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2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31821186

RESUMO

Recruitment registries are novel tools to accelerate Alzheimer disease research accrual. Optimal methods to populate such registries remain largely unstudied. We sent postcards with 3 unique taglines (Alzheimer's Prevention Research, brain health research, general research) to 100,000 local residents aged 50 years and older to assess the effectiveness of recruiting to an online recruitment registry by mail. The postcard campaign recruited 273 new registry enrollees (0.27% overall response rate). Neither the response rate nor the demographic characteristics of recruited participants differed by the postcard tagline. These results suggest that direct mail may not be the most cost-effective approach to recruit participants to online registries.

4.
Handb Exp Pharmacol ; 2019 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31541323

RESUMO

Functions for phospholipase D1 and D2 (PLD1 and PLD2), the canonical isoforms of the PLD superfamily in mammals, have been explored using cell biological and animal disease models for two decades. PLD1 and PLD2, which are activated as a consequence of extracellular signaling events and generate the second messenger signaling lipid phosphatidic acid (PA), have been reported to play roles in settings ranging from platelet activation to the response to cardiac ischemia, viral infection, neurodegenerative disease, and cancer. Of these, the most tractable as therapeutic targets may be thrombotic disease and cancer, as will be discussed here in the context of ongoing efforts to develop small molecule PLD inhibitors.

5.
Front Immunol ; 10: 1394, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31281317

RESUMO

In colorectal cancer (CRC), cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are the most abundant component from the tumor microenvironment (TM). CAFs facilitate tumor progression by inducing angiogenesis, immune suppression and invasion, thus altering the organization/composition of the extracellular matrix (i.e., desmoplasia) and/or activating epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Soluble factors from the TM can also contribute to cell invasion through secretion of cytokines and recently, IL-33/ST2 pathway has gained huge interest as a protumor alarmin, promoting progression to metastasis by inducing changes in TM. Hence, we analyzed IL-33 and ST2 content in tumor and healthy tissue lysates and plasma from CRC patients. Tissue localization and distribution of these molecules was evaluated by immunohistochemistry (using localization reference markers α-smooth muscle actin or α-SMA and E-cadherin), and clinical/histopathological information was obtained from CRC patients. In vitro experiments were conducted in primary cultures of CAFs and normal fibroblasts (NFs) isolated from tumor and healthy tissue taken from CRC patients. Additionally, migration and proliferation analysis were performed in HT29 and HCT116 cell lines. It was found that IL-33 content increases in left-sided CRC patients with lymphatic metastasis, with localization in tumor epithelia associated with abundant desmoplasia. Although ST2 content showed similarities between tumor and healthy tissue, a decreased immunoreactivity was observed in left-sided tumor stroma, associated to metastasis related factors (advanced stages, abundant desmoplasia, and presence of tumor budding). A principal component analysis (including stromal and epithelial IL-33/ST2 and α-SMA immunoreactivity with extent of desmoplasia) allowed us to distinguish clusters of low, intermediate and abundant desmoplasia, with potential to develop a diagnostic signature with benefits for further therapeutic targets. IL-33 transcript levels from CAFs directly correlated with CRC cell line migration induced by CAFs conditioned media, with rhIL-33 inducing a mesenchymal phenotype in HT29 cells. These results indicate a role of IL-33/ST2 in tumor microenvironment, specifically in the interaction between CAFs and epithelial tumor cells, thus contributing to invasion and metastasis in left-sided CRC, most likely by activating desmoplasia.

