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1.
Ear Hear ; 2020 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32101901

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The authors conducted a systematic review of the literature and meta-analyses to assess the influence of family environment on language development in children with cochlear implants. DESIGN: The Pubmed, excerpta medica dataBASE (EMBASE), Education Research Information Center, cumulative index to nursing and allied health literature (CINAHL), Healthcare Literature Information Network, PubPsych, and Social SciSearch databases were searched. The search strategy included terms describing family environment, child characteristics, and language development. Studies were included that (a) assessed distal family variables (such as parental income level, parental education, family size, and parental stress) with child language outcomes, and/or more proximal correlates that directly affect the child (such as family engagement and participation in intervention, parenting style, and more specifically, the quantity and quality of parental linguistic input) on child language; (b) included children implanted before the age of 5 years; (c) measured child language before the age of 21 years with standardized instruments; (d) were published between 1995 and February 2018; and (e) were published as peer-reviewed articles. The methodological quality was assessed with an adaptation of a previously validated checklist. Meta-analyses were conducted assuming a random-effects model. RESULTS: A total of 22 study populations reported in 27 publications were included. Methodological quality was highly variable. Ten studies had a longitudinal design. Three meta-analyses on the correlations between family variables and child language development could be performed. A strong effect of the quality and quantity of parental linguistic input in the first 4½ years postimplantation on the child's language was found, r = 0.564, p ≤ 0.001, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.449 to 0.660, accounting for 31.7% of the variance in child language outcomes. Results demonstrated high homogeneity, Q(3) = 1.823, p = 0.61, I = 0. Higher-level facilitative language techniques, such as parental expansions of the child's utterances or the use of open-ended questions, predicted child language skills. Risk of publication bias was not detected. The results on the impact of family involvement/participation in intervention on child language development were more heterogeneous. The meta-analysis included mainly cross-sectional studies and identified low to moderate benefits, r = 0.380, p ≤ 0.052, 95% CI = -0.004 to 0.667, that almost attained significance level. Socioeconomic status, mainly operationalized by parental level of education, showed a positive correlation with child language development in most studies. The meta-analysis confirmed an overall low and nonsignificant average correlation coefficient, r = 0.117, p = 0.262, 95% CI = -0.087 to 0.312. A limitation of the study was the lack of some potentially relevant variables, such as multilingualism or family screen time. CONCLUSIONS: These data support the hypothesis that parental linguistic input during the first years after cochlear implantation strongly predicts later child language outcomes. Effects of parental involvement in intervention and parental education are comparatively weaker and more heterogeneous. These findings underscore the need for early-intervention programs for children with cochlear implants focusing on providing support to parents for them to increase their children's exposure to high-quality conversation.

2.
J Deaf Stud Deaf Educ ; 25(1): 105-114, 2020 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31628811

RESUMO

This article presents the adaptation of the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventory (CDI; Fenson et al., 1993, Guide and technical manual for the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventories. San Diego, CA: Singular Press; Fenson et al. 1994, Variability in early communicative development. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 59, 1-173) to Spanish Sign Language (LSE). Data were collected from 55 participants (32 boys and 23 girls; 17 deaf signers, 38 hearing signers) who, evaluated by their caregivers every 4 months, presented a total of 170 records. The parents reported the signs that the children could understand or produce between 8 and 36 months. Results suggested that the CDI adapted to LSE is a valid and reliable instrument. Signing children could understand more signs than they produced at this early developmental stage. There were no significant differences between boys and girls, or between deaf and hearing children. The development of LSE is similar to other sign languages, although with a lower production of signs in the early stages, perhaps due to the bilingualism of most of the children of our study.

3.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 50(2): 603-616, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31728809

RESUMO

Passive testing of auditory function is an important objective in individuals with ASD due to known difficulties in understanding and/or following task instructions. In present study the habituation to standard tones following deviants and the auditory discriminative processes were examined in two conditions: electronic and human sounds, in a sample of 16 ASD children. ASD children presented a reduced habituation in the P1 component and a decrease in the amplitude of the mismatch negativity indicating a lower auditory discrimination with respect to controls. MMN amplitude was related to sensory sensitivity. Results suggest an increased activation to repeatedly auditory stimulus and a poor auditory discrimination, for both: electronic and human sounds with consequences on the impaired sensory behavior of ASD subjects.

