) ; 36(2): 112-119, feb. 2018. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-170700

RESUMO

Catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSI) constitute an important cause of hospital-acquired infection associated with morbidity, mortality, and cost. The aim of these guidelines is to provide updated recommendations for the diagnosis and management of CRBSI in adults. Prevention of CRBSI is excluded. Experts in the field were designated by the two participating Societies (Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica and the Sociedad Española de Medicina Intensiva, Crítica y Unidades Coronarias). Short-term peripheral venous catheters, non-tunneled and long-term central venous catheters, tunneled catheters and hemodialysis catheters are covered by these guidelines. The panel identified 39 key topics that were formulated in accordance with the PICO format. The strength of the recommendations and quality of the evidence were graded in accordance with ESCMID guidelines. Recommendations are made for the diagnosis of CRBSI with and without catheter removal and of tunnel infection. The document establishes the clinical situations in which a conservative diagnosis of CRBSI (diagnosis without catheter removal) is feasible. Recommendations are also made regarding empirical therapy, pathogen-specific treatment (coagulase-negative staphylococci, Sthaphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus spp, Gram-negative bacilli, and Candida spp), antibiotic lock therapy, diagnosis and management of suppurative thrombophlebitis and local complications (AU)


La bacteriemia relacionada con catéteres (BRC) constituye una causa importante de infección hospitalaria y se asocia con elevada morbilidad, mortalidad y costo. El objetivo de esta guía de práctica clínica es proporcionar recomendaciones actualizadas para el diagnóstico y el tratamiento de la BRC en pacientes adultos. De este documento se excluye la prevención de la BRC. Expertos en la materia fueron designados por las 2 sociedades participantes (Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica y Sociedad Española de Medicina Intensiva, Crítica y Unidades Coronarias). Los catéteres venosos periféricos a corto plazo, los catéteres venosos centrales no tunelizados y de largo plazo, los catéteres tunelizados y los catéteres de hemodiálisis están incluidos por estas guías. El panel identificó 39 temas claves que fueron formulados de acuerdo con el formato PICO. La fuerza de las recomendaciones y la calidad de la evidencia se clasificaron de acuerdo con las directrices de la ESCMID. Se hacen recomendaciones para el diagnóstico de BRC con y sin extracción de catéter y de la infección en túnel. El documento establece las situaciones clínicas en las que es factible un diagnóstico conservador de CRBSI (diagnóstico sin retirada de catéter). También se hacen recomendaciones con respecto a la terapia empírica, el tratamiento específico según el patógeno identificado (estafilococos coagulasa negativos, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus spp, bacilos gramnegativos y Candida spp), la terapia con sellado del catéter, el diagnóstico, así como el tratamiento de la tromboflebitis supurativa y las complicaciones locales (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Conferências de Consenso como Assunto , Sociedades Médicas/normas , Bacteriemia/diagnóstico , Bacteriemia/microbiologia , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/microbiologia , Tromboflebite/terapia , Sociedades Médicas/organização & administração , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/diagnóstico , Cateteres/microbiologia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/normas , Unidades de Cuidados Coronarianos/normas , Tromboflebite/complicações , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico
17.
Rev. esp. quimioter ; 31(1): 78-100, feb. 2018. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-171349

RESUMO

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is characterized by a notable intrinsic resistance to antibiotics, mainly mediated by the expression of inducible chromosomic β-lactamases and the production of constitutive or inducible efflux pumps. Apart from this intrinsic resistance, P. aeruginosa possess an extraordinary ability to develop resistance to nearly all available antimicrobials through selection of mutations. The progressive increase in resistance rates in P. aeruginosa has led to the emergence of strains which, based on their degree of resistance to common antibiotics, have been defined as multidrug resistant, extended-resistant and panresistant strains. These strains are increasingly disseminated worldwide, progressively complicating the treatment of P. aeruginosa infections. In this scenario, the objective of the present guidelines was to review and update published evidence for the treatment of patients with acute, invasive and severe infections caused by P. aeruginosa. To this end, mechanisms of intrinsic resistance, factors favoring development of resistance during antibiotic exposure, prevalence of resistance in Spain, classical and recently appeared new antibiotics active against P. aeruginosa, pharmacodynamic principles predicting efficacy, clinical experience with monotherapy and combination therapy, and principles for antibiotic treatment were reviewed to elaborate recommendations by the panel of experts for empirical and directed treatment of P. aeruginosa invasive infections (AU)


Pseudomonas aeruginosa se caracteriza por una notable resistencia intrínseca a los antibióticos mediada fundamentalmente por la expresión de β-lactamasas cromosómicas inducibles y la producción constitutiva o inducible de bombas de expulsión. Además de esta resistencia intrínseca, P. aeruginosa posee una extraordinaria capacidad para desarrollar resistencia a prácticamente todos los antimicrobianos disponibles a través de la selección de mutaciones. El aumento progresivo de la resistencia en P. aeruginosa ha llevado a la aparición de cepas que, de acuerdo con el grado de resistencia frente a los antibióticos habituales, se han definido como multirresistentes, extensamente resistentes y panresistentes. Estas cepas se están diseminando mundialmente, complicando progresivamente el tratamiento de las infecciones por P. aeruginosa. En este escenario, el objetivo de las presentes recomendaciones es la revisión y puesta al día de la evidencia publicada para el tratamiento de pacientes con infección aguda, invasiva y grave por P. aeruginosa. Con este fin, se han revisado los mecanismos de resistencia intrínseca, factores que favorecen el desarrollo de resistencia durante la exposición a antibióticos, prevalencia de la resistencia en España, antibióticos clásicos así como los de reciente introducción activos frente a P. aeruginosa, principios farmacodinámicos predictores de eficacia, experiencia clínica con tratamientos en monoterapia o terapia combinada y principios del tratamiento antibiótico para elaborar por un panel de xpertos recomendaciones para el tratamiento empírico o dirigido de infecciones invasivas por P. aeruginosa (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/patogenicidade , Infecções por Pseudomonas/tratamento farmacológico , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos/métodos , Doença Aguda/terapia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/métodos , Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos
18.
Int J Antimicrob Agents ; 51(3): 393-398, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28939450