6.
Pediatr Dent ; 41(3): 214-220, 2019 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31171074

RESUMO

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine which pulp treatment technique, performed at the Alaska Native Medical Center, is most successful by comparing failure rates of primary molars treated with ferric sulfate (FS) pulpotomy, sodium hypochlorite (SH) pulpotomy or pulpectomy between January 2005 and January 2016. Methods: All data were abstracted from the dental records of Alaska Native children aged 2-13 years, retrospectively. Clinical and radiographic failures up to five years after treatment were assessed. Cox proportional hazards models using random effects to account for correlated failure time were adjusted for age, sex, molar tooth position, and visit type. A total of 1,149 procedures in 830 children met the inclusion criteria: 490 pulpectomies, 111 SH Pulpotomies and 548 FS Pulpotomies. Results: Teeth treated with FS pulpotomy had 3.7 times higher risk of radiographic failure (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR]=3.73, 95% confidence interval [CI]= 2.25-6.16), and teeth treated with SH pulpotomy had 2.5 times higher risk of failure (aHR=2.57, 95% CI= 1.17-5.64) than those treated with pulpectomy. Conclusions: The findings from this large cohort study suggest that molar teeth treated with pulpectomies survive significantly longer than those treated with either FS or SH pulpotomies. Randomized trials are warranted to confirm findings. (Pediatr Dent 2019; 41(3):214-20) Received June 14, 2018 | Last Revision January 28, 2019 | Accepted March 14, 2019.


Assuntos
Nativos do Alasca , Cárie Dentária , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Dente Molar , Pulpectomia , Pulpotomia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Dente Decíduo , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Psychosom Med ; 81(3): 305-312, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30633066

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We examined associations among socioeconomic adversity, social resources, and allostatic load in Hispanic/Latino youth, who are at high risk for obesity and related cardiometabolic risks. METHODS: Participants were 1343 Hispanic/Latino youth (51% male; ages 8-16 years) offspring of Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos participants. Between 2012 and 2014, youth underwent a fasting blood draw and anthropometric assessment, and youth and their enrolled caregivers provided social and demographic information. A composite indicator of allostatic load represented dysregulation across general metabolism, cardiovascular, glucose metabolism, lipid, and inflammation/hemostatic systems. Socioeconomic adversity was a composite of caregiver education, employment status, economic hardship, family income relative to poverty, family structure, and receipt of food assistance. Social resources were a composite of family functioning, parental closeness, peer support, and parenting style variables. RESULTS: Multivariable regression models that adjusted for sociodemographic factors, design effects (strata and clustering), and sample weights revealed a significant, positive, association between socioeconomic adversity and allostatic load (ß = .10, p = .035), and a significant, inverse association between socioeconomic adversity and social resources (ß = -.10, p = .013). Social resources did not relate to allostatic load and did not moderate or help explain the association of adversity with allostatic load (all p values > .05). CONCLUSIONS: Statistically significant, but small associations of socioeconomic adversity with both allostatic load and social resources were identified. The small effects may partially reflect range restriction given overall high socioeconomic adversity and high social resources in the cohort.

9.
J Pediatr ; 206: 156-163.e3, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30527752

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To test the hypothesis that maternal plasma alpha-tocopherol levels are associated with protection from childhood wheeze and that this protection is modified by gamma-tocopherol. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a prospective nested study in the Infant Susceptibility to Pulmonary Infections and Asthma Following Respiratory Syncytial Virus Exposure birth cohort of 652 children with postpartum maternal plasma vitamin E isoforms used as a surrogate for pregnancy concentrations. Our outcomes were wheezing and recurrent wheezing over a 2-year period, ascertained using validated questionnaires. We assessed the association of alpha- and gamma-tocopherol with wheezing outcomes using multivariable adjusted logistic regression, and tested for interaction between the isoforms with respect to the risk for wheezing outcomes. RESULTS: Children with wheezing (n = 547, n = 167; 31%) and recurrent wheezing (n = 545, n = 55; 10.1%) over a 2-year period were born to mothers with significantly lower postpartum maternal plasma concentrations of alpha-tocopherol, P = .016 and P = .007, respectively. In analyses of IQR increases, alpha-tocopherol was associated with decreased risk of wheezing (aOR 0.70 [95% CI 0.53,0.92]) and recurrent wheezing (aOR 0.63 [95% CI 0.42,0.95]). For gamma-tocopherol, the aOR for wheezing was 0.79 (95% CI 0.56-1.10) and the aOR for recurrent wheezing was 0.56 (95% CI 0.33-0.94, with nonmonotonic association). The association of alpha-tocopherol with wheezing was modified by gamma-tocopherol (P interaction = .05). CONCLUSIONS: Increases in postpartum maternal plasma alpha-tocopherol isoform concentrations were associated with decreased likelihood of wheezing over a 2-year period. Gamma-tocopherol modified this association.