4.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 49(10): 4232-4243, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31292898

RESUMO

Reading monitoring is poorly explored, but it may have an impact on well-documented reading comprehension difficulties in autism. This study explores reading monitoring through the impact of instructions and different error types on reading behavior. Individuals with autism and matched controls read correct sentences and sentences containing orthographic and semantic errors. Prior to the task, participants were given instructions either to focus on semantic or orthographic errors. Analysis of eye-movements showed that the group with autism, differently from controls, were less influenced by the error's type in the regression-out to-error measure, showing less change in eye-movements behavior between error types. Individuals with autism might find it more difficult to adapt their reading strategies to various reading materials and task demands.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Transtorno Autístico/fisiopatologia , Leitura , Transtorno Autístico/psicologia , Compreensão , Movimentos Oculares , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Semântica
5.
Front Hum Neurosci ; 13: 210, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31275126

RESUMO

Rehabilitation for stroke patients with severe motor impairments (e.g., inability to perform wrist or finger extension on the affected side) is burdensome and difficult because most current rehabilitation options require some volitional movement to retrain the affected side. However, although these patients participate in therapy requiring volitional movement, previous research has shown that they may receive modest benefits from action observation, virtual reality (VR), and brain-computer interfaces (BCIs). These approaches have shown some success in strengthening key motor pathways thought to support motor recovery after stroke, in the absence of volitional movement. The purpose of this study was to combine the principles of VR and BCI in a platform called REINVENT and assess its effects on four chronic stroke patients across different levels of motor impairment. REINVENT acquires post-stroke EEG signals that indicate an attempt to move and drives the movement of a virtual avatar arm, allowing patient-driven action observation neurofeedback in VR. In addition, synchronous electromyography (EMG) data were also captured to monitor overt muscle activity. Here we tested four chronic stroke survivors and show that this EEG-based BCI can be safely used over repeated sessions by stroke survivors across a wide range of motor disabilities. Finally, individual results suggest that patients with more severe motor impairments may benefit the most from EEG-based neurofeedback, while patients with more mild impairments may benefit more from EMG-based feedback, harnessing existing sensorimotor pathways. We note that although this work is promising, due to the small sample size, these results are preliminary. Future research is needed to confirm these findings in a larger and more diverse population.

6.
J Evid Based Integr Med ; 24: 2515690X19855941, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31215234

RESUMO

This study examined the feasibility of an adapted 2-week mindfulness meditation protocol for chronic stroke survivors. In addition, preliminary effects of this adapted intervention on spasticity and quality of life in individuals after stroke were explored. Ten chronic stroke survivors with spasticity listened to 2 weeks of short mindfulness meditation recordings, adapted from Jon Kabat-Zinn's Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction course, in a pre/post repeated measures design. Measures of spasticity, quality of life, mindfulness, and anxiety, along with qualitative data from participants' daily journals, were assessed. On average, participants reported meditating 12.5 days of the full 15 days (mean 12.5 days, SD 0.94, range 8-15 days). Seven of the 10 participants wrote comments in their journals. In addition, there were no adverse effects due to the intervention. Exploratory preliminary analyses also showed statistically significant improvements in spasticity in both the elbow (P = .032) and wrist (P = .023) after 2 weeks of meditation, along with improvements in quality of life measures for Energy (P = .013), Personality (P = .026), and Work/Productivity (P = .032). This feasibility study suggests that individuals with spasticity following stroke are able to adhere to a 2-week home-based mindfulness meditation program. In addition, preliminary results also suggest that this adapted, short mindfulness meditation program might be a promising approach for individuals with spasticity following stroke. Future research should expand on these preliminary findings with a larger sample size and control group.