RESUMO

Recurrence of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) has major consequences for both patients and the health system. The ability to predict which patients are at increased risk of recurrent CDI makes it possible to select candidates for treatment with new drugs and therapies (including fecal microbiota transplantation) that have proven to reduce the incidence of recurrence of CDI. Our objective was to develop a clinical prediction tool, the GEIH-CDI score, to determine the risk of recurrence of CDI. Predictors of recurrence of CDI were investigated using logistic regression in a prospective cohort of 274 patients diagnosed with CDI. The model was calibrated using the Hosmer-Lemeshow test. The tool comprises four factors: age (70-79 years and ≥80 years), history of CDI during the previous year, direct detection of toxin in stool, and persistence of diarrhea on the fifth day of treatment. The functioning of the GEIH-CDI score was validated in a prospective cohort of 183 patients. The area under the ROC curve was 0.72 (0.65-0.79). Application of the tool makes it possible to select patients at high risk (>50%) of recurrence and patients at low risk (<10%) of recurrence. GEIH-CDI score may be useful for clinicians treating patients with CDI.


Assuntos
Infecções por Clostridium/diagnóstico , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Recidiva , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
19.
PLoS One ; 12(10): e0185339, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29045423

RESUMO

Candidemia acquired outside critical care or hematological areas has received much attention in recent years; however, data on candidemia in surgical departments are very scarce. Our objectives were to describe episodes of candidemia diagnosed in surgical wards and to compare them with episodes occurring in medical wards. We performed a post hoc analysis of a prospective, multicenter study implemented in Spain during 2010-2011 (CANDIPOP project). Of the 752 episodes of candidemia, 369 (49.1%) occurred in patients admitted to surgical wards (165, 21.9%) or medical wards (204, 27.2%). Clinical characteristics associated with surgical patients were solid tumor as underlying disease, recent surgery, indwelling CVC, and parenteral nutrition. Candidemia was more commonly related to a CVC in the surgical than in the medical wards. The CVC was removed more frequently and early management was more appropriate within 48 hours of blood sampling in the surgical patients. Overall, 30-day mortality in the surgical departments was significantly lower than in medical wards (37.7% vs. 15.8%, p<0.001). Multivariate analysis revealed admission to a surgical ward and appropriate early management of candidemia as factors independently associated with a better outcome. We found that approximately 50% of episodes of candidemia occurred in non-hematological patients outside the ICU and that clinical outcome was better in patients admitted to surgical wards than in those hospitalized in medical wards. These findings can be explained by the lower severity of underlying disease, prompt administration of antifungal therapy, and central venous catheter removal.


Assuntos
Candidemia/epidemiologia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Quartos de Pacientes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Demografia , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Fatores de Risco , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/mortalidade , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 97(4): 1127-1133, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29016284

RESUMO

Although visceral leishmaniasis (VL) can affect immunocompromised patients, data from the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection context are limited, and the characteristics of VL in other immunosuppression scenarios are not well defined. A retrospective review of all cases of VL in immunocompromised patients from January 1997 to December 2014 in two Spanish hospitals on the Mediterranean coast was performed. We included 18 transplant recipients (kidney: 7, liver: 4, lung: 3, heart: 2, and blood marrow: 2), 12 patients with other causes of immunosuppression (myasthenia gravis: 3 and rheumatoid arthritis: 2), and 73 VL HIV-positive patients. Fever was more common in transplant patients (94.4%) and patients with other types of immunosuppression (100%) than in HIV-positive individuals (73.3%). Hepatomegaly was less common in transplant recipients (27.8%) and patients with other types of immunosuppression (41.7%) compared with HIV-positive patients (69.9%) (P = 0.01; P = 0.001, respectively). Patients with other types of immunosuppression had a median leukocyte count of 1.5 × 109/L, significantly lower than HIV-positive patients (2.5 × 109/L) (P = 0.04). Serology was more commonly positive in nontransplant immunosuppressed individuals (75%) and transplant recipients (78.6%) than in HIV-patients (13.8%) (P < 0.001). Antimonial therapy was rarely used in transplant recipients (1.9%) and never in patients with other immunosuppressive conditions, whereas 34.2% of HIV-positive patients received it (P = 0.05 and P = 0.01, respectively). Mortality was 16.7% in both transplant recipients and patients with other immunosuppressive conditions and 15.1% in HIV-positive patients. The features of VL may be different in immunosuppressed patients, with more fever and less hepatomegaly and leukopenia than in HIV-infected patients.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/complicações , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Leishmaniose Visceral/complicações , Leishmaniose Visceral/imunologia , Transplantados , Adulto , Idoso , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Antiprotozoários/uso terapêutico , Causas de Morte , Estudos de Coortes , Coinfecção , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Imunossupressores/efeitos adversos , Leishmaniose Visceral/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
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