Assuntos
Asma/epidemiologia , Período Pós-Parto/sangue , Sons Respiratórios , alfa-Tocoferol/sangue , gama-Tocoferol/sangue , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
10.
J Rheumatol ; 46(2): 176-183, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30275260

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We sought to identify predictors of mortality and cardiopulmonary hospitalizations in patients at risk for pulmonary hypertension (PH) and enrolled in PHAROS, a prospective cohort study to investigate the natural history of PH in systemic sclerosis (SSc). METHODS: The at-risk population for PH was defined by the following entry criteria: echocardiogram systolic pulmonary arterial pressure > 40 mmHg, or DLCO < 55% predicted or ratio of % forced vital capacity/%DLCO > 1.6, measured by pulmonary function testing. Baseline clinical measures were evaluated as predictors of hospitalization and death between 2005 and 2014. Cox proportional hazards models were censored at date of PH onset or latest study visit and adjusted for age, sex, race, and disease duration. RESULTS: Of the 236 at-risk subjects who were followed for a median of 4 years (range 0.4-8.5 yrs), 35 developed PH after entering PHAROS (reclassified as PH group). In the at-risk group, higher mortality was strongly associated with male sex, low %DLCO, exercise oxygen desaturation, anemia, abnormal dyspnea scores, and baseline pericardial effusion. Risks for cardiopulmonary hospitalization were associated with increased dyspnea and pericardial effusions, although PH patients with DLCO < 50% had the highest risk of cardiopulmonary hospitalizations. CONCLUSION: Risk factors for poor outcome in patients with SSc who are at risk for PH were similar to others with SSc-PH and SSc-pulmonary arterial hypertension, including male sex, DLCO < 50%, exercise oxygen desaturation, and pericardial effusions. This group should undergo right heart catheterization and receive appropriate intervention if PH is confirmed.

11.
Rev. odontol. mex ; 22(4): 206-213, oct.-dic. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1014422

RESUMO

RESUMEN La insuficiencia renal crónica es una enfermedad considerada como una enfermedad catastrófica y se encuentra entre las primeras 50 principales causas de muerte en América Latina. Esta enfermedad presenta varias manifestaciones en la cavidad oral de gran importancia odontológica, ya que pueden repercutir en la salud bucal de los pacientes con insuficiencia renal crónica. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la frecuencia de manifestaciones bucales, dentales y periodontales en pacientes con insuficiencia renal crónica bajo tratamiento con hemodiálisis, atendidos en el centro «NEFROLOGY¼, mediante un estudio transversal realizado en 62 pacientes que cumplieron los criterios de inclusión. Se realizó una observación clínica directa de manifestaciones bucales, examen periodontal e índices epidemiológicos de morbilidad bucal (CPO, higiene oral de Greene-Vermillion y placa dentobacteriana de O'Leary). Los resultados obtenidos fueron mediante la prueba de χ2, p < 0.05. La principal manifestación bucal fue la palidez de mucosa, la periodontitis severa fue el principal diagnóstico hallado periodontalmente y 57 pacientes presentaron pérdidas de piezas dentales junto con alto índice de acumulación de placa dentobacteriana.


ABSTRACT Chronic renal failure is a disease considered as a catastrophic disease; moreover, it is among the fi rst 50 leading causes of death in Latin America. This disease presents several manifestations at the oral cavity with a big dental importance because they can affect the oral health of patients with chronic renal insufficiency. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of oral, dental and periodontal manifestations in patients with chronic renal insuffi ciency treated with hemodialysis, which are attended at the «NEFROLOGY¼ center through a cross-sectional study of 62 patients who approved the inclusion criteria. A direct clinical observation of oral manifestations, periodontal examination, and epidemiological indices of oral morbidity (CPO, oral higiene of Greene-Vermillion and O'Leary's dentobacterial plate) were performed. The results were obtained using the χ2 test, p < 0.05. The main oral manifestation was mucosal pallor, severe periodontitis was the main diagnosis found periodontally and 57 patients presented tooth loss along with a high index of dentobacterial plaque accumulation.