Assuntos
Meditação , Espasticidade Muscular/terapia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Idoso , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Atenção Plena , Espasticidade Muscular/etiologia , Espasticidade Muscular/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida
7.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 62(6): 1625-1656, 2019 06 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31095442

RESUMO

Purpose The use of sign-supported speech (SSS) in the education of deaf students has been recently discussed in relation to its usefulness with deaf children using cochlear implants. To clarify the benefits of SSS for comprehension, 2 eye-tracking experiments aimed to detect the extent to which signs are actively processed in this mode of communication. Method Participants were 36 deaf adolescents, including cochlear implant users and native deaf signers. Experiment 1 attempted to shift observers' foveal attention to the linguistic source in SSS from which most information is extracted, lip movements or signs, by magnifying the face area, thus modifying lip movements perceptual accessibility (magnified condition), and by constraining the visual field to either the face or the sign through a moving window paradigm (gaze contingent condition). Experiment 2 aimed to explore the reliance on signs in SSS by occasionally producing a mismatch between sign and speech. Participants were required to concentrate upon the orally transmitted message. Results In Experiment 1, analyses revealed a greater number of fixations toward the signs and a reduction in accuracy in the gaze contingent condition across all participants. Fixations toward signs were also increased in the magnified condition. In Experiment 2, results indicated less accuracy in the mismatching condition across all participants. Participants looked more at the sign when it was inconsistent with speech. Conclusions All participants, even those with residual hearing, rely on signs when attending SSS, either peripherally or through overt attention, depending on the perceptual conditions. Supplemental Material https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.8121191.

8.
J Psycholinguist Res ; 48(4): 797-817, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30771064

RESUMO

The present study focuses on the development of Spanish pronominal processing. We investigate whether the pronoun interpretation problem (i.e., reflexive pronouns comprehension is resolved at an earlier age than that of personal pronouns, also known as the Delay of the Principle B Effect), which has been documented in other languages, also occurs in Spanish. For this purpose, we conducted two experiments including pronoun resolution tasks. In Experiment 1, a task adapted from the experimental paradigm proposed by Love et al. (J Psycholinguist Res 38:285-304, 2009. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10936-009-9103-9 ) was used, which examines the off-line processing of the Spanish pronouns se and le. In Experiment 2, on-line processing of the same pronouns was evaluated with eye-tracking, using a paradigm developed by Thompson and Choy (J Psycholinguist Res 38:255-283, 2009. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10936-009-9105-7 ). Forty-three participants aged 4-16 years completed both experiments. Results indicated that there is no developmental asymmetry in the acquisition of successful resolution of the two types of anaphora in Spanish: from age 4, reflexive and clitic pronouns are processed with the same degree of accuracy.


Assuntos
Idioma , Psicolinguística , Semântica , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Movimentos Oculares , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Espanha
9.
Autism ; 23(3): 677-688, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29663829

RESUMO

The ability to disengage attention and reengage elsewhere has been proposed as a fundamental deficit in the autism spectrum, potentially disrupting development of higher cognitive domains. Eye-movements were recorded while 16 autism spectrum children of mixed ability, and 18 typically developing age-matched controls, completed the Gap-Overlap paradigm. A significant difference in latency to fixate target was found between Gap and Overlap conditions. A significant interaction with group was due to autism spectrum participants' shorter latencies to fixate target in the Gap condition, but similar group responses in the Overlap condition. Considerable within-group variability emerged. We predicted that attentional disengaging would be related to specific features of the phenotype; however, there was no evidence of an association with receptive language, non-verbal IQ, sensory behaviors, or autistic severity in autism spectrum or typically developing groups. In conclusion, while atypical visual attention mechanisms may be a feature of autism spectrum, this is not explained by impaired visual disengaging but is more likely due to increased susceptibility of visual fixation offset cueing. Despite best efforts, nine additional autism spectrum children could not complete testing, and data from a further six were unusable; more work is needed to develop research methods that enable individuals across the spectrum to participate.

10.
Sci Data ; 5: 180011, 2018 02 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29461514

RESUMO

Stroke is the leading cause of adult disability worldwide, with up to two-thirds of individuals experiencing long-term disabilities. Large-scale neuroimaging studies have shown promise in identifying robust biomarkers (e.g., measures of brain structure) of long-term stroke recovery following rehabilitation. However, analyzing large rehabilitation-related datasets is problematic due to barriers in accurate stroke lesion segmentation. Manually-traced lesions are currently the gold standard for lesion segmentation on T1-weighted MRIs, but are labor intensive and require anatomical expertise. While algorithms have been developed to automate this process, the results often lack accuracy. Newer algorithms that employ machine-learning techniques are promising, yet these require large training datasets to optimize performance. Here we present ATLAS (Anatomical Tracings of Lesions After Stroke), an open-source dataset of 304 T1-weighted MRIs with manually segmented lesions and metadata. This large, diverse dataset can be used to train and test lesion segmentation algorithms and provides a standardized dataset for comparing the performance of different segmentation methods. We hope ATLAS release 1.1 will be a useful resource to assess and improve the accuracy of current lesion segmentation methods.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/patologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/patologia , Adulto , Algoritmos , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Neuroimagem
11.
Front Psychol ; 8: 1044, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28680416

RESUMO

An eye tracking experiment explored the gaze behavior of deaf individuals when perceiving language in spoken and sign language only, and in sign-supported speech (SSS). Participants were deaf (n = 25) and hearing (n = 25) Spanish adolescents. Deaf students were prelingually profoundly deaf individuals with cochlear implants (CIs) used by age 5 or earlier, or prelingually profoundly deaf native signers with deaf parents. The effectiveness of SSS has rarely been tested within the same group of children for discourse-level comprehension. Here, video-recorded texts, including spatial descriptions, were alternately transmitted in spoken language, sign language and SSS. The capacity of these communicative systems to equalize comprehension in deaf participants with that of spoken language in hearing participants was tested. Within-group analyses of deaf participants tested if the bimodal linguistic input of SSS favored discourse comprehension compared to unimodal languages. Deaf participants with CIs achieved equal comprehension to hearing controls in all communicative systems while deaf native signers with no CIs achieved equal comprehension to hearing participants if tested in their native sign language. Comprehension of SSS was not increased compared to spoken language, even when spatial information was communicated. Eye movements of deaf and hearing participants were tracked and data of dwell times spent looking at the face or body area of the sign model were analyzed. Within-group analyses focused on differences between native and non-native signers. Dwell times of hearing participants were equally distributed across upper and lower areas of the face while deaf participants mainly looked at the mouth area; this could enable information to be obtained from mouthings in sign language and from lip-reading in SSS and spoken language. Few fixations were directed toward the signs, although these were more frequent when spatial language was transmitted. Both native and non-native signers looked mainly at the face when perceiving sign language, although non-native signers looked significantly more at the body than native signers. This distribution of gaze fixations suggested that deaf individuals - particularly native signers - mainly perceived signs through peripheral vision.

12.
Int J Lang Commun Disord ; 52(6): 766-785, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28371082

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Problems with pragmatic aspects of language are well attested in individuals on the autism spectrum. It remains unclear, however, whether figurative language skills improve with language status and whether problems in figurative language are no longer present in highly verbal individuals with autism. AIMS: To investigate whether highly verbal individuals with autism perform similarly as age-, intelligence- and verbal comprehension-matched controls on the processing of one of the most common types of figurative language, metaphors. The goal was to establish whether the participants with autism are primed similarly to controls by figurative expressions (metaphors) presented in different conditions. METHODS & PROCEDURES: The experiment was designed as a cross-modal lexical-decision task where metaphors served as primes for target words related to their figurative or literal meaning. OUTCOMES & RESULTS: Our findings show that both ASD and control participants made very few errors in the experimental task. However, the participants with ASD presented with problems in performance on the task, reflected in significantly slower reaction times compared with the typically developing peer groups. The similar response speed observed between the younger typical control children and the adult ASD participants suggests that the mechanisms underlying metaphor processing (e.g., selection of metaphorical versus literal interpretation) are still developing in high-functioning autism, very much like in typical children. CONCLUSIONS & IMPLICATIONS: These results may suggest that metaphor processing requires more than adequate language competences. The findings are also suggestive of a delay in developing sensitivity to figurative language, rather than sheer inability. This suggests that a timely training programme can be implemented to improve figurative language abilities in ASD.