12.
Pediatr Allergy Immunol Pulmonol ; 31(3): 139-145, 2018 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30283712

RESUMO

Background: Under-perception of pulmonary dysfunction may delay appropriate treatment, while over-perception may result in unnecessary treatments. Objectives: To evaluate the ability of patients with asthma or cystic fibrosis and their subspecialty caregivers to assess changes in lung function based on their subjective clinical impressions. Methods: Patients were asked to qualitatively describe how they felt compared to their prior visit (same/better/worse) and to quantitatively estimate their forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) after being reminded of their FEV1 at the prior visit. Providers made similar estimates based on history and physical examination and knowledge of prior FEV1. After adjusting for relevant clinical covariates, lung function estimates were categorized as accurate (±5% of measured FEV1), overestimated (>5% above measured), and underestimated (>5% below measured). Results: One hundred nine patients estimated FEV1 on 179 occasions. Concordance between patient qualitative assessment and FEV1-based categories was low (κ = 0.08); 44% of patients reported feeling better than the FEV1-based category showed. Quantitatively, 56% of patient estimates were accurate, 18% were underestimated, and 26% overestimated; accuracy improved with age (odds ratio = 1.16, P = 0.01). Concordance between provider qualitative assessments and FEV1-based category was moderate (κ = 0.35); about 19% said their patient looked better than the FEV1-based category showed. Quantitatively, 65% of provider estimates were accurate, 16% were underestimated, and 19% were overestimated; accuracy improved with years of experience. Conclusions: Patients' and providers' perceptions of lung function were low to moderately accurate. Relying on subjective impression may place patients at risk for unnecessary treatments or increased morbidity. These findings highlight the importance of objective lung function assessment.

13.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 198(8): 1064-1073, 2018 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29733679

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Recurrent wheeze and asthma are thought to result from alterations in early life immune development following respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection. However, prior studies of the nasal immune response to infection have assessed only individual cytokines, which does not capture the whole spectrum of response to infection. OBJECTIVES: To identify nasal immune phenotypes in response to RSV infection and their association with recurrent wheeze. METHODS: A birth cohort of term healthy infants born June to December were recruited and followed to capture the first infant RSV infection. Nasal wash samples were collected during acute respiratory infection, viruses were identified by RT-PCR, and immune-response analytes were assayed using a multianalyte bead-based panel. Immune-response clusters were identified using machine learning, and association with recurrent wheeze at age 1 and 2 years was assessed using logistic regression. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: We identified two novel and distinct immune-response clusters to RSV and human rhinovirus. In RSV-infected infants, a nasal immune-response cluster characterized by lower non-IFN antiviral immune-response mediators, and higher type-2 and type-17 cytokines was significantly associated with first and second year recurrent wheeze. In comparison, we did not observe this in infants with human rhinovirus acute respiratory infection. Based on network analysis, type-2 and type-17 cytokines were central to the immune response to RSV, whereas growth factors and chemokines were central to the immune response to human rhinovirus. CONCLUSIONS: Distinct immune-response clusters during infant RSV infection and their association with risk of recurrent wheeze provide insights into the risk factors for and mechanisms of asthma development.


Assuntos
Mucosa Nasal/imunologia , Sons Respiratórios/etiologia , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/imunologia , Asma/etiologia , Asma/virologia , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Imunidade , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Mucosa Nasal/virologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Estudos Prospectivos , Recidiva , Sons Respiratórios/imunologia , Vírus Sincicial Respiratório Humano/imunologia
14.
J Clin Periodontol ; 45(7): 780-790, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29779261

RESUMO

AIM: We investigated the cross-sectional association between diet quality and severe periodontitis in a sample of diverse Hispanics from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 13,920 Hispanic/Latinos aged 18-74 years of different heritages underwent a full-mouth oral examination and completed two 24-hr dietary recalls during 2008-2011. Severe periodontitis was defined as having ≥30% tooth sites with clinical attachment loss ≥5 mm. Diet quality was assessed using the Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI-2010). We evaluated the association of diet quality with severe periodontitis adjusting for age, sex, nativity status, income, education, last dental visit, current insurance, cigarette smoking, diabetes, and energy intake. RESULTS: Relative to those at the lowest quartile of diet quality, individuals at the highest quartile had significantly lower odds of severe periodontitis (adjusted OR = 0.57, 95% CI: 0.39-0.82), with evidence of a dose-response relationship across AHEI quartiles. Among AHEI-2010 components, higher consumption of whole grains and fruits, and lower consumption of red/processed meats were associated with lower odds of severe periodontitis. CONCLUSION: Better-quality diet was associated with lower prevalence of severe periodontitis although the causal pathways need to be clarified in future work.