Assuntos
Transtorno Autístico/psicologia , Linguagem Infantil , Metáfora , Comportamento Verbal , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Transtorno Autístico/diagnóstico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Compreensão , Feminino , Humanos , Inteligência , Testes de Inteligência , Testes de Linguagem , Masculino , Espanha , Vocabulário , Adulto Jovem
13.
Asian Cardiovasc Thorac Ann ; 25(3): 226-228, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28325073

RESUMO

Despite the high frequency of gastrointestinal complications and opportunistic infections in HIV-1 infected patients, tracheoesophageal (TEF) and bronchoesophageal (BEF) fístulas are rare. Our objective is to comunicate an additional and unusual case of TEF in an HIV-1-infected patient whose immunologic status was good with complete suppression of viral replication, so although uncommon, TEF/BEF of an infectious origen should be considered in AIDS. Endoscopic treatment with tracheal/esophageal stents is not without morbidity and mortality. As long as the patient can undergo reconstructive surgery, this should be the technique of choice.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/complicações , Broncoscopia/métodos , Endoscopia Gastrointestinal/métodos , Esôfago/cirurgia , HIV , Traqueia/cirurgia , Fístula Traqueoesofágica/cirurgia , Adulto , Anastomose Cirúrgica/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Stents , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Fístula Traqueoesofágica/complicações
15.
Dev Sci ; 20(1)2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28032442

RESUMO

The present research aims to assess literacy acquisition in children becoming bilingual via second language immersion in school. We adopt a cognitive components approach, assessing text-level reading comprehension, a complex literacy skill, as well as underlying cognitive and linguistic components in 144 children aged 7 to 14 (72 immersion bilinguals, 72 controls). Using principal component analysis, a nuanced pattern of results was observed: although emergent bilinguals lag behind their monolingual counterparts on measures of linguistic processing, they showed enhanced performance on a memory and reasoning component. For reading comprehension, no between-group differences were evident, suggesting that selective benefits compensate costs at the level of underlying cognitive components. Overall, the results seem to indicate that literacy skills may be modulated by emerging bilingualism even when no between-group differences are evident at the level of complex skill, and the detection of such differences may depend on the focus and selectivity of the task battery used.


Assuntos
Multilinguismo , Leitura , Adolescente , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Compreensão , Humanos , Linguística , Memória
16.
Autism Res ; 10(5): 888-900, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27910232

RESUMO

Previous research suggests that individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have difficulties with inference generation in reading tasks. However, most previous studies have examined how well children understand a text after reading or have measured on-line reading behavior without response to questions. The aim of this study was to investigate the online strategies of children and adolescents with autism during reading and at the same time responding to a question by monitoring their eye movements. The reading behavior of participants with ASD was compared with that of age-, language-, nonverbal intelligence-, reading-, and receptive language skills-matched participants without ASD (control group). The results showed that the ASD group were as accurate as the control group in generating inferences when answering questions about the short texts, and no differences were found between the two groups in the global paragraph reading and responding times. However, the ASD group displayed longer gaze latencies on a target word necessary to produce an inference. They also showed more regressions into the word that supported the inference compared to the control group after reading the question, irrespective of whether an inference was required or not. In conclusion, the ASD group achieved an equivalent level of inferential comprehension, but showed subtle differences in reading comprehension strategies compared to the control group. Autism Res 2017, 10: 888-900. © 2016 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/fisiopatologia , Compreensão/fisiologia , Movimentos Oculares/fisiologia , Leitura , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Espanha , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas
17.
PLoS One ; 11(12): e0168571, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28036344

RESUMO

Individuals with High functioning autism (HFA) are distinguished by relative preservation of linguistic and cognitive skills. However, problems with pragmatic language skills have been consistently reported across the autistic spectrum, even when structural language is intact. Our main goal was to investigate how highly verbal individuals with autism process figurative language and whether manipulation of the stimuli presentation modality had an impact on the processing. We were interested in the extent to which visual context, e.g., an image corresponding either to the literal meaning or the figurative meaning of the expression may facilitate responses to such expressions. Participants with HFA and their typically developing peers (matched on intelligence and language level) completed a cross-modal sentence-picture matching task for figurative expressions and their target figurative meaning represented in images. We expected that the individuals with autism would have difficulties in appreciating the non-literal nature of idioms and metaphors, despite intact structural language skills. Analyses of accuracy and reaction times showed clearly that the participants with autism performed at a lower level than their typically developing peers. Moreover, the modality in which the stimuli were presented was an important variable in task performance for the more transparent expressions. The individuals with autism displayed higher error rates and greater reaction latencies in the auditory modality compared to the visual stimulus presentation modality, implying more difficulty. Performance differed depending on type of expression. Participants had more difficulty understanding the culturally-based expressions, but not expressions grounded in human experience (biological idioms). This research highlights the importance of stimulus presentation modality and that this can lead to differences in figurative language comprehension between typically and atypically developing individuals. The current study also contributes to current debates on the role of structural language in figurative language comprehension in autism.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/fisiopatologia , Transtorno Autístico/fisiopatologia , Compreensão/fisiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Idioma , Linguística/métodos , Masculino , Metáfora , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia
18.
J Deaf Stud Deaf Educ ; 21(3): 326-38, 2016 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27143715