Assuntos
Dieta , Periodontite , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Ingestão de Energia , Hispano-Americanos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
15.
Neonatology ; 113(4): 366-378, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29514147

RESUMO

Vitamin E is obtained only through the diet and has a number of important biological activities, including functioning as an antioxidant. Evidence that free radicals may contribute to pathological processes such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), a disease of prematurity associated with increased lung injury, inflammation and oxidative stress, led to trials of the antioxidant vitamin E (α-tocopherol) to prevent BPD with variable results. These trials were all conducted at supraphysiologic doses and 2 of these trials utilized a formulation containing a potentially harmful excipient. Since 1991, when the last of these trials was conducted, both neonatal management strategies for minimizing oxygen and ventilator-related lung injury and our understanding of vitamin E isoforms in respiratory health have advanced substantially. It is now known that there are differences between the effects of vitamin E isoforms α-tocopherol and γ-tocopherol on the development of respiratory morbidity and inflammation. What is not known is whether improvements in physiologic concentrations of individual or combinations of vitamin E isoforms during pregnancy or following preterm birth might prevent or reduce BPD development. The answers to these questions require adequately powered studies targeting pregnant women at risk of preterm birth or their premature infants immediately following birth, especially in certain subgroups that are at increased risk of vitamin E deficiency (e.g., smokers). The objective of this review is to compile, update, and interpret what is known about vitamin E isoforms and BPD since these first studies were conducted, and suggest future research directions.


Assuntos
Displasia Broncopulmonar/prevenção & controle , Recém-Nascido Prematuro/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Deficiência de Vitamina E/prevenção & controle , Vitamina E/administração & dosagem , Antioxidantes , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro/sangue , Doenças do Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Gravidez , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Deficiência de Vitamina E/sangue , alfa-Tocoferol/administração & dosagem , gama-Tocoferol/administração & dosagem
16.
J Periodontol ; 89(7): 840-857, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29542123

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Current evidence suggests that periodontal disease (PD) is associated with a significant increased risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) independent of known confounders. PD is a chronic oral disease with significant variation in prevalence demonstrated among Hispanic/Latino subgroups. The purpose of this study was to investigate the associations between PD and CVD risk and variations with sex, age, and Hispanic/Latino background. METHODS: The sample included 7379 participants aged 30 to 74 years, from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (2008 to 2011). We assessed CVD risk by the Framingham 10-year general CVD risk score (FGRS). PD severity classification was based on calibrated measurements of gingival recession and probing depth. Multivariable sequential linear models for complex sample design assessed FGRS by PD severity, Hispanic/Latino background, and covariates. RESULTS: The prevalence of moderate and severe PD combined was 46%. For women and men with severe PD, the combined prevalence of moderate and high CVD risk was 44% and 85%, respectively. The FGRS observed for women (5.1% [95% CI: 4.1%, 6.0%], p < 0.001) and men 10.8% (95% CI [9.2%, 12.3%], p < 0.001) with severe PD were 56% and 134% greater than those without PD, respectively. Dominican women and men with moderate or severe PD, aged 60 to 69 years, exhibited the greatest CVD risks (FGRS = 15.1%, 95% CI [7.8%, 22.5%]) and (FGRS = 40.2%, 95% CI [30.2%, 50.3%]), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Moderate and severe PD were associated with significant CVD risk with marked sex disparity and heterogeneity by Hispanic/Latino background.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Doenças Periodontais , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hispano-Americanos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Saúde Pública , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos
17.
Sex Transm Dis ; 45(4): 237-242, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29465698