RESUMO

The goal of this study was to compare the processing of social information in deaf and hearing adolescents. A task was developed to assess social information processing (SIP) skills of deaf adolescents based on Crick and Dodge's (1994; A review and reformulation of social information-processing mechanisms in children's social adjustment. Psychological Bulletin, 115, 74-101) reformulated six-stage model. It consisted of a structured interview after watching 18 scenes of situations depicting participation in a peer group or provocations by peers. Participants included 32 deaf and 20 hearing adolescents and young adults aged between 13 and 21 years. Deaf adolescents and adults had lower scores than hearing participants in all the steps of the SIP model (coding, interpretation, goal formulation, response generation, response decision, and representation). However, deaf girls and women had better scores on social adjustment and on some SIP skills than deaf male participants.


Assuntos
Cognição , Grupo Associado , Pessoas com Deficiência Auditiva , Ajustamento Social , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
19.
Nat Commun ; 7: 11725, 2016 05 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27226355

RESUMO

Recent evidence implicates epigenetic mechanisms in drug-associated memory processes. However, a possible role for one major epigenetic mechanism, nucleosome remodelling, in drug-associated memories remains largely unexplored. Here we examine mice with genetic manipulations targeting a neuron-specific nucleosome remodelling complex subunit, BAF53b. These mice display deficits in cocaine-associated memory that are more severe in BAF53b transgenic mice compared with BAF53b heterozygous mice. Similar to the memory deficits, theta-induced long-term potentiation (theta-LTP) in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) is significantly impaired in slices taken from BAF53b transgenic mice but not heterozygous mice. Further experiments indicate that theta-LTP in the NAc is dependent on TrkB receptor activation, and that BDNF rescues theta-LTP and cocaine-associated memory deficits in BAF53b transgenic mice. Together, these results suggest a role for BAF53b in NAc neuronal function required for cocaine-associated memories, and also that BDNF/TrkB activation in the NAc may overcome memory and plasticity deficits linked to BAF53b mutations.


Assuntos
Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/metabolismo , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/metabolismo , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Cocaína/metabolismo , Transtornos da Memória/metabolismo , Núcleo Accumbens/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/genética , Cocaína , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Cocaína/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Potenciação de Longa Duração/fisiologia , Masculino , Transtornos da Memória/induzido quimicamente , Transtornos da Memória/fisiopatologia , Camundongos Knockout , Camundongos Transgênicos , Núcleo Accumbens/fisiopatologia , Receptor trkB/metabolismo
20.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 46(3): 1025-37, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26547920

RESUMO

Readers with autism (ASD), poor comprehension (PC), and typical development (TD) took part in three reading experiments requiring the production of inferences. In Experiments 1 and 2 reading times for target phrases-placed immediately after text implicitly indicating the emotion of a protagonist or after a number of filler sentences, respectively--were used as measures of inferencing. In Experiment 3, participants were explicitly asked to identify the protagonist's emotion. There were no significant differences among groups in Experiment 1. Compared to TD readers, the PC group performed poorly in Experiments 2 and 3. ASD readers performed worse than PC participants only in the explicit-question task. Although ASD readers can produce inferences, they respond to questions about them with difficulty.


Assuntos
Transtorno Autístico/diagnóstico , Transtorno Autístico/psicologia , Compreensão , Leitura , Adolescente , Criança , Compreensão/fisiologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pensamento/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
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