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although syphilis rates have been relatively high in Italy for more than 15 years, no data on the molecular types of Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum circulating in this country are yet available. Likewise, no data on how widespread is resistance to macrolide or tetracycline antibiotics in these strains exist. Such data would, however, promote comprehensive studies on the molecular epidemiology of syphilis infections in Italy and inform future interventions aiming at syphilis control in this and other European countries. GOALS AND STUDY DESIGN: Swabs from oral, genital, cutaneous, or anal lesions were obtained from 60 syphilis patients attending dermatology clinics in Milan, Turin, Genoa, and Bologna. Molecular typing of T. pallidum DNA was performed to provide a snapshot of the genetic diversity of strains circulating in Northern Italy. Samples were also screened for mutations conferring resistance to macrolides and tetracyclines. RESULTS: T. pallidum DNA was detected in 88.3% (53/60) of the specimens analyzed. Complete and partial T. pallidum typing data were obtained for 77.3% (41/53) and 15.0% (8/53) of samples, respectively, whereas 4 samples could not be typed despite T. pallidum DNA being detected. The highest strain type heterogeneity was seen in samples from Bologna and Milan, followed by Genoa. Minimal diversity was detected in samples from Turin, despite the highest number of typeable samples collected there. Resistance to macrolides was detected in 94.3% (50/53) of the strains, but no known mutations associated with tetracycline resistance were found. CONCLUSIONS: Genetic diversity among T. pallidum strains circulating in Northern Italy varies significantly among geographical areas regardless of physical distance. Resistance to macrolides is widespread.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Doxiciclina/uso terapêutico , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética , Macrolídeos/uso terapêutico , Sífilis/epidemiologia , Treponema pallidum/classificação , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Canal Anal/microbiologia , Canal Anal/patologia , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Feminino , Genótipo , Hospitais/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tipagem Molecular , Mutação Puntual , Pele/microbiologia , Pele/patologia , Sífilis/tratamento farmacológico , Sífilis/microbiologia , Treponema pallidum/isolamento & purificação , Adulto Jovem
19.
Ethn Health ; : 1-16, 2018 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29343079

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Research on the relationships between acculturation, ethnic identity, and oral health-related quality of life (OHRQOL) among the U.S. Hispanic/Latino population is sparse. The aim of this study is to examine the association between acculturation, ethnic identity, and OHRQOL among 13,172 adults in the 2008-2011 Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL). DESIGN: Participants self-reported their acculturation (immigrant generation, birthplace, residence in the U.S., language, and social acculturation), ethnic identity (sense of belonging and pride), and four OHRQOL measures. Key socio-demographic, behavioral, and oral health outcomes were tested as potential confounders. RESULTS: Overall, 57% of individuals experienced poor OHRQOL in at least one of the domains examined. In multivariable analyses, some elements of higher acculturation were associated with greater food restriction and difficulty doing usual jobs/attending school, but not associated with pain or difficulty chewing, tasting, or swallowing. While sense of belonging to one's ethnic group was not associated with poor OHRQOL, low sense of pride was associated with food restriction. Socio-behavioral characteristics were significant effect modifiers. CONCLUSION: This study contributes to the understanding of the role of Hispanic/Latino's cultural factors in OHRQOL perception and can inform targeted strategies to improve OHRQOL in this diverse population.

20.
J Racial Ethn Health Disparities ; 5(5): 1093-1106, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29327269

RESUMO

This study investigates how perceived unfair treatment, towards self and observed towards others due to ethnicity, is associated with periodontitis among diverse Hispanic/Latino adults, accounting for sociodemographic, health behavior, and acculturation factors. Baseline (2008-2011) dental and survey data from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL), a multicenter epidemiologic study, were analyzed (N = 12,750). Crude and adjusted prevalence ratios and confidence limits were estimated. Half (49%) reported never being treated unfairly, while 41% reported they were sometimes, and 10% reported it often/always. One third (32%) never saw others treated unfairly, while 42% reported it sometimes, and 26% reported it often/always. In the final fully adjusted model, the prevalence of periodontitis was higher among adults who were as follows: non-Dominican, older, male, had a past year dental visit, current and former smokers, and among those who observed unfair treatment towards others. Lower prevalence was associated with higher income, higher educational attainment, less than full-time employment, reporting experiencing unfair treatment, higher acculturation scores, and having health insurance. Perceived unfair treatment towards self was negatively associated with periodontitis prevalence, while observed unfair treatment towards others was positively associated with the outcome among diverse Hispanics/Latinos. The associations between unfair treatment and periodontitis warrant further exploration.


Assuntos
Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Periodontite/epidemiologia , Racismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Aculturação , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Renda/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores Sexuais , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
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